Encoding asymmetry of the N-glycosylation motif facilitates glycoprotein evolution.
ABSTRACT: Protein N-glycosylation is found in all domains of life and has a conserved role in glycoprotein folding and stability. In animals, glycoproteins transit through the Golgi where the N-glycans are trimmed and rebuilt with sequences that bind lectins, an innovation that greatly increases structural diversity and redundancy of glycoprotein-lectin interaction at the cell surface. Here we ask whether the natural tension between increasing diversity (glycan-protein interactions) and site multiplicity (backup and status quo) might be revealed by a phylogenic examination of glycoproteins and NXS/T(X ? P) N-glycosylation sites. Site loss is more likely by mutation at Asn encoded by two adenosine (A)-rich codons, while site gain is more probable by generating Ser or Thr downstream of an existing Asn. Thus mutations produce sites at novel positions more frequently than the reversal of recently lost sites, and therefore more paths though sequence space are made available to natural selection. An intra-species comparison of secretory and cytosolic proteins revealed a departure from equilibrium in sequences one-mutation-away from NXS/T and in (A) content, indicating strong selective pressures and exploration of N-glycosylation positions during vertebrate evolution. Furthermore, secretory proteins have evolved at rates proportional to N-glycosylation site number, indicating adaptive interactions between the N-glycans and underlying protein. Given the topology of the genetic code, mutation of (A) is more often nonsynonomous, and Lys, another target of many PTMs, is also encoded by two (A)-rich codons. An examination of acetyl-Lys sites in proteins indicated similar evolutionary dynamics, consistent with asymmetry of the target and recognition portions of modified sites. Our results suggest that encoding asymmetry is an ancient mechanism of evolvability that increases diversity and experimentation with PTM site positions. Strong selective pressures on PTMs may have contributed to the A+T ? G+C shift in genome-wide nucleotide composition during metazoan radiation.
Project description:Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation is essential for efficient protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and anterograde trafficking through the secretory pathway. N-Glycans are attached to nascent polypeptides at consensus sites, N-X-T/S (X ? P), by one of two enzymatic isoforms of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), STT3A or STT3B. Here, we examined the effect of the consensus site X and hydroxyl residue on the distributions of co- and post-translational N-glycosylation of a type I transmembrane glycopeptide scaffold. Using rapid radioactive pulse-chase experiments to resolve co-translational (STT3A) and post-translational (STT3B) events, we determined that NXS consensus sites containing large hydrophobic and negatively charged middle residues are frequently skipped by STT3A during protein translation. Post-translational modification of the cotranslationally skipped sites by STT3B was similarly hindered by the middle X residue, resulting in hypoglycosylation of NXS sites containing large hydrophobic and negatively charged side chains. In contrast, NXT consensus sites (barring NWT) were efficiently modified by the cotranslational machinery, reducing STT3B's role in modifying consensus sites skipped during protein translation. A strong correlation between cotranslational N-glycosylation efficiency and the rate of post-translational N-glycosylation was determined, showing that the OST STT3A and STT3B isoforms are similarly influenced by the hydroxyl and middle X consensus site residues. Substituting various middle X residues into an OST eubacterial homologous structure revealed that small and polar consensus site X residues fit well in the peptide binding site whereas large hydrophobic and negatively charged residues were harder to accommodate, indicating conserved enzymatic mechanisms for the mammalian OST isoforms.
Project description:The tumor microenvironment and proinflammatory signals significantly alter glycosylation of cell-surface proteins on endothelial cells. By altering the N-glycosylation machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, proinflammatory cytokines promote the modification of endothelial glycoproteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) with sialic acid-capped N-glycans. VEGFR2 is a highly N-glycosylated receptor tyrosine kinase involved in pro-angiogenic signaling in physiological and pathological contexts, including cancer. Here, using glycoside hydrolase and kinase assays and immunoprecipitation and MS-based analyses, we demonstrate that N-linked glycans at the Asn-247 site in VEGFR2 hinder VEGF ligand-mediated receptor activation and signaling in endothelial cells. We provide evidence that cell surface-associated VEGFR2 displays sialylated N-glycans at Asn-247 and, in contrast, that the nearby sites Asn-145 and Asn-160 contain lower levels of sialylated N-glycans and higher levels of high-mannose N-glycans, respectively. Furthermore, we report that VEGFR2 Asn-247-linked glycans capped with sialic acid oppose ligand-mediated VEGFR2 activation, whereas the uncapped asialo-glycans favor activation of this receptor. We propose that N-glycosylation, specifically the capping of N-glycans at Asn-247 by sialic acid, tunes ligand-dependent activation and signaling of VEGFR2 in endothelial cells.
Project description:O-Glycosylation of collagen is a unique type of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) involving the attachment of galactose (Gal) or glucose-galactose (Glc-Gal) moieties to hydroxylysine (HyK). Also, hydroxyproline (HyP) result from the posttranslational hydroxylation of some proline residues in collagen. Here, LC-MS/MS was effectively employed to identify 23 O-glycosylation sites and a large number of HyP residues associated with bovine type II collagen ?-1 chain (CO2A1). The modifications of the 23 O-glycosylation sites varied qualitatively and quantitatively. Both Gal and Glc-Gal moieties occupied 22 of the identified glycosylation sites, while K773 was observed as unmodified. A large number of HyP residues at Yaa positions of Gly-Xaa-Yaa motif were detected. HyP residues at Xaa positions of Gly-HyP-HyP, Gly-HyP-Ala, and Gly-HyP-Val motifs were also observed. Notably, HyP residue of Gly-HyP-Gln motif was detected, which has not been previously reported. Moreover, the deamidation of 8 Asn residues was identified, of which 2 Asp residues were observed at different retention times because of isomerization (Asp vs isoAsp). Partial macroheterogeneities of some CO2A1 glycosylation sites were revealed by LC-MS/MS analysis. ETD experiments revealed partial macroheterogeneities associated with K299-K308, K452-K464, K464-K470, and K857-K884 glycosylation sites. Semiquantitative data suggest that the glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues is site-specific.
Project description:Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.
Project description:N-Glycosylation plays a fundamental role in many biological processes. Human diamine oxidase (hDAO), required for histamine catabolism, has multiple N-glycosylation sites, but their roles, for example in DAO secretion, are unclear. We recently reported that the N-glycosylation sites Asn-168, Asn-538, and Asn-745 in recombinant hDAO (rhDAO) carry complex-type glycans, whereas Asn-110 carries only mammalian-atypical oligomannosidic glycans. Here, we show that Asn-110 in native hDAO from amniotic fluid and Caco-2 cells, DAO from porcine kidneys, and rhDAO produced in two different HEK293 cell lines is also consistently occupied by oligomannosidic glycans. Glycans at Asn-168 were predominantly sialylated with bi- to tetra-antennary branches, and Asn-538 and Asn-745 had similar complex-type glycans with some tissue- and cell line-specific variations. The related copper-containing amine oxidase human vascular adhesion protein-1 also exclusively displayed high-mannose glycosylation at Asn-137. X-ray structures revealed that the residues adjacent to Asn-110 and Asn-137 form a highly conserved hydrophobic cleft interacting with the core trisaccharide. Asn-110 replacement with Gln completely abrogated rhDAO secretion and caused retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations of Asn-168, Asn-538, and Asn-745 reduced rhDAO secretion by 13, 71, and 32%, respectively. Asn-538/745 double and Asn-168/538/745 triple substitutions reduced rhDAO secretion by 85 and 94%. Because of their locations in the DAO structure, Asn-538 and Asn-745 glycosylations might be important for efficient DAO dimer formation. These functional results are reflected in the high evolutionary conservation of all four glycosylation sites. Human DAO is abundant only in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and placenta, and glycosylation seems essential for reaching high enzyme expression levels in these tissues.
Project description:Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is the major antibody in teleost fish and plays an important role in humoral adaptive immunity. The N-linked carbohydrates presenting on IgM have been well documented in higher vertebrates, but little is known regarding site-specific N-glycan characteristics in teleost IgM. In order to characterize these site-specific N-glycans, we conducted the first study of the N-glycans of each glycosylation site of the grass carp serum IgM. Among the four glycosylation sites, the Asn-262, Asn-303, and Asn-426 residues were efficiently glycosylated, while Asn-565 at the C-terminal tailpiece was incompletely occupied. A striking decrease in the level of occupancy at the Asn-565 glycosite was observed in dimeric IgM compared to that in monomeric IgM, and no glycan occupancy of Asn-565 was observed in tetrameric IgM. Glycopeptide analysis with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed mainly complex-type glycans with substantial heterogeneity, with neutral; monosialyl-, disialyl- and trisialylated; and fucosyl-and non-fucosyl-oligosaccharides conjugated to grass carp serum IgM. Glycan variation at a single site was greatest at the Asn-262 glycosite. Unlike IgMs in other species, only traces of complex-type and no high-mannose glycans were found at the Asn-565 glycosite. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization analysis of released glycans confirmed the overwhelming majority of carbohydrates were of the complex-type. These results indicate that grass carp serum IgM exhibits unique N-glycan features and highly processed oligosaccharides attached to individual glycosites.
Project description:The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the major substrate for the polysialyltransferases (polySTs), ST8SiaII/STX and ST8SiaIV/PST. The polysialylation of NCAM N-glycans decreases cell adhesion and alters signaling. Previous work demonstrated that the first fibronectin type III repeat (FN1) of NCAM is required for polyST recognition and the polysialylation of the N-glycans on the adjacent Ig5 domain. In this work, we highlight the importance of an FN1 acidic patch in polyST recognition and also reveal that the polySTs are required to interact with sequences in the Ig5 domain for polysialylation to occur. We find that features of the Ig5 domain of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM) are responsible for its lack of polysialylation. Specifically, two basic OCAM Ig5 residues (Lys and Arg) found near asparagines equivalent to those carrying the polysialylated N-glycans in NCAM substantially decrease or eliminate polysialylation when used to replace the smaller and more neutral residues (Ser and Asn) in analogous positions in NCAM Ig5. This decrease in polysialylation does not reflect altered glycosylation but instead is correlated with a decrease in polyST-NCAM binding. In addition, inserting non-conserved OCAM sequences into NCAM Ig5, including an "extra" N-glycosylation site, decreases or completely blocks NCAM polysialylation. Taken together, these results indicate that the polySTs not only recognize an acidic patch in the FN1 domain of NCAM but also must contact sequences in the Ig5 domain for polysialylation of Ig5 N-glycans to occur.
Project description:The tremendous structural heterogeneity of N-glycosylation of glycoproteins poses a great challenge for deciphering the biological functions of specific glycoforms and for developing protein-based therapeutics. We have previously reported a chemoenzymatic glycan remodeling method for producing homogeneous glycoforms of N-glycoproteins including intact antibodies, which consist of endoglycosidase-catalyzed deglycosylation and novel glycosynthase-catalyzed transglycosylation, but its application to complex glycoproteins carrying multiple N-glycans remains to be examined. We report here site-selective chemoenzymatic glycosylation remodeling of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) that contains three N-glycans. We found that the generation of a HEK293S GnT I knockout FUT8 overexpressing cell line enabled the production of an unusual Man5GlcNAc2Fuc glycoform, which could be converted to the core-fucosylated GlcNAc-EPO intermediate acceptor for enzymatic transglycosylation. With this acceptor, homogeneous sialylated glycoform or azide-tagged glycoform were produced using the glycosynthase (EndoF3-D165A) catalyzed transglycosylation. Interestingly, a remarkable site-selectivity was observed in the transglycosylation reactions, leading to the introduction of two N-glycans selectively at the Asn-38 and Asn-83 sites, which was confirmed by a detailed MS/MS analysis of the transglycosylation product. Finally, a different N-glycan was attached at the third (Asn-24) site by pushing the enzymatic transglycosylation with a distinct glycan oxazoline, achieving the site-selective glycosylation modification of the protein. This study represents the first example of site-selective chemoenzymatic glycan engineering of complex glycoproteins carrying multiple N-glycans.
Project description:?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are heteropentameric glycoproteins. Based on consensus sequences, the GABA(A) receptor ?2 subunit contains three potential N-linked glycosylation sites, Asn-32, Asn-104, and Asn-173. Homology modeling indicates that Asn-32 and Asn-104 are located before the ?1 helix and in loop L3, respectively, near the top of the subunit-subunit interface on the minus side, and that Asn-173 is located in the Cys-loop near the bottom of the subunit N-terminal domain. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that all predicted ?2 subunit glycosylation sites were glycosylated in transfected HEK293T cells. Glycosylation of each site, however, produced specific changes in ?1?2 receptor surface expression and function. Although glycosylation of Asn-173 in the Cys-loop was important for stability of ?2 subunits when expressed alone, results obtained with flow cytometry, brefeldin A treatment, and endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase H digestion suggested that glycosylation of Asn-104 was required for efficient ?1?2 receptor assembly and/or stability in the endoplasmic reticulum. Patch clamp recording revealed that mutation of each site to prevent glycosylation decreased peak ?1?2 receptor current amplitudes and altered the gating properties of ?1?2 receptor channels by reducing mean open time due to a reduction in the proportion of long open states. In addition to functional heterogeneity, endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase H digestion and glycomic profiling revealed that surface ?2 subunit N-glycans at Asn-173 were high mannose forms that were different from those of Asn-32 and N104. Using a homology model of the pentameric extracellular domain of ?1?2 channel, we propose mechanisms for regulation of GABA(A) receptors by glycosylation.
Project description:Tryptic glycopeptides were purified from the sialic acid-free variant of ovomucoid, O1, and its CNBr fragments. The amino acid sequences adjacent to the four major sites of carbohydrate (Carb.) attachment were: (1), Phe-Pro-Asn(Carb.)-Ala-Thr-Asp-Lys-Glu-Gly-Lys; (2), Ala-Try-Ser-Ile-Glu-Phe-Gly-Thr-Asn (Carb.)-Ile-Ser-Lys; (3), Glu, Thr-Val-Pro-Met-Asn(Carb.)-cys-Ser; (4), Ser-Ser-Tyr-Ala-Asn (Carb.)-Thr-Thr-Ser-Glu-Asp-Gly-Lys, Glycosylated Asn residues were located at position 10, between residues 49 and 60, and at positions 69 and 75, in the primary sequence. All of these carbohydrate groups contained GlcNAc, Man and Gal in the approximate molar proprotions 5:3:0.5. A further glycopeptide containing His was isolated in low yield, suggesting that some carbohydrate is attached at a fifth site. Two of the carbohydrate-attachment sites (Asn-10 and Asn-75) occur in sequences that show internal homologies. These are presumed to have evolved as a consequence of partial gene duplication. Three of the carbohydrate-attachment sites occur in similar positions to the carbohydrate groups in quail ovomucoid [Laskowski (1976) Protides Biol. Fluids Proc. Colloq. 23, in the press]. Prediction of peptide conformation from the sequence data by the method of Chou & Fasman [(1974) Biochemistry 13, 222-225] indicated that four glycosylated Asn residues in hen ovomucoid are very close to groups of amino acids that occur with high frequency in beta-turns. The possible significance of peptide-chain conformation in the attachment of carbohydrate to glycoproteins is briefly discussed.