HLA mismatches and hematopoietic cell transplantation: structural simulations assess the impact of changes in peptide binding specificity on transplant outcome.
ABSTRACT: The success of hematopoietic cell transplantation from an unrelated donor depends in part on the degree of Human Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) matching between donor and patient. We present a structure-based analysis of HLA mismatching, focusing on individual amino acid mismatches and their effect on peptide binding specificity. Using molecular modeling simulations of HLA-peptide interactions, we find evidence that amino acid mismatches predicted to perturb peptide binding specificity are associated with higher risk of mortality in a large and diverse dataset of patient-donor pairs assembled by the International Histocompatibility Working Group in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation consortium. This analysis may represent a first step toward sequence-based prediction of relative risk for HLA allele mismatches.
Project description:The availability of hematopoietic cell transplantation as curative therapy for blood disorders has been dramatically improved through a better understanding of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) barrier. Although a fully compatible unrelated donor is preferable, transplantation from donors with a limited degree of HLA mismatching is associated with acceptable outcomes in many cases. Research on the limits of HLA mismatching, and the features that define permissible HLA mismatches will continue to enable transplantation to be more broadly available to patients in need.
Project description:There are now more than 25 million volunteer donors registered worldwide for patients in need of a life-saving hematopoietic cell transplant to cure blood disorders. Although a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor remains the preferred stem cell source for transplantation, the use of a donor with limited HLA mismatching may be considered. Significant advances in clinical and basic research have been instrumental in furthering the understanding of donor-recipient HLA mismatches that are better tolerated than other mismatches. An increased appreciation of the role of regulatory region variation that affects the level of HLA expression provides new approaches for the selection of HLA-mismatched donors.
Project description:Single-center studies have previously reported associations of MHC Class I Chain-Related Gene A (MICA) polymorphisms and donor-recipient MICA mismatching with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we investigated the association of MICA polymorphism (MICA-129, MM versus MV versus VV) and MICA mismatches after HCT with 10/10 HLA-matched (n?=?552) or 9/10 (n?=?161) unrelated donors. Included were adult patients with a first unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1999 and 2011. Our results showed that neither MICA mismatch nor MICA-129 polymorphism were associated with any transplantation outcome (P?<?.01), with the exception of a higher relapse in recipients of MICA-mismatched HLA 10/10 donors (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; P?=?.003). There was a suggestion of association between MICA mismatches and a higher risk of acute GVHD grades II to IV (HR, 1.4; P?=?.013) There were no significant interactions between MICA mismatches and HLA matching (9/10 versus 10/10). In conclusion, the findings in this cohort did not confirm prior studies reporting that MICA polymorphism and MICA mismatches were associated with HCT outcomes.
Project description:The International Histocompatibility Working Group is a collaborative international effort to understand the HLA and non-HLA genetics of the transplantation barrier. The Working Group is comprised of experts in the fields of histocompatibility and immunogenetics, hematopoietic cell transplantation and outcomes research. Data for 25 855 unrelated donor transplants were submitted in support of research studies for the 16th International Histocompatibility Workshop. Active investigation is in progress in seven key areas: the impact of HLA matching, role of race and ethnicity, identification of permissible HLA mismatches, haplotype-associated determinants, minor histocompatibility antigens, immune response genes and KIR genetics. New hypotheses for the 16th workshop were developed for immunogenetic studies in cord blood and haploidentical-related donor transplantation.
Project description:Life-threatening risks associated with HLA-mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation limit its general application for the treatment of blood diseases. The increased risks might be explained by undetected genetic variation within the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We retrospectively assessed each of 1108 MHC region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2628 patients and their HLA-mismatched unrelated donors to determine whether SNPs are associated with the risk of mortality, disease-free survival, transplant-related mortality, relapse, and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Multivariate analysis adjusted for HLA mismatching and nongenetic variables associated with each clinical end point. Twelve SNPs were identified as transplantation determinants. SNP-associated risks were conferred by either patient or donor SNP genotype or by patient-donor SNP mismatching. Risks after transplantation increased with increasing numbers of unfavorable SNPs. SNPs that influenced acute GVHD were independent of those that affected risk of chronic GVHD and relapse. HLA haplotypes differed with respect to haplotype content of (un)favorable SNPs. Outcome after HLA-mismatched unrelated donor transplantation is influenced by MHC region variation that is undetected with conventional HLA typing. Knowledge of the SNP content of HLA haplotypes provides a means to estimate risks prior to transplantation and to lower complications through judicious selection of donors with favorable MHC genetics.
Project description:It remains controversial that the impacts of individual HLA locus mismatches on clinical outcomes of patients receiving unrelated-donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), as compared to HLA allele matched controls. We conducted a meta-analysis to address these issues. Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library) were searched to select eligible studies. All donor-recipient pairs were high-resolution typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, DQB1 and DPB1 loci. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted and pooled using a random-effects model. A total of 36 studies were included, with 100,072 patients receiving HCT. Surprisingly, we found that HLA-DQB1 locus mismatches had no significantly increased risk of multiple outcomes including acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), overall mortality and disease relapse (HR, 1.07; P = .153; HR, 1.07; P = .271; HR, 1.09; P = .230; HR, 1.07; P = .142 and HR, 1.02; P = .806, respectively). Mismatched HLA-DPB1 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of disease relapse (HR, 0.74; P < .001) but not with increased risks of transplant-related mortality (TRM) and overall mortality (HR, 1.09; P = .591; I2 = 74.2% and HR, 1.03; P = .460, respectively). In conclusion, HLA-DQB1 locus mismatches is a permissive mismatching. HLA-DPB1 locus mismatches significantly protect against leukemia relapse. Refining effects of individual HLA locus mismatches contributes to predicting prognosis of patients receiving unrelated donor HCT.
Project description:We investigated the impact of donor-recipient HLA-DPB1 matching on outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with in vivo T-cell depletion using antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for patients with hematological malignancies. All donor-recipient pairs had high-resolution typing for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DRB3/4/5 and were matched at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. HLA-DPB1 mismatches were categorized by immunogenicity of the DPB1 matching using the DPB T-cell epitope tool. Of 1004 donor-recipient pairs, 210 (21%) were DPB1 matched, 443 (44%) had permissive mismatches, 184 (18%) had nonpermissive mismatches, in graft-versus-host (GVH) direction, and 167 (17%) had nonpermissive mismatches in host-versus-graft (HVG) direction. Compared with HLA-DPB1 permissive mismatched pairs, nonpermissive GVH mismatched pairs had the highest risk for grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.4; P = .01) whereas matched pairs had the lowest risk (HR, 0.5; P < .001). Grade III to IV aGVHD was only increased with HLA-DPB1 nonpermissive GVH mismatched pairs (HR, 2.3; P = .005). The risk for disease progression was lower with any HLA-DPB1 mismatches, permissive or nonpermissive. However, the favorable prognosis of HLA-DPB1 mismatches on disease progression was observed only in peripheral blood stem cell recipients who were in the intermediate-risk group by the Disease Risk Index (HR, 0.4; P = .001) but no other risk groups. Our results suggest avoidance of nonpermissive GVH HLA-DPB1 mismatches for lowering the risk for grade II to IV and III to IV aGVHD. Permissive or nonpermissive HVG HLA-DPB1 mismatches may be preferred over HLA-DPB1 matches in the intermediate-risk patients to decrease the risk for disease progression.
Project description:A single mismatch in highly expressed HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci (HEL) is associated with worse outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, while less is known about the cumulative impact of mismatches in the lesser expressed HLA loci DRB3/4/5, DQ, and DP (LEL). We studied whether accumulation of LEL mismatches is associated with deleterious effects in 3853 unrelated donor transplants stratified according to number of matches in the HEL. In the 8/8 matched HEL group, LEL mismatches were not associated with any adverse outcome. Mismatches at HLA-DRB1 were associated with occurrence of multiple LEL mismatches. In the 7/8 HEL group, patients with 3 or more LEL mismatches scored in the graft-versus-host vector had a significantly higher risk of mortality (1.45 and 1.43) and transplant-related mortality (1.68 and 1.54) than the subgroups with 0 or 1 LEL mismatches. No single LEL locus had a more pronounced effect on clinical outcome. Three or more LEL mismatches are associated with lower survival after 7/8 HEL matched transplantation. Prospective evaluation of matching for HLA-DRB3/4/5, -DQ, and -DP loci is warranted to reduce posttransplant risks in donor-recipient pairs matched for 7/8 HEL.
Project description:HLA-C locus mismatches (MMs) are the most frequent class I disparities in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and have a detrimental impact on clinical outcome. Recently, a few retrospective clinical studies have reported some variability in the immunogenicity of HLA-C incompatibilities. To get better insight into presumably permissive HLA-C MMs, we have developed a one-way in vitro mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay allowing to quantify activated CD56-CD137+CD8+ lymphocytes in HLA-C incompatible combinations. T cell-mediated alloresponses were correlated with genetic markers such as HLA-C mRNA expression and the number of amino acid (aa) MMs in the ?1/?2 domains (peptide-binding region). Because of the high rate of HLA-DPB1 incompatibilities in HLA-A-, B-, C-, DRB1-, and DQB1-matched unrelated HSCT patient/donor pairs, the impact of HLA-DPB1 mismatching, a potential bystander of CD4+ T cell activation, was also considered. Heterogeneous alloresponses were measured in 63 HLA-C-mismatched pairs with a positive assay in 52% of the combinations (2.3-18.6% activated CTLs), representing 24 different HLA-A~B~DRB1~DQB1 haplotypes. There was no correlation between measured alloresponses and mRNA expression of the mismatched HLA-C alleles. The HLA-C*03:03/03:04 MM did not induce any positive alloresponse in five MLRs. We also identified HLA-C*02:02 and HLA-C*06:02 as mismatched alleles with lower immunogenicity, and HLA-C*14:02 as a more immunogenic MM. A difference of at least 10 aa residues known to impact peptide/T cell receptor (TCR) binding and a bystander HLA-DPB1 incompatibility had a significant impact on CTL alloreactivity (p?=?0.021). The same HLA-C MM, when recognized by two different responders with the same HLA haplotypes, was recognized differently, emphasizing the role of the T-cell repertoire of responding cells. In conclusion, mismatched HLA-C alleles differing by 10 or more aas in the peptide/TCR-binding region, when occurring together with HLA-DPB1 incompatibilities, should be considered as high-risk MMs in unrelated HSCT.
Project description:The association of HLA mismatching with kidney allograft survival has been well established. We examined whether amino acid (AA) mismatches (MMs) at the antigen recognition site of HLA molecules represent independent and incremental risk factors for kidney graft failure (GF) beyond those MMs assessed at the antigenic (2-digit) specificity.Data on 240 024 kidney transplants performed between 1987 and 2009 were obtained from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. We imputed HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 alleles and corresponding AA polymorphisms from antigenic specificity through the application of statistical and population genetics inferences. GF risk was evaluated using Cox proportional-hazards regression models adjusted for covariates including patient and donor risk factors and HLA antigen MMs.We show that estimated AA MMs at particular positions in the peptide-binding pockets of HLA-DRB1 molecule account for a significant incremental risk that was independent of the well-known association of HLA antigen MMs with graft survival. A statistically significant linear relationship between the estimated number of AA MMs and risk of GF was observed for HLA-DRB1 in deceased donor and living donor transplants. This relationship was strongest during the first 12 months after transplantation (hazard ratio, 1.30 per 15 DRB1 AA MM; P < 0.0001).This study shows that independent of the well-known association of HLA antigen (2-digit specificity) MMs with kidney graft survival, estimated AA MMs at peptide-binding sites of the HLA-DRB1 molecule account for an important incremental risk of GF.