Intrinsically disordered regions of p53 family are highly diversified in evolution.
ABSTRACT: Proteins of the p53 family are expressed in vertebrates and in some invertebrate species. The main function of these proteins is to control and regulate cell cycle in response to various cellular signals, and therefore to control the organism's development. The regulatory functions of the p53 family members originate mostly from their highly-conserved and well-structured DNA-binding domains. Many human diseases (including various types of cancer) are related to the missense mutations within this domain. The ordered DNA-binding domains of the p53 family members are surrounded by functionally important intrinsically disordered regions. In this study, substitution rates and propensities in different regions of p53 were analyzed. The analyses revealed that the ordered DNA-binding domain is conserved, whereas disordered regions are characterized by high sequence diversity. This diversity was reflected both in the number of substitutions and in the types of substitutions to which each amino acid was prone. These results support the existence of a positive correlation between protein intrinsic disorder and sequence divergence during the evolutionary process. This higher sequence divergence provides strong support for the existence of disordered regions in p53 in vivo for if they were structured, they would evolve at similar rates as the rest of the protein.
Project description:Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or proteins with disordered regions (IDRs) do not have a well-defined tertiary structure, but perform a multitude of functions, often relying on their native disorder to achieve the binding flexibility through changing to alternative conformations. Intrinsic disorder is frequently found in all three kingdoms of life, and may occur in short stretches or span whole proteins. To date most studies contrasting the differences between ordered and disordered proteins focused on simple summary statistics. Here, we propose an evolutionary approach to study IDPs, and contrast patterns specific to ordered protein regions and the corresponding IDRs.Two empirical Markov models of amino acid substitutions were estimated, based on a large set of multiple sequence alignments with experimentally verified annotations of disordered regions from the DisProt database of IDPs. We applied new methods to detect differences in Markovian evolution and evolutionary rates between IDRs and the corresponding ordered protein regions. Further, we investigated the distribution of IDPs among functional categories, biochemical pathways and their preponderance to contain tandem repeats.We find significant differences in the evolution between ordered and disordered regions of proteins. Most importantly we find that disorder promoting amino acids are more conserved in IDRs, indicating that in some cases not only amino acid composition but the specific sequence is important for function. This conjecture is also reinforced by the observation that for of our data set IDRs evolve more slowly than the ordered parts of the proteins, while we still support the common view that IDRs in general evolve more quickly. The improvement in model fit indicates a possible improvement for various types of analyses e.g. de novo disorder prediction using a phylogenetic Hidden Markov Model based on our matrices showed a performance similar to other disorder predictors.
Project description:Conformational and functional flexibility promote protein evolvability. High evolvability allows related proteins to functionally diverge and perhaps to neostructuralize. p53 is a multifunctional protein frequently referred to as the Guardian of the Genome-a hub for e.g. incoming and outgoing signals in apoptosis and DNA repair. p53 has been found to be structurally disordered, an extreme form of conformational flexibility. Here, p53, and its paralogs p63 and p73, were studied for further insights into the evolutionary dynamics of structural disorder, secondary structure, and phosphorylation. This study is focused on the post gene duplication phase for the p53 family in vertebrates, but also visits the origin of the protein family and the early domain loss and gain events. Functional divergence, measured by rapid evolutionary dynamics of protein domains, structural properties, and phosphorylation propensity, is inferred across vertebrate p53 proteins, in p63 and p73 from fish, and between the three paralogs. In particular, structurally disordered regions are redistributed among paralogs, but within clades redistribution of structural disorder also appears to be an ongoing process. Despite its deemed importance as the Guardian of the Genome, p53 is indeed a protein with high evolvability as seen not only in rearranged structural disorder, but also in fluctuating domain sequence signatures among lineages.
Project description:Most models of protein evolution are based upon proteins that form relatively rigid 3D structures. A significant fraction of proteins, the so-called disordered proteins, do not form rigid 3D structures and sample a broad conformational ensemble. Disordered proteins do not typically maintain long-range interactions, so the constraints on their evolution should be different than ordered proteins. To test this hypothesis, we developed and compared models of evolution for disordered and ordered proteins. Substitution matrices were constructed using the sequences of putative homologs for sets of experimentally characterized disordered and ordered proteins. Separate matrices, at three levels of sequence similarity (>85%, 85-60%, and 60-40%), were inferred for each type of protein structure. The substitution matrices for disordered and ordered proteins differed significantly at each level of sequence similarity. The disordered matrices reflected a greater likelihood of evolutionary changes, relative to the ordered matrices, and these changes involved nonconservative substitutions. Glutamic acid and asparagine were interesting exceptions to this result. Important differences between the substitutions that are accepted in disordered proteins relative to ordered proteins were also identified. In general, disordered proteins have fewer evolutionary constraints than ordered proteins. However, some residues like tryptophan and tyrosine are highly conserved in disordered proteins. This is due to their important role in forming protein-protein interfaces. Finally, the amino acid frequencies for disordered proteins, computed during the development of the matrices, were compared with amino acid frequencies for different categories of secondary structure in ordered proteins. The highest correlations were observed between the amino acid frequencies in disordered proteins and the solvent-exposed loops and turns of ordered proteins, supporting an emerging structural model for disordered proteins.
Project description:In this study, we analyze the role of different structural variants of proteins in the speciation processes. We separate human and mouse proteomes (taken as a reference) into three previously defined variants of disorder: ordered proteins (ORDPs), structured proteins with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs), and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Then, using the representation we call here Forsdyke plot, we study the correlation of DNA divergence with the corresponding protein (phenotypic) divergence in the three variants, comparing human and mouse coding sequences with their homologs from 26 eukaryotes. The parameters of the correlation are related to the speciation process. We find that the three variants of disordered proteins are differently related to the speciation process. Specifically, IDPs phenotypically diverge earlier than ORDPs and IDPRs. ORDPs diverge later but are phenotypically more reactive to nucleotide mutations than IDPRs and IDPs. Finally, IDPRs appear to diverge phenotypically later than IDPs, like ORDPs, but they are prone to accept mutations with rates that are similar to those of IDPs. We conclude that IDPs are involved in the early stages of the speciation process, whereas mutations in ORDPs, once speciation is initiated, accelerate phenotypic divergence.
Project description:The tetrameric tumor suppressor p53 plays a pivotal role in the control of the cell cycle and provides a paradigm for an emerging class of oligomeric, multidomain proteins with structured and intrinsically disordered regions. Many of its biophysical and functional properties have been extrapolated from truncated variants, yet the exact structural and functional role of certain segments of the protein is unclear. We found from NMR and X-ray crystallography that the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of human p53, usually defined as residues 94-292, extends beyond these domain boundaries. Trp91, in the hinge region between the disordered proline-rich N-terminal domain and the DBD, folds back onto the latter and has a cation-? interaction with Arg174. These additional interactions increase the melting temperature of the DBD by up to 2 °C and inhibit aggregation of the p53 tetramer. They also modulate the dissociation of the p53 tetramer. The absence of the Trp91/Arg174 packing presumably allows nonnative DBD-DBD interactions that both nucleate aggregation and stabilize the interface. These data have important implications for studies of multidomain proteins in general, highlighting the fact that weak ordered-disordered domain interactions can modulate the properties of proteins of complex structure.
Project description:The exploration of intrinsically disordered proteins in isolation is a crucial step to understand their complex dynamical behavior. In particular, the emergence of partially ordered states has not been explored in depth. The experimental characterization of such partially ordered states remains elusive due to their transient nature. Molecular dynamics mitigates this limitation thanks to its capability to explore biologically relevant timescales while retaining atomistic resolution. Here, millisecond unbiased molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the exemplar N-terminal region of p53. In combination with state-of-the-art Markov state models, simulations revealed the existence of several partially ordered states accounting for [Formula: see text] 40% of the equilibrium population. Some of the most relevant states feature helical conformations similar to the bound structure of p53 to Mdm2, as well as novel [Formula: see text]-sheet elements. This highlights the potential complexity underlying the energy surface of intrinsically disordered proteins.
Project description:Protein structure is commonly regarded to be conserved and to dictate function. Most proteins rely on conformational flexibility to some degree. Are regions that convey conformational flexibility conserved over evolutionary time? Can changes in conformational flexibility alter protein function? Here, the evolutionary dynamics of structurally ordered and disordered (flexible) regions are investigated genome-wide in flaviviruses, revealing that the amount and location of structural disorder fluctuates highly among related proteins. Some regions are prone to shift between structured and flexible states. Increased evolutionary dynamics of structural disorder is observed for some lineages but not in others. Lineage-specific transitions of this kind could alter the conformational ensemble accessible to the same protein in different species, causing a functional change, even if the predominant function remains conserved. Thus, rapid evolutionary dynamics of structural disorder is a potential driving force for phenotypic divergence among flaviviruses.
Project description:Intrinsically disordered regions occur frequently in proteins and are characterized by a lack of a well-defined three-dimensional structure. Although these regions do not show a higher order of structural organization, they are known to be functionally important. Disordered regions are rapidly evolving, largely attributed to relaxed purifying selection and an increased role of genetic drift. It has also been suggested that positive selection might contribute to their rapid diversification. However, for our own species, it is currently unknown whether positive selection has played a role during the evolution of these protein regions. Here, we address this question by investigating the evolutionary pattern of more than 6600 human proteins with intrinsically disordered regions and their ordered counterparts. Our comparative approach with data from more than 90 mammalian genomes uses a priori knowledge of disordered protein regions, and we show that this increases the power to detect positive selection by an order of magnitude. We can confirm that human intrinsically disordered regions evolve more rapidly, not only within humans but also across the entire mammalian phylogeny. They have, however, experienced substantial evolutionary constraint, hinting at their fundamental functional importance. We find compelling evidence that disordered protein regions are frequent targets of positive selection and estimate that the relative rate of adaptive substitutions differs fourfold between disordered and ordered protein regions in humans. Our results suggest that disordered protein regions are important targets of genetic innovation and that the contribution of positive selection in these regions is more pronounced than in other protein parts.
Project description:Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins play significant biological functional roles despite lacking a well-defined 3D structure. For example, IDRs provide efficient housing for large numbers of post-translational modification (PTM) sites in eukaryotic proteins. Here, we study the distribution of more than 15,000 experimentally determined human methylation, acetylation and ubiquitination sites (collectively termed 'MAU' sites) in ordered and disordered regions, and analyse their conservation across 380 eukaryotic species. Conservation signals for the maintenance and novel emergence of MAU sites are examined at 11 evolutionary levels from the whole eukaryotic domain down to the ape superfamily, in both ordered and disordered regions. We discover that MAU PTM is a major driver of conservation for arginines and lysines in both ordered and disordered regions, across the 11 levels, most significantly across the mammalian clade. Conservation of human methylatable arginines is very strongly favoured for ordered regions rather than for disordered, whereas methylatable lysines are conserved in either set of regions, and conservation of acetylatable and ubiquitinatable lysines is favoured in disordered over ordered. Notably, we find evidence for the emergence of new lysine MAU sites in disordered regions of proteins in deuterostomes and mammals, and in ordered regions after the dawn of eutherians. For histones specifically, MAU sites demonstrate an idiosyncratic significant conservation pattern that is evident since the last common ancestor of mammals. Similarly, folding-on-binding (FB) regions are highly enriched for MAU sites relative to either ordered or disordered regions, with ubiquitination sites in FBs being highly conserved at all evolutionary levels back as far as mammals. This investigation clearly demonstrates the complex patterns of PTM evolution across the human proteome and that it is necessary to consider conservation of sequence features at multiple evolutionary levels in order not to get an incomplete or misleading picture.
Project description:The transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 undergo a particularly rich set of interactions with disordered and partly ordered partners, as a part of their ubiquitous role in facilitating transcription of genes. CBP and p300 contain a number of small structured domains that provide scaffolds for the interaction of disordered transactivation domains from a wide variety of partners, including p53, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), NF-κB, and STAT proteins, and are the targets for the interactions of disordered viral proteins that compete with cellular factors to disrupt signaling and subvert the cell cycle. The functional diversity of the CBP/p300 interactome provides an excellent example of the power of intrinsic disorder to facilitate the complexity of living systems.