Sonoporation increases therapeutic efficacy of inducible and constitutive BMP2/7 in vivo gene delivery.
ABSTRACT: An ideal novel treatment for bone defects should provide regeneration without autologous or allogenous grafting, exogenous cells, growth factors, or biomaterials while ensuring spatial and temporal control as well as safety. Therefore, a novel osteoinductive nonviral in vivo gene therapy approach using sonoporation was investigated in ectopic and orthotopic models. Constitutive or regulated, doxycycline-inducible, bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7 coexpression plasmids were repeatedly applied for 5 days. Ectopic and orthotopic gene transfer efficacy was monitored by coapplication of a luciferase plasmid and bioluminescence imaging. Orthotopic plasmid DNA distribution was investigated using a novel plasmid-labeling method. Luciferase imaging demonstrated an increased trend (61% vs. 100%) of gene transfer efficacy, and micro-computed tomography evaluation showed significantly enhanced frequency of ectopic bone formation for sonoporation compared with passive gene delivery (46% vs. 100%) dependent on applied ultrasound power. Bone formation by the inducible system (83%) was stringently controlled by doxycycline in vivo, and no ectopic bone formation was observed without induction or with passive gene transfer without sonoporation. Orthotopic evaluation in a rat femur segmental defect model demonstrated an increased trend of gene transfer efficacy using sonoporation. Investigation of DNA distribution demonstrated extensive binding of plasmid DNA to bone tissue. Sonoporated animals displayed a potentially increased union rate (33%) without extensive callus formation or heterotopic ossification. We conclude that sonoporation of BMP2/7 coexpression plasmids is a feasible, minimally invasive method for osteoinduction and that improvement of bone regeneration by sonoporative gene delivery is superior to passive gene delivery.
Project description:In this study, we compared gene transfer efficiency and host response to ultrasound-assisted, nonviral gene transfer with a conventional plasmid and a minicircle vector in the submandibular salivary glands of mice. Initially, we looked at gene transfer efficiency with equimolar amounts of the plasmid and minicircle vectors, corroborating an earlier report showing that minicircle is more efficient in the context of a physical method of gene transfer. We then sought to characterize the physiological response of the salivary gland to exogenous gene transfer using global proteomic profiling. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that sonoporation alone, without a gene transfer vector present, had virtually no effect on the salivary gland proteome. However, when a plasmid vector was used, we observed profound perturbations of the salivary gland proteome that compared in magnitude to that seen in a previous report after high doses of AAV. Finally, we found that gene transfer with a minicircle induces only minor proteomic alterations that were similar to sonoporation alone. Using mass spectrometry, we assigned protein IDs to 218 gel spots that differed between plasmid and minicircle. Bioinformatic analysis of these proteins demonstrated convergence on 68 known protein interaction pathways, most notably those associated with innate immunity, cellular stress, and morphogenesis.
Project description:Sonoporation can deliver agents to target local organs by systemic administration, while decreasing the associated risk of adverse effects. Sonoporation has been used for a variety of materials and in a variety of organs. Herein, we demonstrated that local sonoporation to the kidney can offer highly efficient transfer of oligonucleotides, which were systemically administrated to the tubular epithelium with high specificity. Ultrasonic wave irradiation to the kidney collapsed the microbubbles and transiently affected the glomerular filtration barrier and increased glomerular permeability. Oligonucleotides were passed through the barrier all at once and were absorbed throughout the tubular epithelium. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), which plays a central role in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, was targeted using small interfering RNA (siRNA) with renal sonoporation in a murine model. The reduction of TNF? expression after single gene transfer significantly inhibited the expression of kidney injury markers, suggesting that systemic administration of siRNA under temporary and local sonoporation could be applicable in the clinical setting of ischemic acute kidney injury.
Project description:Bone tissue engineering shows good prospects for mandibular reconstruction. In recent studies, prefabricated tissue-engineered bone (PTEB) by recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs) applied in vivo has found to be an effective alternative for autologous bone grafts. However, the optimal time to transfer PTEB for mandibular reconstruction is still not elucidated. Thus, here in an animal experiment of rhesus monkey, the suitable transferring time for PTEB to reconstruct mandibular defects was evaluated by 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT, and its value in monitoring orthotopic rhBMP-2 implants for mandibular reconstruction was also evaluated. The result of SPECT/CT showed higher 99mTc-MDP uptake, indicating osteoinductivity, in rhBMP-2 incorporated demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) and coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA) implants than those without BMP stimulation. 99mTc-MDP uptake of rhBMP-2 implant peaked at 8 weeks following implantation while CT showed the density of these implants increased after 13 weeks' prefabrication. Histology confirmed that mandibular defects were repaired successfully with PTEB or orthotopically rhBMP-2 incorporated CHA implants, in accordance with SPECT/CT findings. Collectively, data shows 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT is a sensitive and noninvasive tool to monitor osteoinductivity and bone regeneration of PTEB and orthotopic implants. The PTEB achieved peak osteoinductivity and bone density at 8 to 13 weeks following ectopic implantation, which would serve as a recommendable time frame for its transfer to mandibular reconstruction.
Project description:Low-energy shock waves (LESWs) accelerate the healing of a broad range of tissue injuries, including angiogenesis and bone fractures. In cells, LESW irradiations enhance gene expression and protein synthesis. One probable mechanism underlying the enhancements is mechanosensing. Shock waves also can induce sonoporation. Thus, sonoporation is another probable mechanism underlying the enhancements. It remains elusive whether LESWs require sonoporation to evoke cellular responses. An intracellular Ca2+ increase was evoked with LESW irradiations in endothelial cells. The minimum acoustic energy required for sufficient evocation was 1.7 μJ/mm2. With the same acoustic energy, sonoporation, by which calcein and propidium iodide would become permeated, was not observed. It was found that intracellular Ca2+ increases evoked by LESW irradiations do not require sonoporation. In the intracellular Ca2+ increase, actin cytoskeletons and stretch-activated Ca2+ channels were involved; however, microtubules were not. In addition, with Ca2+ influx through the Ca2+ channels, the Ca2+ release through the PLC-IP3-IP3R cascade contributed to the intracellular Ca2+ increase. These results demonstrate that LESW irradiations can evoke cellular responses independently of sonoporation. Rather, LESW irradiations evoke cellular responses through mechanosensing.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Thermophilic, Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria (TGPAs) are generally recalcitrant to chemical and electrotransformation due to their special cell-wall structure and the low intrinsic permeability of plasma membranes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we established for any Gram-positive or thermophiles an ultrasound-based sonoporation as a simple, rapid, and minimally invasive method to genetically transform TGPAs. We showed that by applying a 40 kHz ultrasound frequency over a 20-second exposure, Texas red-conjugated dextran was delivered with 27% efficiency into Thermoanaerobacter sp. X514, a TGPA that can utilize both pentose and hexose for ethanol production. Experiments that delivered plasmids showed that host-cell viability and plasmid DNA integrity were not compromised. Via sonoporation, shuttle vectors pHL015 harboring a jellyfish gfp gene and pIKM2 encoding a Clostridium thermocellum ?-1,4-glucanase gene were delivered into X514 with an efficiency of 6x10(2) transformants/µg of methylated DNA. Delivery into X514 cells was confirmed via detecting the kanamycin-resistance gene for pIKM2, while confirmation of pHL015 was detected by visualization of fluorescence signals of secondary host-cells following a plasmid-rescue experiment. Furthermore, the foreign ?-1,4-glucanase gene was functionally expressed in X514, converting the host into a prototypic thermophilic consolidated bioprocessing organism that is not only ethanologenic but cellulolytic. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we developed an ultrasound-based sonoporation method in TGPAs. This new DNA-delivery method could significantly improve the throughput in developing genetic systems for TGPAs, many of which are of industrial interest yet remain difficult to manipulate genetically.
Project description:Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SS) mediate interbacterial conjugative DNA transfer and transkingdom protein transfer into eukaryotic host cells in bacterial pathogenesis. The sole bacterium known to naturally transfer DNA into eukaryotic host cells via a T4SS is the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Here we demonstrate T4SS-mediated DNA transfer from a human bacterial pathogen into human cells. We show that the zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae can transfer a cryptic plasmid occurring in the bartonellae into the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 via its T4SS VirB/VirD4. DNA transfer into EA.hy926 cells was demonstrated by using a reporter derivative of this Bartonella-specific mobilizable plasmid generated by insertion of a eukaryotic egfp-expression cassette. Fusion of the C-terminal secretion signal of the endogenous VirB/VirD4 protein substrate BepD with the plasmid-encoded DNA-transport protein Mob resulted in a 100-fold increased DNA transfer rate. Expression of the delivered egfp gene in EA.hy926 cells required cell division, suggesting that nuclear envelope breakdown may facilitate passive entry of the transferred ssDNA into the nucleus as prerequisite for complementary strand synthesis and transcription of the egfp gene. Addition of an eukaryotic neomycin phosphotransferase expression cassette to the reporter plasmid facilitated selection of stable transgenic EA.hy926 cell lines that display chromosomal integration of the transferred plasmid DNA. Our data suggest that T4SS-dependent DNA transfer into host cells may occur naturally during human infection with Bartonella and that these chronically infecting pathogens have potential for the engineering of in vivo gene-delivery vectors with applications in DNA vaccination and therapeutic gene therapy.
Project description:Ultrasound application in the presence of microbubbles has shown great potential for non-viral gene transfection via transient disruption of cell membrane (sonoporation). However, improvement of its efficiency has largely relied on empirical approaches without consistent and translatable results. The goal of this study is to develop a rational strategy based on new results obtained using novel experimental techniques and analysis to improve sonoporation gene transfection. In this study, we conducted experiments using targeted microbubbles that were attached to cell membrane to facilitate sonoporation. We quantified the dynamic activities of microbubbles exposed to pulsed ultrasound and the resulting sonoporation outcome, and identified distinct regimes of characteristic microbubble behaviors: stable cavitation, coalescence and translation, and inertial cavitation. We found that inertial cavitation generated the highest rate of membrane poration. By establishing direct correlation of ultrasound-induced bubble activities with intracellular uptake and pore size, we designed a ramped pulse exposure scheme for optimizing microbubble excitation to improve sonoporation gene transfection. We implemented a novel sonoporation gene transfection system using an aqueous two phase system (ATPS) for efficient use of reagents and high throughput operation. Using plasmids coding for the green fluorescence protein (GFP), we achieved a sonoporation transfection efficiency in rate aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) of 6.9%±2.2% (n=9), comparable with lipofection (7.5%±0.8%, n=9). Our results reveal characteristic microbubble behaviors responsible for sonoporation and demonstrated a rational strategy to improve sonoporation gene transfection.
Project description:Background: Microtissues constructed with hydrogels promote cell expansion and specific differentiation by mimicking the microarchitecture of native tissues. However, the suboptimal mechanical property and osteogenic activity of microtissues fabricated by natural polymers need further improvement for bone reconstruction application. Core-shell designed structures are composed of an inner core part and an outer part shell, combining the characteristics of different materials, which improve the mechanical property of microtissues. Methods: A micro-stencil array chip was used to fabricate an open porous core-shell micro-scaffold consisting of gelatin as shell and demineralized bone matrix particles modified with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) as core. Single gelatin micro-scaffold was fabricated as a control. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were seeded on the micro-scaffolds, after which they were dynamic cultured and osteo-induced in mini-capsule bioreactors to fabricate microtissues. The physical characteristics, biocompatibility, osteo-inducing and controlled release ability of the core-shell microtissue were evaluated in vitro respectively. Then microtissues were tested in vivo via ectopic implantation and orthotopic bone implantation in rat model. Results: The Young's modulus of core-shell micro-scaffold was nearly triple that of gelatin micro-scaffold, which means the core-shell micro-scaffolds have better mechanical property. BMSCs rapidly proliferated and retained the highest viability on core-shell microtissues. The improved osteogenic potential of core-shell microtissues was evidenced by the increased calcification based on von kossa staining and osteo-relative gene expression. At 3months after transplantation, core-shell microtissue group formed the highest number of mineralized tissues in rat ectopic subcutaneous model, and displayed the largest amount of new bony tissue deposition in rat orthotopic cranial defect. Conclusion: The novel core-shell microtissue construction strategy developed may become a promising cell delivery platform for bone regeneration.
Project description:Ultrasound (US)-mediated gene delivery has emerged as a promising non-viral method for safe and selective gene delivery. When enhanced by the cavitation of microbubbles (MBs), US exposure can induce sonoporation that transiently increases cell membrane permeability for localized delivery of DNA. The present study explores the effect of generalizable MB customizations on MB facilitation of gene transfer compared to Definity®, a clinically available contrast agent. These modifications are 1) increased MB shell acyl chain length (RN18) for elevated stability and 2) addition of positive charge on MB (RC5K) for greater DNA associability. The MB types were compared in their ability to facilitate transfection of luciferase and GFP reporter plasmid DNA in vitro and in vivo under various conditions of US intensity, MB dosage, and pretreatment MB-DNA incubation. The results indicated that both RN18 and RC5K were more efficient than Definity®, and that the cationic RC5K can induce even greater transgene expression by increasing payload capacity with prior DNA incubation without compromising cell viability. These findings could be applied to enhance MB functions in a wide range of therapeutic US/MB gene and drug delivery approach. With further designs, MB customizations have the potential to advance this technology closer to clinical application.
Project description:Sonoporation is a useful biophysical mechanism for facilitating the transmembrane delivery of therapeutic agents from the extracellular to the intracellular milieu. Conventionally, sonoporation is carried out in the presence of ultrasound contrast agents, which are known to greatly enhance transient poration of biological cell membranes. However, in vivo contrast agents have been observed to induce capillary rupture and haemorrhage due to endothelial cell damage and to greatly increase the potential for cell lysis in vitro. Here, we demonstrate sonoporation of cardiac myoblasts in the absence of contrast agent (CA-free sonoporation) using a low-cost ultrasound-microfluidic device. Within this device an ultrasonic standing wave was generated, allowing control over the position of the cells and the strength of the acoustic radiation forces. Real-time single-cell analysis and retrospective post-sonication analysis of insonated cardiac myoblasts showed that CA-free sonoporation induced transmembrane transfer of fluorescent probes (CMFDA and FITC-dextran) and that different mechanisms potentially contribute to membrane poration in the presence of an ultrasonic wave. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, we have shown for the first time that sonoporation induces increased cell cytotoxicity as a consequence of CA-free ultrasound-facilitated uptake of pharmaceutical agents (doxorubicin, luteolin, and apigenin). The US-microfluidic device designed here provides an in vitro alternative to expensive and controversial in vivo models used for early stage drug discovery, and drug delivery programs and toxicity measurements.