A melanoma-specific VH antibody cloned from a fusion phage library of a vaccinated melanoma patient.
ABSTRACT: The human antimelanoma antibody V86 was cloned from a single-chain Fv molecule (scFv) fusion phage library displaying the heavy chain variable domain (VH) and light chain variable domain (VL.) repertoire of a melanoma patient immunized with genetically-modified autologous tumor cells. Previous ELISA tests for binding of the V86 fusion phage to a panel of human metastatic melanoma and carcinoma cell lines and primary cultures of normal melanocytes, endothelial, and fibroblast cells showed that measurable binding occurred only to the melanoma cells. In this communication, the strict specificity of V86 for melanoma cells was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining tests with cultured cells and frozen tissue sections. The V86 fusion phage stained melanoma cell lines but did not stain carcinoma cell lines or cultured normal cells; V86 also stained specifically the melanoma cells in sections of metastatic tissue but did not stain any of the cells in sections from normal skin, lung, and kidney or from metastatic colon and ovarian carcinomas and a benign nevus. An unexpected finding is that V86 contains a complete VH domain but only a short segment of a VL, domain, which terminates before the CDR1 region. This VL deletion resulted from the occurrence in the VL cDNA of a restriction site, which was cleaved during construction of the scFv library. Thus V86 is essentially a VH antibody. The effect of adding a VI. domain to V86 was examined by constructing scFv fusion phage libraries in which V86 was coupled to Vlambda or Vkappa domains from the original scFv library of the melanoma patient and then panning the libraries against melanoma cells to enrich for the highest affinity antibody clones. None of the V86-Vlambda clones showed significant binding to melanoma cells in ELISA tests; although binding occurred with most of the V86-Vkappa clones, it was generally weaker than the binding of V86. These results indicate that most of the VL domains in the original scFv library reduce or eliminate the affinity of V86 for melanoma cells. Accordingly, VH libraries could provide access to anti-tumor antibodies that might not be detected in scFv or Fab libraries because of the incompatibility of most randomly paired VH and VL, domains.
Project description:A single-chain Fv (scFv) fusion phage library derived from random combinations of VH and VL (variable heavy and light chains) domains in the antibody repertoire of a vaccinated melanoma patient was previously used to isolate clones that bind specifically to melanoma cells. An unexpected finding was that one of the clones encoded a truncated scFv molecule with most of the VL domain deleted, indicating that a VH domain alone can exhibit tumor-specific binding. In this report a VH fusion phage library containing VH domains unassociated with VL domains was compared with a scFv fusion phage library as a source of melanoma-specific clones; both libraries contained the same VH domains from the vaccinated melanoma patient. The results demonstrate that the clones can be isolated from both libraries, and that both libraries should be used to optimize the chance of isolating clones binding to different epitopes. Although this strategy has been tested only for melanoma, it is also applicable to other cancers. Because of their small size, human origin and specificity for cell surface tumor antigens, the VH and scFv molecules have significant advantages as tumor-targeting molecules for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and can also serve as probes for identifying the cognate tumor antigens.
Project description:The 2.0-A resolution x-ray crystal structure of a novel trimeric antibody fragment, a "triabody," has been determined. The trimer is made up of polypeptides constructed in a manner identical to that previously described for some "diabodies": a VL domain directly fused to the C terminus of a VH domain-i.e., without any linker sequence. The trimer has three Fv heads with the polypeptides arranged in a cyclic, head-to-tail fashion. For the particular structure reported here, the polypeptide was constructed with a VH domain from one antibody fused to the VL domain from an unrelated antibody giving rise to "combinatorial" Fvs upon formation of the trimer. The structure shows that the exchange of the VL domain from antibody B1-8, a Vlambda domain, with the VL domain from antibody NQ11, a Vkappa domain, leads to a dramatic conformational change in the VH CDR3 loop of antibody B1-8. The magnitude of this change is similar to the largest of the conformational changes observed in antibody fragments in response to antigen binding. Combinatorial pairing of VH and VL domains constitutes a major component of antibody diversity. Conformationally flexible antigen-binding sites capable of adapting to the specific CDR3 loop context created upon VH-VL pairing may be employed by the immune system to maximize the structural diversity of the immune response.
Project description:Phage-display selection of immunoglobulin (IG) or antibody single chain Fragment variable (scFv) from combinatorial libraries is widely used for identifying new antibodies for novel targets. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has recently emerged as a new method for the high throughput characterization of IG and T cell receptor (TR) immune repertoires both in vivo and in vitro. However, challenges remain for the NGS sequencing of scFv from combinatorial libraries owing to the scFv length (>800?bp) and the presence of two variable domains [variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) for IG] associated by a peptide linker in a single chain. Here, we show that single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing with the Pacific Biosciences RS II platform allows for the generation of full-length scFv reads obtained from an in vivo selection of scFv-phages in an animal model of atherosclerosis. We first amplified the DNA of the phagemid inserts from scFv-phages eluted from an aortic section at the third round of the in vivo selection. From this amplified DNA, 450,558 reads were obtained from 15 SMRT cells. Highly accurate circular consensus sequences from these reads were generated, filtered by quality and then analyzed by IMGT/HighV-QUEST with the functionality for scFv. Full-length scFv were identified and characterized in 348,659 reads. Full-length scFv sequencing is an absolute requirement for analyzing the associated VH and VL domains enriched during the in vivo panning rounds. In order to further validate the ability of SMRT sequencing to provide high quality, full-length scFv sequences, we tracked the reads of an scFv-phage clone P3 previously identified by biological assays and Sanger sequencing. Sixty P3 reads showed 100% identity with the full-length scFv of 767?bp, 53 of them covering the whole insert of 977?bp, which encompassed the primer sequences. The remaining seven reads were identical over a shortened length of 939?bp that excludes the vicinity of primers at both ends. Interestingly these reads were obtained from each of the 15 SMRT cells. Thus, the SMRT sequencing method and the IMGT/HighV-QUEST functionality for scFv provides a straightforward protocol for characterization of full-length scFv from combinatorial phage libraries.
Project description:AIM:To create new diabodies with improved binding activity to antigen of the variable light - variable heavy (VH-VL) oriented single-chain Fv dimers genes (scFv). METHODS:The linker between VH and VL genes was shortened to 3-5 amino acid residues and cloned into the vector pCANTAB5E. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into TG1 cells and sequenced. The positive transformed cells were infected by M13K07 helper phage to form human recombinant phage antibodies. Expressed products were identified by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, size exclusion gel chromatography (SEC), ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Three scFv (scFv-3, scFv-4, scFv-5) were constructed successfully with binding ability to hepatocellular carcinoma 3.5-6 fold greater than their parental scFv. The single-chain Fv dimer (scFv-5, termed BDM3) with the best binding ability was successfully expressed in Yeast pichlia, as shown by. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. SEC results suggested the molecular weight of the expressed products was about 61 kDa. Expressed products showed significantly stronger binding to hepatocellular carcinoma cells than scFv, still having 50% binding activity even after 16 h incubation as 37°C. The purified dimers were bound specifically to the tumor antigen of HCC. CONCLUSION:we have generated scFv dimers by shortening a series of linkers to 3-5 amino acid residues in VH-linker-VL orientation, resulting in highly stable and affinity-improved dimeric molecules. These will become an attractive targeting moiety in immunotherapeutic and diagnostic applications for HCC.
Project description:Phage-display technology facilitates rapid selection of antigen-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies from large recombinant libraries. ScFv antibodies, composed of a VH and VL domain, are readily engineered into multimeric formats for the development of diagnostics and targeted therapies. However, the recombinant nature of the selection strategy can result in VH and VL domains with sub-optimal biophysical properties, such as reduced thermodynamic stability and enhanced aggregation propensity, which lead to poor production and limited application. We found that the C10 anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) scFv, and its affinity mutant, P2224, exhibit weak production from E. coli. Interestingly, these scFv contain a fusion of lambda3 and lambda1 V-region (LV3 and LV1) genes, most likely the result of a PCR aberration during library construction. To enhance the biophysical properties of these scFvs, we utilized a structure-based approach to replace and redesign the pre-existing framework of the VL domain to one that best pairs with the existing VH. We describe a method to exchange lambda sequences with a more stable kappa3 framework (KV3) within the VL domain that incorporates the original lambda DE-loop. The resulting scFvs, C10KV3_LV1DE and P2224KV3_LV1DE, are more thermodynamically stable and easier to produce from bacterial culture. Additionally, C10KV3_LV1DE and P2224KV3_LV1DE retain binding affinity to EGFR, suggesting that such a dramatic framework swap does not significantly affect scFv binding. We provide here a novel strategy for redesigning the light chain of problematic scFvs to enhance their stability and therapeutic applicability.
Project description:We examined the repertoire of antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae 6B capsular polysaccharide induced with the conventional polysaccharide vaccine in adults at the molecular level two ways. In the first, we purified from the sera of seven vaccinees antipneumococcal antibodies and determined their amino acid sequences. Their VH regions are mainly the products of VH3 family genes (candidate genes, 3-23, 3-07, 3-66, and 3-74), but the product of a VH1 family gene (candidate gene, 1-03) is occasionally used. All seven individuals have small amounts of polyclonal kappa+ antibodies (Vkappa1 to Vkappa4 families), although kappa+ antibodies are occasionally dominated by antibodies formed with the product of the A27 Vkappa gene. In contrast, lambda+ anti-6B antibodies are dominated by the antibodies derived from one of 3 very similar Vlambda2 family genes (candidate genes, 2c, 2e, and 2a2) and Clambda1 gene product. The Vlambda2(+) antibodies express the 8.12 idiotype, which is expressed on anti-double-stranded-DNA antibodies. In one case, Vlambda is derived from a rarely expressed Vlambda gene, 10a. In the second approach, we studied a human hybridoma (Dob1) producing anti-6B antibody. Its VH region sequence is closely related to those of the 3-15 VH gene (88% nucleotide homology) and JH4 (92% homology). Its VL region is homologous to the 2a2 Vlambda2 gene (91%) and Jlambda1/Clambda1. Taken together, the V region of human anti-6B antibodies is commonly formed by a VH3 and a Vlambda2 family gene product.
Project description:"Antibody-breeding" has provided therapeutic/diagnostic antibody mutants with greater performance than native antibodies. Typically, random point mutations are introduced into the VH and VL domains of parent antibodies to generate diverse libraries of single-chain Fv fragments (scFvs), from which evolved mutants are selected. We produced an scFv against estradiol-17? with 11 amino acid substitutions and a?>100-fold improved affinity constant (Ka?=?1.19 × 1010?M-1) over the parent scFv, enabling immunoassays with >30-fold higher sensitivity. We systematically analyzed contributions of these substitutions to the affinity enhancement. Comparing various partial scFv revertants based on their Kas indicated that a revertant with four substitutions (VH-L100gQ, VL-I29V, -L36M, -S77G) exhibited somewhat higher affinity (Ka?=?1.46 × 1010?M-1). Finally, the VH-L100gQ substitution, occurring in VH complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3, was found to be the highest-priority for improving the affinity, and VL-I29V and/or VL-L36M cooperated significantly. These findings encouraged us to reconsider the potential of VH-CDR3-targeting mutagenesis, which has been frequently attempted. The substitution(s) wherein might enable a "high rate of return" in terms of selecting mutants with dramatically enhanced affinities. The "high risk" of generating a tremendous excess of "junk mutants" can be overcome with the efficient selection systems that we developed.
Project description:Antibody-based immunotherapy has proven efficacy for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. However, despite being the most efficient tumoricidal effectors, T cells are underutilized because they lack Fc receptors. Using a monovalent single-chain fragment (ScFv) platform, we engineered tandem scFv bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) that specifically target disialoganglioside (GD2) on tumor cells and CD3 on T cells. Structural variants of BsAbs were constructed and ranked based on binding to GD2, and on competency in inducing T-cell-mediated tumor cytotoxicity. In vitro thermal stability and binding measurements were used to characterize each of the constructs, and in silico molecular modeling was used to show how the orientation of the variable region heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains of the anti-GD2 ScFv could alter the conformations of key residues responsible for high affinity binding. We showed that the VH-VL orientation, the (GGGGS)3 linker, disulfide bond stabilization of scFv, when combined with an affinity matured mutation provided the most efficient BsAb to direct T cells to lyse GD2-positive tumor cells. In vivo, the optimized BsAb could efficiently inhibit melanoma and neuroblastoma xenograft growth. These findings provide preclinical validation of a structure-based method to assist in designing BsAb for T-cell-mediated therapy.
Project description:Norfloxacin belongs to the group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics which has been approved for treatment in animals. However, its residues in animal products can pose adverse side effects to consumer. Therefore, detection of the residue in different food matrices must be concerned. In this study, a single chain variable fragment (scFv) that recognizes norfloxacin antibiotic was constructed. The cDNA was synthesized from total RNA of hybridoma cells against norfloxacin. Genes encoding VH and VL regions of monoclonal antibody against norfloxacin (Nor155) were amplified and size of VH and VL fragments was 402 bp and 363 bp, respectively. The scFv of Nor155 was constructed by an addition of (Gly4Ser)3 as a linker between VH and VL regions and subcloned into pPICZ?A, an expression vector of Pichia pastoris. The sequence of scFv Nor155 (GenBank No. AJG06891.1) was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The complementarity determining regions (CDR) I, II, and III of VH and VL were specified by Kabat method. The obtained recombinant plasmid will be useful for production of scFv antibody against norfloxacin in P. pastoris and further engineer scFv antibody against fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
Project description:Mesothelin (MSLN) shows increased expression in various cancer cells. For clinical application of antibodies as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging reagent, a human shortened antibody is essential both for avoiding redundant immune responses and for providing rapid imaging. Therefore, we cloned a single-chain fragment of variable regions (scFv) from a human-derived gene sequence. This was achieved through the construction of a naïve phage library derived from human tonsil lymphocytes. Using a column with human recombinant MSLN, we carried out bio-panning of phage-variants by colony formation. We first obtained 120 clones that were subjected to selection in an ELISA using human recombinant MSLN as a solid phase antigen, and 15 phage clones of scFv with a different sequence were selected and investigated by flow cytometry (FCM). Then, six variants were selected and the individual scFv gene was synthesized in the VL and VH domains and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mammalian cell-derived human-origin scFv clones were analyzed by FCM again, and one MSLN highly specific scFv clone was established. PET imaging by 89 Zr-labeled scFv was done in mice bearing xenografts with MSLN-expressing cancer cells, and tumor legions were successfully visualized. The scFv variant established in the present study may be potentially useful for cancer diagnosis by PET imaging.