The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition on gastric volume, satiation and enteroendocrine secretion in type 2 diabetes: a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.
ABSTRACT: The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) retards gastric emptying and decreases caloric intake. It is unclear whether increased GLP-1 concentrations achieved by inhibition of the inactivating enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) alter gastric volumes and satiation in people with type 2 diabetes.In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 14 subjects with type 2 diabetes received vildagliptin (50 mg bid) or placebo for 10 days in random order separated by a 2-week washout. On day 7, fasting and postmeal gastric volumes were measured by a (99m)Tc single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) method. On day 8, a liquid Ensure meal was consumed at 30 ml/min, and maximum tolerated volume (MTV) and symptoms 30 min later were measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) to assess effects on satiation. On day 10, subjects ingested water until maximum satiation was achieved. The volume ingested was recorded and symptoms similarly measured using a VAS.Vildagliptin raised plasma GLP-1 concentrations. However, fasting (248 +/- 21 vs. 247 +/- 19 ml, P = 0.98) and fed (746 +/- 28 vs. 772 +/- 26 ml, P = 0.54) gastric volumes did not differ when subjects received vildagliptin or placebo. Treatment with vildagliptin did not alter the MTV of Ensure (1657 +/- 308 vs. 1389 +/- 197 ml, P = 0.15) or water compared to placebo (1371 +/- 141 vs. 1172 +/- 156 ml, P = 0.23). Vildagliptin was associated with decreased peptide YY (PYY) concentrations 60 min after initiation of the meal (166 +/- 27 vs. 229 +/- 34 pmol/l, P = 0.01).Vildagliptin does not alter satiation or gastric volume in people with type 2 diabetes despite elevated GLP-1 concentrations. Compensatory changes in enteroendocrine secretion could account for the lack of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Project description:PURPOSE:Obesity is associated with alterations in appetite, gastrointestinal hormone levels and excessive fat mass. We previously published a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 16-week trial on effects of once-daily glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, liraglutide on weight, satiation, and gastric functions in obese volunteers. The aim of this substudy is to compare to placebo the effects of liraglutide on appetite, taste preference, regional body fat stores, and anthropometric measurements. METHODS:Forty obese adults received standard instruction for weight management, monthly behavioral intervention utilizing motivational interviews, and 16-week treatment of once-daily liraglutide (escalated to 3 mg SQ daily). At baseline and 16 weeks, the following were measured: appetite and taste preferences rated every 30 min for 5 h after ingesting 300 mL Ensure®; maximal tolerated volume (MTV) with a nutrient drink test; fasting and postprandial bioactive GLP-1 (7-36) and peptide YY (PYY) levels; total and regional body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and waist and hip circumference. RESULTS:Thirty-five participants (17 liraglutide; 18 placebo) completed the trial. Compared to placebo group, liraglutide group had significant reductions in MTV; prospective food consumption score; desire to eat something sweet, salty, savory or fatty; and an increase in perceived fullness. Postprandial plasma levels of GLP-1 decreased and PYY levels increased with liraglutide relative to baseline. Significant reductions in total body, trunk, and upper and lower body fat without reduction in lean body mass were observed. CONCLUSION:Liraglutide 3 mg SQ modulates appetite, taste preference, gut hormones, and regional body fat stores in adults with obesity without reduction in lean body mass.
Project description:Genetic variation in transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), a regulator of proglucagon processing, is reproducibly associated with type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 alters gastric function and increases satiation.Genetic variation in TCF7L2 is associated with satiation, gastric motor function, and GLP-1 concentrations.In 62 adults, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TCF7L2 (rs7903146) was genotyped and associations with gastric emptying (GE) of solids and liquids, gastric volume (GV), and satiation (maximum tolerated volume and symptoms after nutrient drink test) were explored using a dominant genetic model, with gender and BMI as covariates. In 50 of the participants, we also measured plasma GLP-1 during fasting and after ingestion of a nutrient drink.Presence of the T allele compared to CC genotype in rs7903146 SNP of the TCF7L2 gene was associated with reduced fasting GV (246.3 ± 11.4 mL for CC group, compared to 215.7 ± 11.4 mL for CT/TT group, p= 0.05) and accelerated GE t(1/2) of liquids (26.3 ± 2.0 minutes for CC compared to 17.7 ± 1.4 for CT/TT, p < 0.005). There was no significant association of rs7903146 SNP with GE of solids, gastric accommodation, satiation, fasting, or postprandial GLP-1.Our data suggest TCF7L2 is associated with altered gastric functions that may predispose to obesity.
Project description:Synthetic human ghrelin accelerates gastric emptying, reduces gastric accommodation, and results in numerical increases in postprandial symptom scores. The ghrelin receptor agonist, relamorelin, accelerates gastric emptying in patients with diabetic gastroparesis.To measure pharmacological effects of relamorelin on gastric accommodation, distal antral motility, and satiation in healthy volunteers.In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study of 16 healthy volunteers, we compared effects of 30 ?g subcutaneous (s.c.) relamorelin to placebo on: (i) gastric volumes measured by single photon emission computed tomography, (ii) 1-h postprandial distal antral motility index (MI) by 15-lumen perfusion gastroduodenal manometry, and (iii) satiation tested by Ensure nutrient drink test. Primary endpoints were: fasting and postprandial gastric volumes, distal antral phasic pressure activity (number of contractions, mean amplitude, and MI), and maximum tolerated volume. Results were normally distributed and the two treatment groups were compared using t-test.Relamorelin, 30 ?g s.c., significantly increased the number of contractions in the distal antrum during 0-60 min postmeal when compared to placebo (p = 0.022); this was also observed in the first two 15-min periods (p = 0.005 and 0.015 for number of contractions 0-15 and 16-30). There was borderline increase in MI0-15 (p = 0.055) and numerically increased MI0-60 (p = 0.139) and MI16-30 (p = 0.116). The amplitude of contractions was not significantly increased. Relamorelin did not significantly alter fasting or postprandial gastric volumes, gastric accommodation, or satiation volumes and symptoms.Relamorelin increases frequency of distal antral motility contractions without significant effects on amplitude of contractions. The lack of inhibition of accommodation and absence of increase in satiation symptoms support relamorelin for the treatment of symptomatic gastroparesis (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02466711).
Project description:Stomach motility contributes significantly to fullness sensation while eating and cessation of food intake in humans. Genes controlling adrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms (ADRA2A, GNB3, and SLC6A4) affect gastric emptying (GE), volume (GV), and satiation. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is linked with satiety. Our aim was to examine the association of these candidate genes with stomach functions that signal postprandial fullness: GE, GV, and maximum tolerated volume (MTV). These biomarkers constitute a component of the intermediate phenotype of satiation. A total of 62 overweight or obese participants underwent genotyping of the candidate genes, and validated measurements of GE of solids and liquids by scintigraphy, fasting and postprandial change in GV by SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography), and MTV by nutrient drink test. These markers of satiation were compared for 38 genetic variants in ADRA2A, ADR2C, ADRB3, uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 and -3, GNB3, FTO, and SLC6A4 using a recessive model of inheritance. ADRA2A, ADR2C, UCP-3, GNB3, and FTO loci were significantly associated with the intermediate phenotype markers of satiation: ADR2C (Ins-Del322_325) with accelerated GE; GNB3 (rs1047776) with delayed GE; ADRA2A (rs491589 and rs553668) and GNB3 (rs2269355, rs10849527, and rs3759348) with decreased postprandial GV; ADRA2A (rs3750625) and GNB3 (rs4963517 and rs1129649) with increased postprandial GV; UCP-3 (rs1685356) with increased MTV, and FTO (rs9939609) decreased MTV. Genetic susceptibility to postprandial satiation can be identified through intermediate phenotype markers. With independent validation, these markers may guide patient selection of weight-loss therapies directed at gastric motor functions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The endocannabinoid system is associated with food intake. We hypothesized that genes regulating cannabinoids are associated with obesity. Genetic variations in fatty acid amide hydroxylase (FAAH) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) are associated with satiation and gastric motor function. METHODS:In 62 overweight or obese adults of European ancestry, single nucleotide polymorphisms of rs806378 (nearest gene CNR1) and rs324420 (nearest gene FAAH) were genotyped and the associations with gastric emptying (GE) of solids and liquids, gastric volume (GV), and satiation [maximum tolerated volume (MTV) and symptoms after Ensure(®) nutrient drink test] were explored using a dominant genetic model, with gender and BMI as covariates. KEY RESULTS:rs806378 CC genotype was associated with reduced fasting GV (210.2±11.0mL for CC group compared to 242.5±11.3mL for CT/TT group, P=0.031) and a modest, non-significant association with GE of solids (P=0.17). rs324420 genotype was not associated with alterations in gastric motor functions; however, there was a difference in the Ensure(®) MTV (1174.6±37.2mL for CC group compared to 1395.0±123.1mL for CA/AA group, P=0.046) suggesting higher satiation with CC genotype. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES:Our data suggest that CNR1 and FAAH are associated with altered gastric functions or satiation that may predispose to obesity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors lower postprandial glucose concentrations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We measured insulin secretion and action as well as glucose effectiveness in 14 subjects with type 2 diabetes who received vildagliptin (50 mg b.i.d.) or placebo for 10 days in random order separated by a 3-week washout. On day 9 of each period, subjects ate a mixed meal. Insulin sensitivity (S(I)), glucose effectiveness, and beta-cell responsivity indexes were estimated using the oral glucose and C-peptide minimal models. At 300 min 0.02 unit/kg insulin was administered intravenously. RESULTS:Vildagliptin reduced postprandial glucose concentrations (905 +/- 94 vs. 1,008 +/- 104 mmol/6 h, P = 0.02). Vildagliptin did not alter net S(I) (7.71 +/- 1.28 vs. 6.41 +/- 0.84 10(-4) dl x kg(-1) x min(-1) x muU(-1) x ml(-1), P = 0.13) or glucose effectiveness (0.019 +/- 0.002 vs. 0.018 +/- 0.002 dl x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.65). However, the net beta-cell responsivity index was increased (35.7 +/- 5.2 vs. 28.9 +/- 5.2 10(-9) min(-1), P = 0.03) as was total disposition index (381 +/- 48 vs. 261 +/- 35 10(-14) dl x kg(-1) x min(-2) x pmol(-1) x l(-1), P = 0.006). Vildagliptin lowered postprandial glucagon concentrations (27.0 +/- 1.1 vs. 29.7 +/- 1.5 microg x l(-1) x 6 h(-1), P = 0.03), especially after administration of exogenous insulin (81.5 +/- 6.4 vs. 99.3 +/- 5.6 ng/l, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS:Vildagliptin lowers postprandial glucose concentrations by stimulating insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon secretion but not by altered insulin action or glucose effectiveness. A novel observation is that vildagliptin alters alpha-cell responsiveness to insulin administration, but the significance of this action is as yet unclear.
Project description:Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) play a role as satiation factors. Strategies to enhance satiation peptide secretion could provide a therapeutic approach for obesity. Carbohydrates and lipids have been extensively investigated in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion.The study was conducted as a randomized (balanced), double-blind, parallel-group trial. A total of 10 lean and 10 non-diabetic obese participants were included. Participants received intragastric loads of L-trp (0.52 g and 1.56 g) and L-leu (1.56 g), dissolved in 300 mL tap water; 75 g glucose and 300 mL tap water served as control treatments.Results of the study are: i) L-trp at the higher dose stimulates CCK release (p = 0.0018), and induces a significant retardation in gastric emptying (p = 0.0033); ii) L-trp at the higher dose induced a small increase in GLP-1 secretion (p = 0.0257); iii) neither of the amino acids modulated subjective appetite feelings; and iv) the two amino acids did not alter insulin or glucose concentrations.L-trp is a luminal regulator of CCK release with effects on gastric emptying, an effect that could be mediated by CCK. L-trp's effect on GLP-1 secretion is only minor. At the doses given, the two amino acids did not affect subjective appetite feelings.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02563847.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Gastric injections of botulinum toxin A (BTA) have been reported to delay gastric emptying, increase satiation, and reduce body weight, but there are few data from randomized, placebo-controlled studies. METHODS:We enrolled 60 obese participants in a 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, concealed allocation trial to compare the effects of gastric antral injections of BTA (100, 300, or 500 U) and saline placebo. The study was conducted at an outpatient clinical research unit. Participants were given one set of injections of BTA or placebo into the gastric antral muscularis propria by using endoscopic ultrasound guidance. Gastric emptying of solids was measured by scintigraphy; we also measured body weight, satiation (maximum tolerated volume in a caloric liquid drink test), calorie intake (by food frequency questionnaire), gastrointestinal symptoms, and psychological aspects of eating behavior (by rating scale). RESULTS:Compared with baseline values, 2 weeks after injections, the mean half-time for gastric emptying of solids increased by 0.8, 14, 24, and 14 minutes among subjects given placebo, 100, 300, or 500 U BTA, respectively (P = .24 overall, P = .04 for the group given 300 U vs placebo); 16 weeks after the injections, mean body weights were reduced by 2.2, 0.2, 2.3, and 3.0 kg in these groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean body weight change, satiation volume, caloric intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, or psychological aspects of eating behavior among groups. CONCLUSIONS:Gastric antral injections of BTA may delay gastric emptying at a dose of 300 U but do not cause early satiety, altered eating behaviors, or loss of body weight. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00976443.
Project description:Weight loss and improved blood glucose control after bariatric surgery have been attributed in part to increased ileal nutrient delivery with enhanced release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Non-surgical strategies to manage obesity are required. The aim of the current study was to assess whether encapsulated glutamine, targeted to the ileum, could increase GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance or reduce meal size.A single-center, randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was performed in 24 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with type 2 diabetes. Fasting participants received a single dose of encapsulated ileal-release glutamine (3.6 or 6.0 g) or placebo per visit with blood sampling at baseline and for 4h thereafter. Glucose tolerance and meal size were studied using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and ad libitum meal respectively.In healthy volunteers, ingestion of 6.0 g glutamine was associated with increased GLP-1 concentrations after 90 min compared with placebo (mean 10.6 pg/ml vs 6.9 pg/ml, p=0.004), increased insulin concentrations after 90 min (mean 70.9 vs 48.5, p=0.048), and increased meal size at 120 min (mean 542 g eaten vs 481 g, p=0.008). Ingestion of 6.0 g glutamine was not associated with significant differences in GLP-1, glucose or insulin concentrations after a glucose tolerance test in healthy or type 2 diabetic participants.Single oral dosing of encapsulated glutamine did not provoke consistent increases in GLP-1 and insulin secretion and was not associated with beneficial metabolic effects in healthy volunteers or patients with type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Background: Epigallocatechin 3 Gallate (EGCG) appears to act in appetite control through hormonal modulation. However, there is a lack of elucidation of EGCG's action mechanisms, especially in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute EGCG supplementation on gastric emptying and its relation to blood hormones, glucose and appetite perceptions in healthy women. Methods: 22 healthy adult women were included in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. On two separate occasions, 1 week apart from each other, we offered 800 mg of corn starch (placebo) or 752 mg of EGCG. Appetite was assessed through gastric emptying; perceptions of hunger, desire to eat and satiation; and plasma insulin, adiponectin, leptin and glucose concentrations. The evaluations were carried out in fasting, 30, 90 and 150 min after supplementation. Results: EGCG supplementation induced higher relative gastric volume at 30 and 90 min. Satiation at 90 min was higher in the EGCG group. Adiponectin concentrations at 150 min were higher with EGCG, but no difference was found for glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations. Conclusions: Acute EGCG supplementation is able to delay gastric emptying in healthy women to a small, but statistically significant extent. This study was registered at the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC) as RBR-9svwrv.