Chk1 inhibition in p53-deficient cell lines drives rapid chromosome fragmentation followed by caspase-independent cell death.
ABSTRACT: Activation of Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) following DNA damage mediates cell cycle arrest to prevent cells with damaged DNA from entering mitosis. Here we provide a high-resolution analysis of cells as they undergo S- and G?-checkpoint bypass in response to Chk1 inhibition with the selective Chk1 inhibitor GNE-783. Within 4-8 h of Chk1 inhibition following gemcitabine induced DNA damage, cells with both sub-4N and 4N DNA content prematurely enter mitosis. Coincident with premature transition into mitosis, levels of DNA damage dramatically increase and chromosomes condense and attempt to align along the metaphase plate. Despite an attempt to congress at the metaphase plate, chromosomes rapidly fragment and lose connection to the spindle microtubules. Gemcitabine mediated DNA damage promotes the formation of Rad51 foci; however, while Chk1 inhibition does not disrupt Rad51 foci that are formed in response to gemcitabine, these foci are lost as cells progress into mitosis. Premature entry into mitosis requires the Aurora, Cdk1/2 and Plk1 kinases and even though caspase-2 and -3 are activated upon mitotic exit, they are not required for cell death. Interestingly, p53, but not p21, deficiency enables checkpoint bypass and chemo-potentiation. Finally, we uncover a differential role for the Wee-1 checkpoint kinase in response to DNA damage, as Wee-1, but not Chk1, plays a more prominent role in the maintenance of S- and G?-checkpoints in p53 proficient cells.
Project description:The Replication Stress Response (RSR) is a signaling network that recognizes challenges to DNA replication and coordinates diverse DNA repair and cell-cycle checkpoint pathways. Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analogue that causes cytotoxicity by inducing DNA replication blocks. Using a synthetic lethal screen of a RNAi library of nuclear enzymes to identify genes that when silenced cause gemcitabine sensitization or resistance in human triple-negative breast cancer cells, we identified NIMA (never in mitosis gene A)-related kinase 9 (NEK9) as a key component of the RSR. NEK9 depletion in cells leads to replication stress hypersensitivity, spontaneous accumulation of DNA damage and RPA70 foci, and an impairment in recovery from replication arrest. NEK9 protein levels also increase in response to replication stress. NEK9 complexes with CHK1, and moreover, NEK9 depletion impairs CHK1 autophosphorylation and kinase activity in response to replication stress. Thus, NEK9 is a critical component of the RSR that promotes CHK1 activity, maintaining genome integrity following challenges to DNA replication.
Project description:In response to replication stress ATR signaling through CHK1 controls the intra-S checkpoint and is required for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Homologous recombination (HR) comprises a series of interrelated pathways that function in the repair of DNA double strand breaks and interstrand crosslinks. In addition, HR, with its key player RAD51, provides critical support for the recovery of stalled forks during replication. High levels of RAD51 are regularly found in various cancers, yet little is known about the effect of the increased RAD51 expression on intra-S checkpoint signaling. Here, we describe a role for RAD51 in driving genomic instability caused by impaired replication and intra-S mediated CHK1 signaling by studying an inducible RAD51 overexpression model as well as 10 breast cancer cell lines. We demonstrate that an excess of RAD51 decreases I-Sce-I mediated HR despite formation of more RAD51 foci. Cells with high RAD51 levels display reduced elongation rates and excessive dormant origin firing during undisturbed growth and after damage, likely caused by impaired CHK1 activation. In consequence, the inability of cells with a surplus of RAD51 to properly repair complex DNA damage and to resolve replication stress leads to higher genomic instability and thus drives tumorigenesis.
Project description:The protein kinase checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) has been implicated as a key regulator of cell cycle progression and DNA repair, and inhibitors of Chk1 (e.g., UCN-01 and EXEL-9844) potentiate the cytotoxic actions of chemotherapeutic drugs in tumor cells. We have examined the ability of PD-321852, a small-molecule Chk1 inhibitor, to potentiate gemcitabine-induced clonogenic death in a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines and evaluated the relationship between endpoints associated with Chk1 inhibition and chemosensitization. Gemcitabine chemosensitization by minimally toxic concentrations of PD-321852 ranged from minimal (<3-fold change in survival) in Panc1 cells to >30-fold in MiaPaCa2 cells. PD-321852 inhibited Chk1 in all cell lines as evidenced by stabilization of Cdc25A; in combination with gemcitabine, a synergistic loss of Chk1 protein was observed in the more sensitized cell lines. Gemcitabine chemosensitization, however, did not correlate with abrogation of the S-M or G2-M checkpoint; PD-321852 did not induce premature mitotic entry in gemcitabine-treated BxPC3 or M-Panc96 cells, which were sensitized to gemcitabine 6.2- and 4.6-fold, respectively. In the more sensitized cells lines, PD-321852 not only inhibited gemcitabine-induced Rad51 focus formation and the recovery from gemcitabine-induced replication stress, as evidenced by persistence of gamma-H2AX, but also depleted these cells of Rad51 protein. Our data suggest the inhibition of this Chk1-mediated Rad51 response to gemcitabine-induced replication stress is an important factor in determining gemcitabine chemosensitization by Chk1 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells.
Project description:The combination of radiation with chemotherapy is the most effective therapy for unresectable pancreatic cancer. To improve upon this regimen, we combined the selective Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibitor MK8776 with gemcitabine-based chemoradiation in preclinical pancreatic cancer models.We tested the ability of MK8776 to sensitize to gemcitabine-radiation in homologous recombination repair (HRR)-proficient and -deficient pancreatic cancer cells and assessed Rad51 focus formation. In vivo, we investigated the efficacy, tumor cell selectivity, and pharmacodynamic biomarkers of sensitization by MK8776.We found that MK8776 significantly sensitized HRR-proficient (AsPC-1, MiaPaCa-2, BxPC-3) but not -deficient (Capan-1) pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine-radiation and inhibited Rad51 focus formation in HRR-proficient cells. In vivo, MiaPaCa-2 xenografts were significantly sensitized to gemcitabine-radiation by MK8776 without significant weight loss or observable toxicity in the small intestine, the dose-limiting organ for chemoradiation therapy in pancreatic cancer. We also assessed pChk1 (S345), a pharmacodynamic biomarker of DNA damage in response to Chk1 inhibition in both tumor and small intestine and found that MK8776 combined with gemcitabine or gemcitabine-radiation produced a significantly greater increase in pChk1 (S345) in tumor relative to small intestine, suggesting greater DNA damage in tumor than in normal tissue. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of an ex vivo platform for assessment of pharmacodynamic biomarkers of Chk1 inhibition in pancreatic cancer.Together, our results suggest that MK8776 selectively sensitizes HRR-proficient pancreatic cancer cells and xenografts to gemcitabine-radiation and support the clinical investigation of MK8776 in combination with gemcitabine-radiation in locally advanced pancreatic cancer.
Project description:The G2 DNA damage checkpoint inhibits Cdc2 and mitotic entry through the dual regulation of Wee1 and Cdc25 by the Chk1 effector kinase. Up-regulation of Chk1 by mutation or overexpression bypasses the requirement for up-stream regulators or DNA damage to promote a G2 cell cycle arrest. We screened in fission yeast for mutations that rendered cells resistant to overexpressed Chk1. We identified a mutation in tra1, which encodes one of two homologs of TRRAP, an ATM/R-related pseudokinase that scaffolds several histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. Inhibition of histone deacetylases reverts the resistance to overexpressed Chk1, suggesting this phenotype is due to a HAT activity, though expression of checkpoint and cell cycle genes is not greatly affected. Cells with mutant or deleted tra1 activate Chk1 normally and are checkpoint proficient. However, these cells are semi-wee even when overexpressing Chk1, and accumulate inactive Wee1 protein. The Cdr (changed division response) kinases Cdr1 and Cdr2 are negative regulators of Wee1, and while best characterized in the cellular response to limited nutrition, we show that they are required for the Tra1-dependent alterations to Wee1 function. This identifies Tra1 as another component controlling the timing of entry into mitosis via Cdc2 activation. Two and three independent microaaray experiments were done for wild type and the mutant (tra1-1) respectively.
Project description:Checkpoint kinases sense replicative stress to prevent DNA damage. Here we show that the histone deacetylases HDAC1/HDAC2 sustain the phosphorylation of the checkpoint kinases ATM, CHK1 and CHK2, activity of the cell cycle gatekeeper kinases WEE1 and CDK1, and induction of the tumour suppressor p53 in response to stalled DNA replication. Consequently, HDAC inhibition upon replicative stress promotes mitotic catastrophe. Mechanistically, HDAC1 and HDAC2 suppress the expression of PPP2R3A/PR130, a regulatory subunit of the trimeric serine/threonine phosphatase 2 (PP2A). Genetic elimination of PR130 reveals that PR130 promotes dephosphorylation of ATM by PP2A. Moreover, the ablation of PR130 slows G1/S phase transition and increases the levels of phosphorylated CHK1, replication protein A foci and DNA damage upon replicative stress. Accordingly, stressed PR130 null cells are very susceptible to HDAC inhibition, which abrogates the S phase checkpoint, induces apoptosis and reduces the homologous recombination protein RAD51. Thus, PR130 controls cell fate decisions upon replicative stress.
Project description:The G2 DNA damage checkpoint inhibits Cdc2 and mitotic entry through the dual regulation of Wee1 and Cdc25 by the Chk1 effector kinase. Up-regulation of Chk1 by mutation or overexpression bypasses the requirement for up-stream regulators or DNA damage to promote a G2 cell cycle arrest. We screened in fission yeast for mutations that rendered cells resistant to overexpressed Chk1. We identified a mutation in tra1, which encodes one of two homologs of TRRAP, an ATM/R-related pseudokinase that scaffolds several histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. Inhibition of histone deacetylases reverts the resistance to overexpressed Chk1, suggesting this phenotype is due to a HAT activity, though expression of checkpoint and cell cycle genes is not greatly affected. Cells with mutant or deleted tra1 activate Chk1 normally and are checkpoint proficient. However, these cells are semi-wee even when overexpressing Chk1, and accumulate inactive Wee1 protein. The Cdr (changed division response) kinases Cdr1 and Cdr2 are negative regulators of Wee1, and while best characterized in the cellular response to limited nutrition, we show that they are required for the Tra1-dependent alterations to Wee1 function. This identifies Tra1 as another component controlling the timing of entry into mitosis via Cdc2 activation. Overall design: Two and three independent microaaray experiments were done for wild type and the mutant (tra1-1) respectively.
Project description:PARP inhibitors (PARPi) have been effective in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), although clinical activity is limited against BRCA wild type HGSOC. The nearly universal loss of normal p53 regulation in HGSOCs causes dysfunction in the G1/S checkpoint, making tumor cells reliant on Chk1-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest for DNA repair. Therefore, Chk1 is a reasonable target for a combination strategy with PARPi in treating BRCA wild type HGSOC. Here we investigated the combination of prexasertib mesylate monohydrate (LY2606368), a Chk1 and Chk2 inhibitor, and a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, in HGSOC cell lines (OVCAR3, OV90, PEO1 and PEO4) using clinically attainable concentrations. Our findings showed combination treatment synergistically decreased cell viability in all cell lines and induced greater DNA damage and apoptosis than the control and/or monotherapies (p<0.05). Treatment with olaparib in BRCA wild type HGSOC cells caused formation of Rad51 foci, whereas the combination treatment with prexasertib inhibited transnuclear localization of Rad51, a key protein in homologous recombination repair. Overall, our data provide evidence that prexasertib and olaparib combination resulted in synergistic cytotoxic effects against BRCA wild type HGSOC cells through reduced Rad51 foci formation and greater induction of apoptosis. This may be a novel therapeutic strategy for HGSOC.
Project description:DNA damage is accepted as a consequence of thymidylate deprivation induced by chemotherapeutic inhibitors of thymidylate synthase (TS), but the types of damage and signaling responses remain incompletely understood. Thymidylate deprivation increases dUTP and uracil in DNA, which is removed by base excision repair (BER). Because BER requires a synthesis step, strand break intermediates presumably accumulate. Thymidylate deprivation also induces cell cycle arrest during replication. Homologous recombination (HR) is a means of repairing persistent BER intermediates and collapsed replication forks. There are also intimate links between HR and S-phase checkpoint pathways. In this study, the goals were to determine the involvement of HR-associated proteins and DNA damage signaling responses to thymidylate deprivation. When RAD51, which is a central component of HR, was depleted by siRNA cells were sensitized to raltitrexed (RTX), which specifically inhibits TS. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration in mammalian cells that depletion of RAD51 causes sensitivity to thymidylate deprivation. Activation of DNA damage signaling responses was examined following treatment with RTX. Phosphorylation of replication protein A (RPA2 subunit) and formation of damage-induced foci were strikingly evident following IC(50) doses of RTX. Induction was much more striking following RTX treatment than with hydroxyurea, which is commonly used to inhibit replication. RTX treatment also induced foci of RAD51, gamma-H2AX, phospho-Chk1, and phospho-NBS1, although the extent of co-localization with RPA2 foci varied. Collectively, the results suggest that HR and S-phase checkpoint signaling processes are invoked by thymidylate deprivation and influence cellular resistance to thymidylate deprivation.
Project description:Single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (SSB1) plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. Here, by using protein affinity purification, we have identified Integrator3 (INT3) as a novel partner of SSB1. INT3 forms a complex with SSB1 by constitutively interacting with SSB1 regardless of DNA damage. However, following DNA damage, along with SSB1, INT3 relocates to the DNA damage sites and regulates the accumulation of TopBP1 and BRCA1 there. Moreover, INT3 controls DNA damage-induced Chk1 activation and G(2)/M checkpoint activation. In addition, INT3 is involved in homologous recombination repair by regulating Rad51 foci formation following DNA damage. Taken together, these results demonstrate that INT3 plays a key role in the DNA damage response.