Why do patients develop severe pressure ulcers? A retrospective case study.
ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the ways in which the organisational context can influence the development of severe pressure ulcers. Severe pressure ulcers are important indicators of failures in the organisation and delivery of treatment and care. We have a good understanding of patients' risk factors, but a poor understanding of the role played by the organisational context in their development.The study was undertaken in six sites in Yorkshire, England. The settings were sampled in order to maximise diversity, and included patients' own homes, acute hospital medical and surgical wards, a community hospital and a nursing home during a period of respite care.Data were collected about eight individuals who developed severe pressure ulcers, using a retrospective case study design. The data sources included interviews with individuals with severe pressure ulcers, and with staff who had treated and cared for them, and clinical notes.4 accounts indicated that specific actions by clinicians contributed to the development of severe pressure ulcers. Seven of the 8 accounts indicated that they developed in organisational contexts where (1) clinicians failed to listen and respond to the patients' or carers' observations about their risks or the quality of their treatment and care, (2) clinicians failed to recognise and respond to clear signs that a patient had a pressure ulcer or was at risk of developing one and (3) services were not effectively coordinated.Patient accounts could only be partially explained in terms of specific events or sequences of events. The findings support the conclusion that there was general acceptance of suboptimal clinical practices in 7 of the 8 contexts where patients developed severe pressure ulcers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We need to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between family carers' emotional relationships with care-recipients and carers use of support services. This study assessed carer's expectations and perceptions of adult day respite services and their commitment to using services. METHODS: A mixed-method case study approach was used with psychological contract providing a conceptual framework. Data collection was situated within an organisational case study, and the total population of carers from the organisation's day respite service were approached. Fifty respondents provided quantitative and qualitative data through an interview survey. The conceptual framework was expanded to include Maslow's hierarchy of needs during analysis. RESULTS: Carers prioritised benefits for and experiences of care-recipients when making day respite decisions. Respondents had high levels of trust in the service and perceived that the major benefits for care-recipients were around social interaction and meaningful activity with resultant improved well-being. Carers wanted day respite experiences to include all levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs from the provision of physiological care and safety through to the higher levels of belongingness, love and esteem. CONCLUSION: The study suggests carers need to trust that care-recipients will have quality experiences at day respite. This study was intended as a preliminary stage for further research and while not generalizable it does highlight key considerations in carers' use of day respite services.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Care.data was a 2013 UK government initiative to extract patient data from general practices in England to form a centralised whole-population database for service planning and health research. After a public outcry, the scheme was postponed and cancelled. Public views of care.data have previously been analysed; this study aimed to understand contemporary general practitioners' (GPs) views of the scheme, which may have been influential in its downfall. DESIGN:Systematic search of media articles, followed by media content analysis. SETTING:UK-based mainstream and GP-facing media in 2013 and 2014. PARTICIPANTS:Articles were eligible if they focused on care.data, and GPs were quoted, authored the article, or if articles were written for a majority GP audience. INTERVENTIONS:N/A. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Themes which explained GPs' reactions to care.data and which could explain support for or opposition to the scheme. RESULTS:162 media articles met inclusion criteria and were drawn from newspapers, news websites and GP-facing websites. GPs recognised care.data's potential value for research and improving care, but had grave concerns about the scheme's implementation. These centred the lack of safeguards and purpose around the scheme which meant patients were not able to make informed decisions about opt-out. GPs perceived they were poorly resourced to meet competing demands to both share patients' data and protect confidentiality. They distrusted the government's likely uses of the data and perceived a risk of patient reidentification if the data were sold onto commercial entities. CONCLUSIONS:Findings show specific concerns which GPs had about care.data which led to the withdrawal of support. Future NHS patient data-sharing schemes should engage with GPs and other clinicians as key stakeholders from the earliest moments of planning, so that their views and needs are incorporated into the design of such schemes.
Project description:Background: Although the addition of patients in the process of shared decision-making can improve their recovery, there is a lack of knowledge about patients' and caregivers' perceptions on the management of pressure ulcers at home. Objectives: To explore the conceptualisations of patients with pressure ulcers and their caregivers on the barriers and facilitators for their involvement in home care and in the process of shared decision-making regarding the care provided. Methods: A qualitative study based on grounded theory in a theoretical sample of 10 patients with pressure ulcers and 15 main caregivers from the health district of Puertollano (Spain). The data were based on semi-structured interviews, analysed using a coding process and the constant comparative method. Results: According to the participants, personal motivation and the involvement of primary care professionals facilitated their participation in the process of shared decision-making and generated feelings of positivity. In contrast, older age, having disabling pathologies, a low educational level or health paternalism were perceived as barriers for their involvement. Conclusions: A non-paternalistic care model and personal motivation facilitate the process of shared decision-making in the care of people with pressure ulcers. Further studies are required to deepen the understanding of this phenomenon and examine the barriers and facilitators for the involvement of patients and caregivers in the management of these injuries in other contexts.
Project description:We know that patient care can be improved by implementing evidence-based innovations and applying research findings linked to good practice. Successfully implementing innovations in complex organisations, such as the UK's National Health Service (NHS), is often challenging as multiple contextual dynamics mediate the process. Research studies have explored the challenges of introducing innovations into healthcare settings and have contributed to a better understanding of why potentially useful innovations are not always implemented in practice, even if backed by strong evidence. Mediating factors include health policy and health system influences, organisational factors, and individual and professional attitudes, including decision makers' perceptions of innovation evidence. There has been limited research on how different forms of evidence are accessed and utilised by organisational decision makers during innovation adoption. We also know little about how diverse healthcare professionals (clinicians, administrators) make sense of evidence and how this collective sensemaking mediates the uptake of innovations.The study will involve nine comparative case study sites of acute care organisations grouped into three regional clusters across England. Each of the purposefully selected sites represents a variety of trust types and organisational contexts. We will use qualitative methods, in-depth interviews, observation of key meetings, and systematic analysis of relevant secondary data to understand the rationale and challenges involved in sourcing and utilising innovation evidence in the empirical setting of infection prevention and control. We will use theories of innovation adoption and sensemaking in organisations to interpret the data. The research will provide lessons for the uptake and continuous use of innovations in the English and international health systems.Unlike most innovation studies, which involve single-level analysis, our study will explore the innovation-adoption process at multiple embedded levels: micro (individual), meso (organisational), and macro (interorganisational). By comparing and contrasting across the nine sites, each with different organisational contexts, local networks, leadership styles, and different innovations considered for adoption, the findings of the study will have wide relevance. The research will produce actionable findings responding to the political and economic need for healthcare organisations to be innovation-ready.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Pressure ulcers represent a major current health problem and produce an important economic impact on the healthcare system. Most of studies to prevent pressure ulcers have been carried out in hospital contexts, with respect to the use of hyperoxygenated fatty acids and to date, no studies have specifically examined the use of olive oil-based substances. METHODS AND DESIGN:Main objective: To assess the effectiveness of the use of olive oil, comparing it with hyperoxygenated fatty acids, for immobilised home-care patients at risk of suffering pressure ulcers. Design: Non-inferiority, triple-blind, parallel, multicentre, randomised clinical trial. Scope: Population attending Primary Healthcare Centres in Andalusia (Spain). Sample: 831 immobilised patients at risk of suffering pressure ulcers. RESULTS:The follow-up period was 16 weeks. Groups were similar after randomization. In the per protocol analysis, none of the body areas evaluated presented risk differences for pressure ulcers incidence that exceeded the 10% delta value established. Sacrum: Olive Oil 8 (2.55%) vs HOFA 8 (3.08%), ARR 0.53 (-2.2 to 3.26) Right heel: Olive Oil 4 (1.27%) vs HOFA 5 (1.92)%, ARR0.65 (-1.43 to 2.73). Left heel: Olive Oil 3 (0.96%) vs HOFA 3 (1.15%), ARR0.2 (-1.49 to 1.88). Right trochanter: Olive Oil 0 (0%) vs HOFA 4 (1.54%), ARR1.54 (0.04 to 3.03). Left trochanter: Olive Oil 1 (0.32%) vs HOFA 1 (0.38%), ARR0.07 (-0.91 to 1.04). In the intention to treat analysis the lower limit of the established confidence interval was never exceeded. DISCUSSION:The results obtained confirmed that the use of topical extra-virgin olive oil to prevent PU in the home environment, for immobilised patients at high risk, is not inferior to the use of HOFA. Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism by which olive oil achieves this outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01595347.
Project description:Interface pressure is a key risk factor in the development of pressure ulcers. Visual feedback of continuous interface pressure between the body and support surface could inform clinicians on repositioning strategies and play a key role in an overall strategy for the prevention and management of pressure ulcers.A parallel two-group randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted to study the effect of continuous pressure imaging on reducing interface pressure and on the incidence of pressure ulcers in vulnerable hospital patients. A total of 678 eligible consenting inpatients at risk of pressure ulcer development in a tertiary acute care institution will be randomly allocated to either having the ForeSite PT™ system with the liquid-crystal display monitor turned on to provide visual feedback to the clinicians while also collecting continuous interface pressure data (intervention group) or to having the ForeSite PT™ system with monitor turned off (that is, not providing visual feedback) but still collecting continuous interface pressure data (control group), in a ratio of 1:1. Continuous interface pressure data will be collected in both groups for 3 days (72 h). Data collection will continue until discharge for a subset of approximately 60 patients. The primary outcome will be the differences in the two groups' interface pressure analysis. Interface pressure readings will be collected through hourly samplings of continuous interface pressure recordings. Secondary outcomes will be the differences between the two groups in pressure-related skin and soft tissue changes in areas at risk of pressure ulcer (obtained at baseline within 24 h of admission) and on the third day of the trial or at discharge and perceptions of the intervention by patients and clinicians (obtained on the third day or at discharge).This will be the first randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of visual feedback with continuous interface pressure of vulnerable hospital patients across different care settings, and the association between interface pressure and development of pressure-related skin and soft tissue changes. The results could provide important information to guide clinical practice in the prevention and management of pressure ulcers.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02325388 (date of registration: 24 December 2014).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinical practice improvements based on quality-register data are influenced by multiple factors. Although there is agreement that information from quality registers is valuable for quality improvement, practical ways of organising register use have been notoriously difficult to realise. The present study sought to investigate the mechanisms that lead various clinicians to use quality registers for improvement. METHODS:This research involves studying individuals' decisions in response to a Swedish programme focusing on increasing the use of quality registers. Through a case study, we focused on heart failure care and its corresponding register: the Swedish Heart Failure Register. The empirical data consisted of a purposive sample collected longitudinally by qualitative methods between 2013 and 2015. In total, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out. We used realist evaluation to identify contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes. RESULTS:We identified four contexts - registration, use of output data, governance, and improvement projects - that provide conditions for the initiation of specific mechanisms. Given a professional theoretical perspective, we further showed that mechanisms are based on the logics of either organisational improvement or clinical practice. The two logics offer insights into the ways in which clinicians choose to embrace or reject certain registers' initiatives. CONCLUSIONS:We identified a strong path dependence, as registers have historically been tightly linked to the medical profession's competence. Few new initiatives in the studied programme reach the clinical context. We explain this through the lack of an organisational improvement logic and its corresponding mechanisms in the context of the medical profession. Implementation programmes must understand the logic of clinical practice; that is, be integrated with the ways in which work is carried out in everyday practice. Programmes need to be better at helping core health professionals to reach the highest standards of patient care.
Project description:Infection in severe pressure ulcers can lead to sepsis with a 6-month mortality as high as 68%.Operative records of 142 consecutive operative debridements on 60 patients in a dedicated wound healing inpatient unit were reviewed, from the Wound Electronic Medical Record, for identification of key steps in debridement technique, mortality, unexpected returns, and time to discharge following debridement.The mean age of the patients was 73.1 years, and 45% were men. Most wounds (53%) were located on the hip (ischial or trochanteric); others were on the sacrum (32%) and the heels (14%). The mean initial wound area prior to debridement was 14.0 cm(2), and 83% of debridements were performed on stage IV pressure ulcers. The postoperative hospital stay averaged 4.1 days. Key steps in the technique included (1) exposure of areas of undermining by excising overlying tissue; (2) removal of callus from wound edges; (3) removal of all grossly infected tissue; and (4) obtaining a biopsy of the deep tissue after debridement of all nonviable or infected tissue for culture and pathology to determine the presence of infection, fibrosis, and granulation tissue. There was one death 9 days post-debridement of a sacral ulcer and one unplanned return to the operating room for bleeding 8 days post-debridement.Operative debridement of pressure ulcers is safe, despite the medical co-morbidities in patients with severe pressure ulcers. Proper debridement technique may prevent sepsis and death in patients with multiple co-morbid conditions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The widely established treatment for psychosis is long-term antipsychotic medication. However, many people stop taking this treatment, and request other options. There are also growing concerns about adverse effects, but currently no professional guidelines to support reducing or stopping these drugs. The views and experiences of individual mental health professionals around reducing and stopping antipsychotics are therefore crucial in treatment decisions.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted 7 focus groups with prescribing psychiatrists and other members of community-based statutory mental health services in London. Participants discussed their views about, experiences, and processes of antipsychotic reduction and discontinuation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Participants acknowledged that antipsychotics can have severe adverse effects. They were generally supportive of trying to reduce these drugs to the lowest effective dose, although stopping antipsychotics was less acceptable. Prior experiences of adverse events after reduction or discontinuation meant that both were approached with caution. Reduction was also reported to be hampered by organisational and knowledge barriers. Lack of resources, pressure to discharge, and poor continuity of care were seen as organisational barriers. Knowledge barriers included inadequate evidence about who might be best suited to reduction, and lack of guidance about how this could be done safely. This meant that reduction was often prompted by patients, and sometimes actively discouraged, and stability with maintenance treatment was often favoured.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Concerns about risk and other barriers means that clinicians are often reluctant to implement reduction or discontinuation of antipsychotic medication. In order to increase the treatment options available to service users, more research and guidance on how to minimise the risks of antipsychotic reduction and discontinuation is required to enable clinicians to engage more constructively with service users requests, offering people more choice and control in managing their mental health condition.
Project description:This study investigated whether there are differences in the composition of the cutaneous microbiome of the unaffected skin between patients with pressure ulcers compared with those without pressure ulcers. The cutaneous microbiome of the unaffected skin of 15 patients with sacral pressure ulcers compared to 15 patients without pressure ulcers was analysed. It demonstrated that the inter-individual variation in skin microbiota of patients with pressure ulcers was significantly higher (P?=?0.01). The abundance of 23 species was significantly different with Staphylococcus aureus and unclassified Enterococcus the most abundant species in patients with pressure ulcers. Random Forest models showed that eight species were associated with pressure ulcers occurrence in 81% of the patients. A subset of four species gave the strongest interaction. The presence of unclassified Enterococcus had the highest association with pressure ulcer occurrence. This study is the first to demonstrate that the cutaneous microbiome is altered in patients with pressure ulcers.