Skewed distribution of IL-7 receptor-?-expressing effector memory CD8+ T cells with distinct functional characteristics in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: CD8(+) T cells play important roles in anti-tumor immunity but distribution profile or functional characteristics of effector memory subsets during tumor progression are unclear. We found that, in oral squamous carcinoma patients, circulating CD8(+) T cell pools skewed toward effector memory subsets with the distribution frequency of CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-) CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells negatively correlated with each other. A significantly higher frequency of CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells among total CD8(+) T cells was found in peripheral blood or tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, but not in regional lymph nodes. The CD127(hi) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells maintained significantly higher IFN-?, IL-2 productivity and ex vivo proliferative capacity, while the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells exhibited higher granzyme B productivity and susceptibility to activation induced cell death. A higher ratio of CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells to CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells was associated with advanced cancer staging and poor differentiation of tumor cells. Therefore, the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells are functionally similar CD8(+) T cell subsets which exhibit late differentiated effector phenotypes and the shift of peripheral CD8(+) effector memory balance toward CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells is associated with OSCC progression.
Project description:The aim was to assess miRNA expression in 3 human ex-vivo CD8+ T cell subsets which span from antigen inexperienced cells (NaM-CM-/ve) to early memory cells (central memory, Tcm) and later stage memory cells (effector memory, Tem) CD8+ T cells were sorted on a FACS Aria II machine. N = naM-CM-/ve = CD8+, CCR7+, CD45RA+, CD45RO-, Tcm = central memory = CD8+, CCR7+, CD45RA-, CD45RO-,Tem= effector memory = CD8+, CCR7-, CD45RA-, CD45RO+ PBMC were isolated from 3 healthy human donors and sorted by FACS into 3 CD8+ T cell subsets. Total RNA was purified using the miRVANA kit (Ambion)
Project description:The live yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) offers a unique opportunity to study memory CD8(+) T cell differentiation in humans following an acute viral infection. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the virus-specific CD8(+) T cell response using overlapping peptides spanning the entire viral genome. Our results showed that the YF-17D vaccine induces a broad CD8(+) T cell response targeting several epitopes within each viral protein. We identified a dominant HLA-A2-restricted epitope in the NS4B protein and used tetramers specific for this epitope to track the CD8(+) T cell response over a 2 year period. This longitudinal analysis showed the following. 1) Memory CD8(+) T cells appear to pass through an effector phase and then gradually down-regulate expression of activation markers and effector molecules. 2) This effector phase was characterized by down-regulation of CD127, Bcl-2, CCR7, and CD45RA and was followed by a substantial contraction resulting in a pool of memory T cells that re-expressed CD127, Bcl-2, and CD45RA. 3) These memory cells were polyfunctional in terms of degranulation and production of the cytokines IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, and MIP-1beta. 4) The YF-17D-specific memory CD8(+) T cells had a phenotype (CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)) that is typically associated with terminally differentiated cells with limited proliferative capacity (T(EMRA)). However, these cells exhibited robust proliferative potential showing that expression of CD45RA may not always associate with terminal differentiation and, in fact, may be an indicator of highly functional memory CD8(+) T cells generated after acute viral infections.
Project description:Accumulating evidence demonstrates that CD8+ T cells contribute to protection from severe dengue virus (DENV) disease and vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, molecular programs associated with DENV-specific CD8+ T cell subsets have not been defined. Here, we studied the transcriptomic profiles of human DENV-specific CD8+ T cells isolated after stimulation with DENV epitopes from donors who had been infected with DENV multiple times and would therefore be expected to have significant levels of adaptive immunity. We found that DENV-specific CD8+ T cells mainly consisted of effector memory subsets, namely CD45RA-CCR7- effector memory (Tem) and CD45RA+CCR7- effector memory re-expressing CD45RA (Temra) cells, which enacted specific gene expression profiles upon stimulation with cognate antigens. DENV-specific CD8+ T cell subsets in general, and Temra cells in particular, were fully activated and polyfunctional, yet associated with relatively narrow transcriptional responses. Furthermore, we found that DENV-specific CD8+ Tem and Temra cells showed some unique T cell receptor features in terms of overlap and variable (V) gene usage. This study provides a transcriptomic definition of DENV-specific activated human CD8+ T cell subsets and defines a benchmark profile that vaccine-specific responses could aim to reproduce.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are major components of tumor-infiltrating immune cells with potent immunosuppressive properties in gastric cancer (GC) microenvironment. However, different subsets of the Tregs and their relevance to GC are unknown. Here, we found that patients with GC showed a significantly higher Tregs infiltration in tumors, and CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset constituted most tumor-infiltrating Tregs. Tumor-infiltrating CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset with an effector/memory phenotype accumulated in tumors and expressed low level of HLA-DR. Gastric tumor-derived TNF-? induced CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset with similar phenotype to their status in tumors and inhibited their HLA-DR expression via activating STAT3 phosphorylation. These tumor-associated CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset exerted superior immunosuppressive properties to effectively suppress CD8+ T cells' anti-tumor function including CD8+ T-cell IFN-? and granzyme B (GrB) production as well as CD8+ T-cell proliferation in vitro, and also contributed to the growth and progression of human gastric tumors in vivo, via IL-10 secretion and cell-cell contact mechanisms. Moreover, increased tumor-infiltrating CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset as well as higher intratumoral CD45RA-CCR7- Treg/CD8+ T-cell ratio was associated with advanced disease progression and reduced GC patient survival. This study therefore identifies a novel immunosuppressive pathway involving CD45RA-CCR7- Treg subset development within the GC microenvironment. Efforts to inhibit this pathway may therefore prove a valuable strategy to prevent, and to treat this immune suppressive of GC.
Project description:The aim was to assess miRNA expression in 3 human ex-vivo CD8+ T cell subsets which span from antigen inexperienced cells (Naïve) to early memory cells (central memory, Tcm) and later stage memory cells (effector memory, Tem) CD8+ T cells were sorted on a FACS Aria II machine. N = naïve = CD8+, CCR7+, CD45RA+, CD45RO-, Tcm = central memory = CD8+, CCR7+, CD45RA-, CD45RO-,Tem= effector memory = CD8+, CCR7-, CD45RA-, CD45RO+ PBMC were isolated from 3 healthy human donors and sorted by FACS into 3 CD8+ T cell subsets. Total RNA was purified using the miRVANA kit (Ambion)
Project description:HIV-1 infection causes a severe T cell compromise; however, little is known about changes in naive, memory, effector and senescent T cell subsets during the first year of life. T cell subsets were studied over the first year of life in blood from 3 infant cohorts: untreated HIV-infected, HIV-exposed but uninfected, and HIV-unexposed. In HIV-infected infants, the frequency of CCR7(+)CD45RA(+) naive CD8(+) T cells was significantly decreased, while the frequency of CCR7(-)CD45RA(-) effector memory CD8(+) T cells was increased, compared with the control cohorts. A larger population of CD8(+) T cells in HIV-infected infants displayed a phenotype consistent with senescence. Differences in CD4(+) T cell subset frequencies were less pronounced, and no significant differences were observed between exposed and unexposed HIV-uninfected infants. We concluded that the proportion of naive, memory, effector and senescent CD8(+) T cells during the first year of life is significantly altered by HIV-1 infection.
Project description:Background. CD8+ T cells have putative roles in the regulation of adaptive immune responses during infection. The purpose of this paper is to compare the status of CD8+ T cells in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Methods. This preliminary investigation comprised 23 CFS/ME patients, 11 untreated MS patients, and 30 nonfatigued controls. Whole blood samples were collected from participants, stained with monoclonal antibodies, and analysed on the flow cytometer. Using the following CD markers, CD27 and CD45RA (CD45 exon isoform 4), CD8+ T cells were divided into naïve, central memory (CM), effector memory CD45RA- (EM), and effector memory CD45RA+ (EMRA) cells. Results. Surface expressions of BTLA, CD127, and CD49/CD29 were increased on subsets of CD8+ T cells from MS patients. In the CFS/ME patients CD127 was significantly decreased on all subsets of CD8+ T cells in comparison to the nonfatigued controls. PSGL-1 was significantly reduced in the CFS/ME patients in comparison to the nonfatigued controls. Conclusions. The results suggest significant deficits in the expression of receptors and adhesion molecules on subsets of CD8+ T cells in both MS and CFS/ME patients. These deficits reported may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. However, larger sample size is warranted to confirm and support these encouraging preliminary findings.
Project description:Humanized mice are expected to be useful as small animal models for in vivo studies on the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. However, it is well known that human CD8(+) T cells cannot differentiate into effector cells in immunodeficient mice transplanted with only human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), because human T cells are not educated by HLA in the mouse thymus. We here established HLA-B*51:01 transgenic humanized mice by transplanting human CD34(+) HSCs into HLA-B*51:01 transgenic NOD/SCID/Jak3(-/-) mice (hNOK/B51Tg mice) and investigated whether human effector CD8(+) T cells would be elicited in the mice or in those infected with HIV-1 NL4-3. There were no differences in the frequency of late effector memory and effector subsets (CD27(low)CD28(-)CD45RA(+/-)CCR7(-) and CD27(-)CD28(-)CD45RA(+/-)CCR7(-), respectively) among human CD8(+) T cells and in that of human CD8(+) T cells expressing CX3CR1 and/or CXCR1 between hNOK/B51Tg and hNOK mice. In contrast, the frequency of late effector memory and effector CD8(+) T cell subsets and of those expressing CX3CR1 and/or CXCR1 was significantly higher in HIV-1-infected hNOK/B51Tg mice than in uninfected ones, whereas there was no difference in that of these subsets between HIV-1-infected and uninfected hNOK mice. These results suggest that hNOK/B51Tg mice had CD8(+) T cells that were capable of differentiating into effector T cells after viral antigen stimulation and had a greater ability to elicit effector CD8(+) T cells than hNOK ones.
Project description:Despite the generation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell immune responses during the course of infection, only 5 to 10% of exposed individuals develop active disease, while others develop a latent infection. This phenomenon suggests defective M. tuberculosis-specific immunity, which necessitates more careful characterization of M. tuberculosis-specific T cell responses. Here, we longitudinally analyzed the phenotypes and functions of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells. In contrast to the functional exhaustion of T cells observed after chronic infection, M. tuberculosis-specific CD8(+) T cells differentiated into either effector (CD127(lo) CD62L(lo)) or effector memory (CD127(hi) CD62L(lo)) cells, but not central memory cells (CD127(hi) CD62L(hi)), with low programmed death 1 (PD-1) expression, even in the presence of high levels of bacteria. Additionally, M. tuberculosis-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells produced substantial levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and gamma interferon (IFN-?), but not interleukin 2 (IL-2), upon in vitro restimulation. Among M. tuberculosis-specific CD8(+) T cells, CD127(hi) effector memory cells displayed slower ongoing turnover but greater survival potential. In addition, these cells produced more IFN-? and TNF-? and displayed lytic activity upon antigen stimulation. However, the effector function of M. tuberculosis-specific CD8(+) CD127(hi) effector memory T cells was inferior to that of canonical CD8(+) CD127(hi) memory T cells generated after acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Collectively, our data demonstrate that M. tuberculosis-specific T cells can differentiate into memory T cells during the course of M. tuberculosis infection independent of the bacterial burden but with limited functionality. These results provide a framework for further understanding the mechanisms of M. tuberculosis infection that can be used to develop more effective vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIM:Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate dominant peripheral tolerance and treat experimental colitis. Tregs can be expanded from patient blood and were safely used in recent phase 1 studies in graft versus host disease and type 1 diabetes. Treg cell therapy is also conceptually attractive for Crohn's disease (CD). However, barriers exist to this approach. The stability of Tregs expanded from Crohn's blood is unknown. The potential for adoptively transferred Tregs to express interleukin-17 and exacerbate Crohn's lesions is of concern. Mucosal T cells are resistant to Treg-mediated suppression in active CD. The capacity for expanded Tregs to home to gut and lymphoid tissue is unknown. METHODS:To define the optimum population for Treg cell therapy in CD, CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(-) Treg subsets were isolated from patients' blood and expanded in vitro using a workflow that can be readily transferred to a good manufacturing practice background. RESULTS:Tregs can be expanded from the blood of patients with CD to potential target dose within 22-24?days. Expanded CD45RA(+) Tregs have an epigenetically stable FOXP3 locus and do not convert to a Th17 phenotype in vitro, in contrast to CD45RA(-) Tregs. CD45RA(+) Tregs highly express ?4?7 integrin, CD62L and CC motif receptor 7 (CCR7). CD45RA(+) Tregs also home to human small bowel in a C.B-17 severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) xenotransplant model. Importantly, in vitro expansion enhances the suppressive ability of CD45RA(+) Tregs. These cells also suppress activation of lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes isolated from inflamed Crohn's mucosa. CONCLUSIONS:CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(+) Tregs may be the most appropriate population from which to expand Tregs for autologous Treg therapy for CD, paving the way for future clinical trials.