Factors associated with the use of probiotics in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Probiotic preparations are heavily promoted in the United Kingdom and are widely available to purchase. Probiotics have multiple effects on gastrointestinal functions and may have beneficial or even harmful effects in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Various complementary and alternative medicines are commonly used by IBD patients but there is much less data specifically on the use of probiotics. AIM: To examine the current use of probiotics by IBD patients and determine the factors associated with probiotic use. METHODS: Subjects with IBD undergoing routine care at a UK teaching hospital underwent a standardized structured questionnaire-interview. Current use of probiotics was explored and patient- and disease-related factors examined. IBD-related quality of life was assessed with the short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (S-IBDQ). Logistical regression was used to explore factors associated with probiotic use. RESULTS: Forty subjects were interviewed. Probiotic use was common, 40% of subjects being regular users. Probiotic use was significantly associated with a shorter duration of IBD since diagnosis, a diagnosis of Crohn's disease, formal post-18 education and lower quality of life as assessed by the S-IBDQ. A preference for the taste of the preparation was as common a reason for using probiotics as were potential disease modifying effects. Non-users reported that the costs of the preparations and doubts about efficacy were the primary reasons for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: In this study probiotic use was common in IBD patients. Several patient- and disease- related factors, including a lower perceived quality of life, were associated with the use of probiotics.
Project description:Probiotics are widely used for the induction and maintenance of remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and pouchitis. There are a large number of meta-analyses (MAs)/ systematic reviews (SRs) on this subject, the methodological quality of which has not been evaluated.This study aimed to evaluate the methodological quality of and summarize the evidence obtained from MAs/SRs of probiotic treatments for IBD and pouchitis patients.The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched to identify Chinese and English language MAs/SRs of the use of probiotics for IBD and pouchitis. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the studies.A total of 36 MAs/SRs were evaluated. The AMSTAR scores of the included studies ranged from 1 to 10, and the average score was 5.81. According to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, 4 articles were classified as high quality, 24 articles were classified as moderate quality, and 8 articles were classified as low quality. Most of the MAs/SRs suggested that probiotics had potential benefits for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), but failed to show effectiveness in the induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease (CD). The probiotic preparation VSL#3 may play a beneficial role in pouchitis.The overall methodological quality of the current MAs/SRs in the field of probiotics for IBD and pouchitis was found to be low to moderate. More MAs/SRs of high quality are required to support using probiotics to treat IBD and pouchitis.
Project description:Low expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and dysfunction of vitamin D/VDR signaling are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); therefore, restoration of VDR function to control inflammation in IBD is desirable. Probiotics have been used in the treatment of IBD. However, the role of probiotics in the modulation of VDR signaling to effectively reduce inflammation is unknown. We identified a novel role of probiotics in activating VDR activity, thus inhibiting inflammation, using cell models and VDR knockout mice. We found that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) increased VDR protein expression in both mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells. Using the VDR luciferase reporter vector, we detected increased transcriptional activity of VDR after probiotic treatment. Probiotics increased the expression of the VDR target genes, such as antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the role of probiotics in regulating VDR signaling was tested in vivo using a Salmonella-colitis model in VDR knockout mice. Probiotic treatment conferred physiological and histologic protection from Salmonella-induced colitis in VDR(+/+) mice, whereas probiotics had no effects in the VDR(-/-) mice. Probiotic treatment also enhanced numbers of Paneth cells, which secrete AMPs for host defense. These data indicate that the VDR pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis. Understanding how probiotics enhance VDR signaling and inhibit inflammation will allow probiotics to be used effectively, resulting in innovative approaches to the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Clinicians and patients face a daunting task when choosing the most appropriate probiotic for their specific needs. Available preparations encompass a diverse and continuously expanding product base, with most available products lacking evidence-based trials that support their use. Even when evidence exists, not all probiotic products are equally effective for all disease prevention or treatment indications. At this point in time, drug regulatory agencies offer limited assistance with regard to guidance and oversight in most countries, including the U.S.<h4>Methods</h4>We reviewed the current medical literature and sources on the internet to survey the types of available probiotic products and to determine which probiotics had evidence-based efficacy data. Standard medical databases from inception to June 2018 were searched and discussions with experts in the field were conducted. We graded the strength of the evidence for probiotics having multiple, randomized controlled trials and developed a guide for the practical selection of current probiotic products for specific uses.<h4>Results</h4>We found the efficacy of probiotic products is both strain-specific and disease-specific. Important factors involved in choosing the appropriate probiotic include matching the strain(s) with the targeted disease or condition, type of formulation, dose used and the source (manufacturing quality control and shelf-life). While we found many probiotic products lacked confirmatory trials, we found sufficient evidence for 22 different types of probiotics from 249 trials to be included. For example, several types of probiotics had strong evidence for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea [Saccharomyces boulardii I-745, a three-strain mixture (Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, L. casei Lbc80r, L. rhamnosus CLR2) and L. casei DN114001]. Strong evidence was also found for four types of probiotics for the prevention of a variety of other diseases/conditions (enteral-feed associated diarrhea, travellers' diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolits and side-effects associated with H. pylori treatments. The evidence was most robust for the treatment of pediatric acute diarrhea based on 59 trials (7 types of probiotics have strong efficacy), while an eight-strain multi-strain mixture showed strong efficacy for inflammatory bowel disease and two types of probiotics had strong efficacy for irritable bowel disease. Of the 22 types of probiotics reviewed, 15 (68%) had strong-moderate evidence for efficacy for at least one type of disease.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The choice of an appropriate probiotic is multi-factored, based on the mode and type of disease indication and the specific efficacy of probiotic strain(s), as well as product quality and formulation.<h4>Trial registration</h4>This review was registered with PROSPERO: CRD42018103979.
Project description:In animal models, excess luminal iron exacerbates colonic inflammation and cancer development. Moreover, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with mild to moderate disease activity dietary fortificant iron intake is inversely related to quality of life. Here we sought to determine whether dietary iron intakes were also related to quality of life in IBD patients in remission.Forty eight patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 42 of which had quiescent disease during this observational study, and 53 healthy control subjects completed quality of life questionnaires and 7-day food diaries. For comparative analysis, 34/group were matched and the linear relationship between dietary iron intakes (total, haem, non-haem or fortificant) and EuroQol quality of life measures was investigated. For UC patients the linear relationship between dietary iron intakes and the scores from the disease specific inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ) was also considered.The intake of dietary iron, and its various sub-fractions, were not associated with quality of life (EuroQol) in patients with quiescent disease or in healthy control subjects. The picture was similar for the 42 quiescent UC patients when disease-specific IBDQ was used. However, the 6 patients who relapsed during the study again showed an inverse association between IBDQ and dietary iron intake (p?=?0.03).Our data suggest that dietary iron does not impact on quality of life in quiescent UC patients but support that, once the disease is triggered, luminal iron may be a permissive factor for exacerbation of disease activity resulting in lower quality of life.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life are gaining importance in the assessment of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The association of objectively measured physical activity and quality of life in patients with IBD has not been studied in depth. To investigate the association of disease-specific quality of life and physical activity as well as clinical and biochemical disease activity in patients with IBD. METHODS:A total of 91 patients with IBD were stratified into 4 groups (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, in remission and with moderate-severe activity, respectively) and evaluated in terms of disease-specific quality of life (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire [IBDQ]), physical activity (accelerometry), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), as well as clinical (Harvey-Bradshaw Index and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index) and biochemical (C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin) parameters of disease activity. RESULTS:In patients with moderate-severe disease activity, the IBDQ was significantly lower as compared to patients in remission (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001). The physical activity level was higher in remission than in active disease (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). The IBDQ was significantly correlated with the duration of strenuous physical activity per day (P = 0.029178, r = 0.235), skeletal muscle mass (P = 0.033829, r = 0.229), and biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein: P < 0.005, r = -0.335 and fecal calprotectin: P < 0.005, r = -0.385). DISCUSSION:In this prospective, cross-sectional study, disease-specific quality of life was significantly associated with accelerometrically determined physical activity and disease activity in patients with IBD. This may be related to a reciprocal impact of these factors (DRKS00011370).
Project description:Current evidence to support extensive use of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease is limited and factors that contribute to the inconsistent effectiveness of clinical probiotic therapy are not completely known. Here, we used Bifidobacterium longum JDM 301 as a model probiotic to study potential factors that may influence the effect of probiotics in experimental colitis. We found that the effect of B. longum JDM 301 in tempering experimental colitis varied across individual mice even with the same genetic background. The probiotic efficacy was highly correlated with the host gut microbial community features. Consumption of a diet rich in fat could exacerbate mucosal injury-induced colitis but could not change the host responsiveness to B. longum JDM 301 treatment, suggesting of potential mechanistic differences between regulating colitis pathogenesis, and modulating probiotic efficacies by the gut microbiota. Together, our results suggest that personalized microbiome features may modify the probiotic therapeutic effect and support the idea of personalized probiotic medicine in inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:Fatigue is a common and bothersome symptom in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. The study was aimed to determine the relationship of biological and psychological factors with IBD-related fatigue.Consecutive clinically inactive IBD outpatients receiving immunosuppressants or biological drugs were enrolled between January and December 2013. Patients completed a Fatigue score (FACIT-F), various psychological, quality of life (IBDQ-9), and IBD activity scores. Biological parameters were assessed, including levels of interleukins (IL-5, IL-8 and IL-12) and micronutrients.We prospectively recruited 202 patients (28% ulcerative colitis and 72% Crohn's disease) for the study. Fatigue measured by FACIT-F score was prevalent in the studied population (54%, 96/177) and higher than in the general population. In the univariate analysis no relation was found between IL levels or micronutrient deficiencies and fatigue. Fatigue was significantly related to female sex, Crohn's disease, joint disorders, body mass index (BMI), psychological tests, thiopurine use, and anti-TNF treatment. All these variables were included in the multivariate analysis. Female sex (OR: 4.8), high BMI (OR:1.2) and higher depression rates (OR:1.2) were predictors of increased fatigue. High IBDQ-9 score (OR: 0.82) was significantly related to lower degrees of fatigue.Fatigue was prevalent in quiescent IBD patients with moderate-to-severe disease. It was associated with high levels of depression, low quality of life, and female sex. No association was found with the other biological and psychological factors evaluated.
Project description:In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the therapeutic benefit and mucosal healing from specific probiotics may relate to the modulation of dendritic cells (DCs). Herein, we assessed the immunomodulatory effects of four probiotic strains including Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus subtilis natto on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine production and gene expression of signal-transducing receptors in DCs from IBD patients. Human monocyte-derived DCs from IBD patients and healthy controls were exposed to four probiotic strains. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules was assessed and supernatants were analyzed for anti-inflammatory cytokines. The gene expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), IL-12p40 and integrin ?v?8 were also analyzed. CD80 and CD86 were induced by most probiotic strains in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients whereas only B. bifidum induced CD80 and CD86 expression in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. IL-10 and TGF-? production was increased in a dose-independent manner while TLR expression was decreased by all probiotic bacteria except B. bifidum in DCs from UC patients. TLR-4 and TLR-9 expression was significantly downregulated while integrin ß8 was significantly increased in the DCs from CD patients. IL-12p40 expression was only significantly downregulated in DCs from CD patients. Our findings point to the general beneficial effects of probiotics in DC immunomodulation and indicate that probiotic bacteria favorably modulate the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, proinflammatory cytokines and TLRs in DCs from IBD patients.
Project description:Modulation of the gut microbiota through the use of probiotics has been widely used to treat or prevent several intestinal diseases. However, inconsistent results have compromised the efficacy of this approach, especially in severe conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The purpose of our study was to develop a personalized probiotic strategy and assess its efficacy in a murine model of intestinal inflammation. Commensal bacterial strains were isolated from the feces of healthy mice and then administered back to the host as a personalized treatment in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colonic tissues were collected for histological analysis and to investigate inflammatory markers such as Il-1?, Il-6, TGF-?, and Il-10, and the enzyme myeloperoxidase as a neutrophil marker. The group that received the personalized probiotic showed reduced susceptibility to DSS-colitis as compared to a commercial probiotic. This protection was characterized by a lower disease activity index and reduced histopathological damage in the colon. Moreover, the personalized probiotic was more effective in modulating the host immune response, leading to decreased Il-1? and Il-6 and increased TGF-? and Il-10 expression. In conclusion, our study suggests that personalized probiotics may possess an advantage over commercial probiotics in treating dysbiotic-related conditions, possibly because they are derived directly from the host's own microbiota.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses on the effects of probiotics on specific gastrointestinal diseases have generally shown positive effects on disease prevention and treatment; however, the relative efficacy of probiotic use for treatment and prevention across different gastrointestinal diseases, with differing etiology and mechanisms of action, has not been addressed. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included randomized controlled trials in humans that used a specified probiotic in the treatment or prevention of Pouchitis, Infectious diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile Disease, Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea, Traveler's Diarrhea, or Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Random effects models were used to evaluate efficacy as pooled relative risks across the eight diseases as well as across probiotic species, single vs. multiple species, patient ages, dosages, and length of treatment. Probiotics had a positive significant effect across all eight gastrointestinal diseases with a relative risk of 0.58 (95% (CI) 0.51-0.65). Six of the eight diseases: Pouchitis, Infectious diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile Disease, and Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea, showed positive significant effects. Traveler's Diarrhea and Necrotizing Enterocolitis did not show significant effects of probiotcs. Of the 11 species and species mixtures, all showed positive significant effects except for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacterium infantis. Across all diseases and probiotic species, positive significant effects of probiotics were observed for all age groups, single vs. multiple species, and treatment lengths. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases. Efficacy was not observed for Traveler's Diarrhea or Necrotizing Enterocolitis or for the probiotic species L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and B. infantis. When choosing to use probiotics in the treatment or prevention of gastrointestinal disease, the type of disease and probiotic species (strain) are the most important factors to take into consideration.