CYB5D2 requires heme-binding to regulate HeLa cell growth and confer survival from chemotherapeutic agents.
ABSTRACT: The cytochrome b5 domain containing 2 (CYB5D2; Neuferricin) protein has been reported to bind heme, however, the critical residues responsible for heme-binding are undefined. Furthermore, the relationship between heme-binding and CYB5D2-mediated intracellular functions remains unknown. Previous studies examining heme-binding in two cytochrome b5 heme-binding domain-containing proteins, damage-associated protein 1 (Dap1; Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), have revealed that conserved tyrosine (Y) 73, Y79, aspartic acid (D) 86, and Y127 residues present in human CYB5D2 may be involved in heme-binding. CYB5D2 binds to type b heme, however, only the substitution of glycine (G) at D86 (D86G) within its cytochrome b5 heme-binding (cyt-b5) domain abolished its heme-binding ability. Both CYB5D2 and CYB5D2(D86G) localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ectopic CYB5D2 expression inhibited cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony growth of HeLa cells. Conversely, CYB5D2 knockdown and ectopic CYB5D2(D86G) expression increased cell proliferation and colony growth. As PGRMC1 has been reported to regulate the expression and activities of cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs), we examined the role of CYB5D2 in regulating the activities of CYPs involved in sterol synthesis (CYP51A1) and drug metabolism (CYP3A4). CYB5D2 co-localizes with cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR), while CYB5D2 knockdown reduced lanosterol demethylase (CYP51A1) levels and rendered HeLa cells sensitive to mevalonate. Additionally, knockdown of CYB5D2 reduced CYP3A4 activity. Lastly, CYB5D2 expression conferred HeLa cell survival from chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, cisplatin and doxorubicin), with its ability to promote survival being dependent on its heme-binding ability. Taken together, this study provides evidence that heme-binding is critical for CYB5D2 in regulating HeLa cell growth and survival, with endogenous CYB5D2 being required to modulate CYP activities.
Project description:Membrane-associated progesterone receptors (MAPR) are a group of four rather small, partially homologous proteins, which share a similar non-covalent heme-binding domain that is related to cytochrome b5, a well-known functional interaction partner of microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase systems. Apart from their structural similarities the four proteins progesterone membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, also referred to as IZA, sigma-2 receptor, Dap1), PGRMC2, neudesin (NENF) and neuferricin (CYB5D2) display surprisingly divergent and multifunctional physiological properties related to cholesterol/steroid biosynthesis, drug metabolism and response, iron homeostasis, heme trafficking, energy metabolism, autophagy, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, cell migration, neural functions, and tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The purpose of this mini-review is to briefly summarize the structural and functional properties of MAPRs with particular focus on their interactions with the CYP system. For PGRMC1, originally identified as a non-canonical progesterone-binding protein that mediates some immediate non-genomic actions of progesterone, available evidence indicates mainly activating interactions with steroidogenic CYPs including CYP11A1, CYP21A2, CYP17, CYP19, CYP51A1, and CYP61A1, while interactions with drug metabolizing CYPs including CYP2C2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 were either ineffective or slightly inhibitory. For the other MAPRs the evidence is so far less conclusive. We also point out that experimental limitations question some of the previous conclusions. Use of appropriate model systems should help to further clarify the true impact of these proteins on CYP-mediated metabolic pathways.
Project description:Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is a 25 kDa protein with an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a putative C-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. Heme-binding activity of PGRMC1 has been shown in various homologues of PGRMC1. Although the general definition of PGRMC1 is as a progesterone receptor, progesterone-binding activity has not been directly demonstrated in any of the purified PGRMC1 proteins fully loaded with heme. Here, we show that the human homologue of PGRMC1 (hPGRMC1) binds heme in a five-coordinate (5C) high-spin (HS) configuration, with an axial tyrosinate ligand, likely Y95. The negatively charged tyrosinate ligand leads to a relatively low redox potential of approximately -331 mV. The Y95C or Y95F mutation dramatically reduces the ability of the protein to bind heme, supporting the assignment of the axial heme ligand to Y95. On the other hand, the Y95H mutation retains ?90% of the heme-binding activity. The heme in Y95H is also 5CHS, but it has a hydroxide axial ligand, conceivably stabilized by the engineered-in H95 via an H-bond; CO binding to the distal ligand-binding site leads to an exchange of the axial ligand to a histidine, possibly H95. We show that progesterone binds to hPGRMC1 and introduces spectral changes that manifest conformational changes to the heme. Our data offer the first direct evidence supporting progesterone-binding activity of PGRMC1.
Project description:Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and amenorrhea before the age of 40. The condition has a heterogeneous background but genetic factors are demonstrated by the occurrence of familial cases. We identified a mother and daughter with POF both of whom carry an X;autosome translocation [t(X;11)(q24;q13)]. RNA expression studies of genes flanking the X-chromosome breakpoint revealed that both patients have reduced expression levels of the gene Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1). Mutation screening of 67 females with idiopathic POF identified a third patient with a missense mutation (H165R) located in the cytochrome b5 domain of PGRMC1. PGRMC1 mediates the anti-apoptotic action of progesterone in ovarian cells and it acts as a positive regulator of several cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalyzed reactions. The CYPs are critical for intracellular sterol metabolism, including biosynthesis of steroid hormones. We show that the H165R mutation associated with POF abolishes the binding of cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) to PGRMC1. In addition, the missense mutation attenuates PGRMC1's ability to mediate the anti-apoptotic action of progesterone in ovarian cells. These findings suggest that mutant or reduced levels of PGMRC1 may cause POF through impaired activation of the microsomal cytochrome P450 and increased apoptosis of ovarian cells.
Project description:Heme is an iron-containing cofactor essential for multiple cellular processes and fundamental activities such as oxygen transport. To better understand the means by which heme synthesis is regulated during erythropoiesis, affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) was performed to identify putative protein partners interacting with ferrochelatase (FECH), the terminal enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Both progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2) were identified in these experiments. These interactions were validated by reciprocal affinity purification followed by MS analysis and immunoblotting. The interaction between PGRMC1 and FECH was confirmed in vitro and in HEK 293T cells, a non-erythroid cell line. When cells that are recognized models for erythroid differentiation were treated with a small molecule inhibitor of PGRMC1, AG-205, there was an observed decrease in the level of hemoglobinization relative to that of untreated cells. In vitro heme transfer experiments showed that purified PGRMC1 was able to donate heme to apo-cytochrome b5. In the presence of PGRMC1, in vitro measured FECH activity decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Interactions between FECH and PGRMC1 were strongest for the conformation of FECH associated with product release, suggesting that PGRMC1 may regulate FECH activity by controlling heme release. Overall, the data illustrate a role for PGRMC1 in regulating heme synthesis via interactions with FECH and suggest that PGRMC1 may be a heme chaperone or sensor.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Membrane-associated progesterone receptors (MAPRs) are thought to mediate a number of rapid cellular effects not involving changes in gene expression. They do not show sequence similarity to any of the classical steroid receptors. We were interested in identifying distant homologs of MAPR better to understand their biological roles. RESULTS:We have identified MAPRs as distant homologs of cytochrome b5. We have also found regions homologous to cytochrome b5 in the mammalian HERC2 ubiquitin transferase proteins and a number of fungal chitin synthases. CONCLUSIONS:In view of these findings, we propose that the heme-binding cytochrome b5 domain served as a template for the evolution of membrane-associated binding pockets for non-heme ligands.
Project description:Cytoglobin is a heme-containing protein ubiquitous in mammalian tissues. Unlike the evolutionarily related proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin, cytoglobin shows a six-coordinated heme binding, with the heme iron coordinated by two histidine side chains. Cytoglobin is involved in cytoprotection pathways through yet undefined mechanisms, and it has recently been demonstrated that cytoglobin has redox signaling properties via nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite metabolism. The reduced, ferrous cytoglobin can bind oxygen and will react with NO in a dioxygenation reaction to form nitrate, which dampens NO signaling. When deoxygenated, cytoglobin can bind nitrite and reduce it to NO. This oxidoreductase activity could be catalytic if an effective reduction system exists to regenerate the reduced heme species. The nature of the physiological cytoglobin reducing system is unknown, although it has been proposed that ascorbate and cytochrome b5 could fulfill this role. Here we describe that physiological concentrations of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase can reduce human and fish cytoglobins at rates up to 250-fold higher than those reported for their known physiological substrates, hemoglobin and myoglobin, and up to 100-fold faster than 5 mM ascorbate. These data suggest that the cytochrome b5/cytochrome b5 reductase system is a viable reductant for cytoglobin in vivo, allowing for catalytic oxidoreductase activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cytochrome b5 performs central roles in various biological electron transfer reactions, where difference in the redox potential of two reactant proteins provides the driving force. Redox potentials of cytochromes b5 span a very wide range of ~400 mV, in which surface charge and hydrophobicity around the heme moiety are proposed to have crucial roles based on previous site-directed mutagenesis analyses. METHODS: Effects of mutations at conserved hydrophobic amino acid residues consisting of the heme pocket of cytochrome b5 were analyzed by EPR and electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammetry of the heme-binding domain of human cytochrome b5 (HLMWb5) and its site-directed mutants was conducted using a gold electrode pre-treated with ?-mercarptopropionic acid by inclusion of positively-charged poly-L-lysine. On the other hand, static midpoint potentials were measured under a similar condition. RESULTS: Titration of HLMWb5 with poly-L-lysine indicated that half-wave potential up-shifted to -19.5 mV when the concentration reached to form a complex. On the other hand, midpoint potentials of -3.2 and +16.5 mV were obtained for HLMWb5 in the absence and presence of poly-L-lysine, respectively, by a spectroscopic electrochemical titration, suggesting that positive charges introduced by binding of poly-L-lysine around an exposed heme propionate resulted in a positive shift of the potential. Analyses on the five site-specific mutants showed a good correlation between the half-wave and the midpoint potentials, in which the former were 16~32 mV more negative than the latter, suggesting that both binding of poly-L-lysine and hydrophobicity around the heme moiety regulate the overall redox potentials. CONCLUSIONS: Present study showed that simultaneous measurements of the midpoint and the half-wave potentials could be a good evaluating methodology for the analyses of static and dynamic redox properties of various hemoproteins including cytochrome b5. The potentials might be modulated by a gross conformational change in the tertiary structure, by a slight change in the local structure, or by a change in the hydrophobicity around the heme moiety as found for the interaction with poly-L-lysine. Therefore, the system consisting of cytochrome b5 and its partner proteins or peptides might be a good paradigm for studying the biological electron transfer reactions.
Project description:Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are heme-containing monooxygenases that contribute to an enormous range of enzymatic function including biosynthetic and detoxification roles. This review summarizes recent studies concerning interactions of CYPs with ligands including substrates, inhibitors, and diatomic heme-ligating molecules. These studies highlight the complexity in the relationship between the heme spin state and active site occupancy, the roles of water in directing protein-ligand and ligand-heme interactions, and the details of interactions between heme and gaseous diatomic CYP ligands. Both kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of ligand binding are considered.
Project description:Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is a multifunctional protein implicated in multiple pathologies, including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The recently published structure of PGRMC1 revealed heme-mediated dimerization that directed the PGRMC1-dependent cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification of doxorubicin. We describe here how the PGRMC1 structure also enables important new insights into the possible regulation of PGRMC1 function by phosphorylation. Predicted regulatory interaction sites for SH2- and SH3-domain proteins are in non-structured regions that could be available to cytoplasmic enzymes. Further to the published interpretation, we suggest that phosphorylation of PGRMC1 at position Y113 may promote the attested membrane trafficking function of PGRMC1. To stimulate further experimentation, we also discuss that heme-mediated dimerization of PGRMC1 and membrane trafficking may be mutually exclusive functions. These roles could potentially be reciprocally regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation at Y113. It follows that the phosphorylation status of PGRMC1 should be further explored in order to better understand many of its proposed biological functions.
Project description:The Cytochrome P450 super family (CYP) is responsible for a wide range of functions in metazoans, having roles in both exogenous and endogenous substrate metabolism. Annelids are known to metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and produce estrogen. CYPs are postulated to be key enzymes in these processes in annelids. In this study, the CYP complement (CYPome) of the annelid Capitella teleta has been robustly identified and annotated with the genome assembly available. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to understand the evolutionary relationships between CYPs in C. teleta and other species. Predictions of which CYPs are potentially involved in both PAH metabolism and steroidogensis were made based on phylogeny. Annotation of 84 full length and 12 partial CYP sequences predicted a total of 96 functional CYPs in C. teleta. A further 13 CYP fragments were found but these may be pseudogenes. The C. teleta CYPome contained 24 novel CYP families and seven novel CYP subfamilies within existing families. A phylogenetic analysis identified that the C. teleta sequences were found in 9 of the 11 metazoan CYP clans. Two CYPs, CYP3071A1 and CYP3072A1, did not cluster with any metazoan CYP clans. We found xenobiotic response elements (XREs) upstream of C. teleta CYPs related to vertebrate CYP1 (CYP3060A1, CYP3061A1) and from families with reported transcriptional upregulation in response to PAH exposure (CYP4, CYP331). C. teleta had a CYP51A1 with ?65% identity to vertebrate CYP51A1 sequences and has been predicted to have lanosterol 14 ?-demethylase activity. CYP376A1, CYP3068A1, CYP3069A1, and CYP3070A1 were the most appropriate candidates for steroidogenesis genes based on their phylogeny and warrant further analyses, though no specific aromatase (estrogen synthesis) candidates were found. Presence of XREs upstream of C. teleta CYPs may indicate a functional aryl hydrocarbon receptor in C. teleta and candidate CYPs for studies of PAH metabolism.