The efficacy and tolerability of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine and Stanford V in older Hodgkin lymphoma patients: a comprehensive analysis from the North American intergroup trial E2496.
ABSTRACT: There is a lack of contemporary prospective data examining the adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) and Stanford V (SV; doxorubicin, vinblastine, mechlorethamine, vincristine, bleomycin, etoposide, prednisone) regimens in older Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. Forty-four advanced-stage, older HL patients (aged ?60 years) were treated on the randomized study, E2496. Toxicities were mostly similar between chemotherapy regimens, although 24% of older patients developed bleomycin lung toxicity (BLT), which occurred mainly with ABVD (91%). Further, the BLT-related mortality rate was 18%. The overall treatment-related mortality for older HL patients was 9% vs. 0·3% for patients aged <60 years (P < 0·001). Among older patients, there were no survival differences between ABVD and SV. According to age, outcomes were significantly inferior for older versus younger patients (5-year failure-free survival: 48% vs. 74%, respectively, P = 0·002; 5-year overall survival: 58% and 90%, respectively, P < 0·0001), although time-to-progression (TTP) was not significantly different (5-year TTP: 68% vs. 78%, respectively, P = 0·37). Furthermore, considering progression and death without progression as competing risks, the risk of progression was not different between older and younger HL patients (5 years: 30% and 23%, respectively, P = 0·30); however, the incidence of death without progression was significantly increased for older HL patients (22% vs. 9%, respectively, P < 0·0001). Altogether, the marked HL age-dependent survival differences appeared attributable primarily to non-HL events.
Project description:First-line treatments for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) include ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) and BEACOPPescalated (escalated dose bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone). To further improve overall outcomes, positron emission tomography-driven strategies and ABVD or BEACOPP variants incorporating the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin (BV) or anti-PD1 antibodies are under investigation in advanced-stage patients. The present study aimed to elicit preferences for attributes associated with ABVD, BEACOPPescalated and BV-AVD (BV, adriamycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) among patients and physicians. Cross-sectional online discrete choice experiments were administered to HL patients (n = 381) and haematologists/oncologists (n = 357) in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. Included attributes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and the risk of neuropathy, lung damage, infertility and hospitalisation due to adverse events. Whereas 5-year PFS and OS were the most important treatment attributes to patients, the relative importance of each attribute and preference weights for each level varied among physicians according to the description of the hypothetical patient for whom treatment was recommended. PFS and OS most strongly influenced physicians' recommendations when considering young female patients who did not want children or young male patients. Infertility was more important to physicians' treatment decision than PFS when considering young women with unknown fertility preferences, whereas hospitalisations due to adverse events played the largest role in treatment decisions for older patients.
Project description:Patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) demonstrated excellent 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) after receiving positron emission tomography (PET)-adapted therapy on SWOG S0816. Patients received 2 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD). Patients achieving complete response (CR) on PET scan following cycle 2 of ABVD (PET2) continued 4 additional cycles of ABVD. Patients not achieving CR on PET2 were switched to escalated bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (eBEACOPP) for 6 cycles. After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, a subset of 331 eligible patients with central review of PET2 was analyzed. PET2 was negative in 82% and positive in 18%. For all patients, the estimated 5-year PFS and OS was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69%-79%) and 94% (95% CI, 91%-96%), respectively. For PET2- and PET2+ patients, the 5-year PFS was 76% (95% CI, 70%-81%) and 66% (95% CI, 52%-76%), respectively. Seven (14%) and 6 (2%) patients reported second cancers after treatment with eBEACOPP and ABVD, respectively (P = .001). Long-term OS of HL patients treated on S0816 remains high. Nearly 25% of PET2- patients experienced relapse events, demonstrating limitations ABVD therapy and of the negative predictive value of PET2. In PET2+ patients who received eBEACOPP, PFS was favorable, but was associated with a high rate of second malignancies compared with historical controls. Our results emphasize the importance of long-term follow-up, and the need for more efficacious and less toxic therapeutic approaches for advanced-stage HL patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00822120.
Project description:A negative interim positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) after 1 to 3 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) in patients with newly diagnosed, nonbulky stage I or II Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) predicts a low relapse rate. This phase 2 trial was designed to determine if a population of patients with early-stage disease can be treated with short-course ABVD without radiation therapy (RT) on the basis of a negative interim PET/CT, thereby limiting the risks of treatment. Between 15 May 2010 and 21 February 2013, 164 previously untreated patients with nonbulky stage I/II HL were enrolled, and 149 were included in the final analysis. Patients received 2 cycles of ABVD followed by PET. Deauville scores 1 to 3 were negative (? liver uptake) based on central review. PET- patients received 2 more cycles of ABVD, and PET+ patients received 2 cycles of dose-intense bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (escalated BEACOPP) plus 3060-cGy involved-field RT. The primary objective was to determine 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) for the PET- group. One hundred thirty-five patients (91%) were interim PET-, and 14 patients (9%) were PET+ With median follow-up time of 3.8 years, the estimated 3-year PFS was 91% for the PET- group and 66% for the PET+ group (hazard ratio, 3.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-9.84; P = .011). There was 1 death as a result of suicide. Four cycles of ABVD resulted in durable remissions for a majority of patients with early-stage nonbulky HL and a negative interim PET. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01132807.
Project description:PURPOSE:The phase III North American Intergroup E2496 Trial (Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Hodgkin's Lymphoma) compared doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) with mechlorethamine, doxorubicin, vincristine, bleomycin, vinblastine, etoposide, and prednisone (Stanford V). We report results of a planned subgroup analysis in patients with stage I or II bulky mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients were randomly assigned to six to eight cycles of ABVD every 28 days or Stanford V once per week for 12 weeks. Two to 3 weeks after completion of chemotherapy, all patients received 36 Gy of modified involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) to the mediastinum, hila, and supraclavicular regions. Patients on the Stanford V arm received IFRT to additional sites ? 5 cm at diagnosis. Primary end points were failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Of 794 eligible patients, 264 had stage I or II bulky disease, 135 received ABVD, and 129 received Stanford V. Patient characteristics were matched. The overall response rate was 83% with ABVD and 88% with Stanford V. At a median follow-up of 6.5 years, the study excluded a difference of more than 21% in 5-year FFS and more than 16% in 5-year OS between ABVD and Stanford V (5-year FFS: 85% v 79%; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.37 to 1.25; P = .22; 5-year OS: 96% v 92%; HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.16 to 1.47; P = .19). In-field relapses occurred in < 10% of the patients in each arm. CONCLUSION:For patients with stage I or II bulky mediastinal HL, no substantial statistically significant differences were detected between the two regimens, although power was limited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective trial reporting outcomes specific to this subgroup, and it sets a benchmark for comparison of ongoing and future studies.
Project description:Early response evaluation with [(18) F]fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography after 2 cycles of chemotherapy (interim PET) has been indicated as the strongest predictor for outcome in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We studied the prognostic role of the number of tumor-infiltrating CD68+ cells and of the plasma levels of TARC (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) in the context of interim PET in 102 patients with classical HL treated with Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine (ABVD). After 2 ABVD cycles, interim PET according to Deauville criteria was negative (score 0-3) in 85 patients and positive (score 4-5) in 15 patients (2 patients technically not evaluable). TARC levels were elevated in 89% of patients at diagnosis, and decreased after 2 cycles in 82% of patients. Persistently elevated TARC levels in 18% of patients were significantly associated with a positive PET result (P = 0.007). Strong predictors for progression-free survival (PFS) were a negative interim PET (85% vs. 28%, P < 0.0001) and CD68+ cell counts <5% (89% vs. 67%, P = 0.006), while TARC levels at diagnosis and at interim evaluation had no prognostic role. In multivariate analysis, interim PET, CD68+ cell counts and presence of B-symptoms were independently associated with PFS. We conclude that although TARC levels are a biomarker for early response evaluation, they cannot substitute for interim PET as outcome predictor in HL. The evaluation of CD68 counts and B-symptoms at diagnosis may help to identify low-risk patients regardless positive interim PET.
Project description:<b>Background/Aims:</b> Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) has become one of the most treatable cancers, with more than 80% patients in the advanced stage being cured through improvement of therapeutic regimens. Nevertheless, some treatments were accompanied with toxicities. <b>Methods:</b> In the current study, a network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the efficacies and toxicities of different chemotherapy regimens for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We reviewed PubMed and EMBASE databases from inception to May 2018, and identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which advanced HL patients received chemotherapy. Fourteen eligible RCTs published between 1992 and 2017 were enrolled in this NMA. These studies included a total of 5,964 HL patients, and assessed at least one of seven different chemotherapy regimens. Direct and indirect evidence was combined to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and to establish a surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve. <b>Results:</b> A cluster analysis was performed to evaluate efficacies and toxicities of different regimens. The COPP + ABVD (cyclophosphamide + vincristine + procarbazine + prednisone + doxorubicin + bleomycin + vinblastine + dacarbazine) regimen had the highest SUCRA partial response and overall remission rate values, while the ABVD regimen resulted in the lowest incidences of anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and leucopenia. <b>Conclusion:</b> Cluster analysis revealed that COPP + ABVD had the best efficacy against advanced HL among the seven regimens, and ABVD had the lowest toxicity.
Project description:Genome sharing between cancer and normal tissues might imply a similar susceptibility to chemotherapy toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate whether curative potential of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) is predicted by the metabolic response of normal tissues in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).<h4>Methods</h4>According to current guidelines, 86 patients with advanced-stage (IIB-IVB) HL, prospectively enrolled in the HD0607 trial (NCT00795613), underwent 18 F-fluorodeoyglucose PET/CT imaging at diagnosis and, at interim, after two ABVD courses, to decide regimen maintenance or its escalation. In both scans, myocardial FDG uptake was binarized according to its median value. Death and disease relapse were recorded to estimate progression-free survival (PFS) during a follow-up with median duration of 43.8 months (range 6.97-60).<h4>Results</h4>Four patients (4.6%) died, while six experienced disease relapse (7%). Complete switch-off of cancer lesions and cardiac lighting predicted a favorable outcome at Kaplan-Mayer analyses. The independent nature and additive predictive value of their risk prediction were confirmed by the multivariate Cox regression analysis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Susceptibility of HL lesions to chemotherapy is at least partially determined by factors featuring the host who developed it.
Project description:Approximately 90% of limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients are projected to be cured with standard therapy, but many do not live their expected life span because of late treatment-related complications. New treatment paradigms are needed to reduce the use of radiation therapy (RT) as well as conventional chemotherapy drugs while improving upon current standard-of-care survival outcomes. In this phase 2 multicenter study, patients with non-bulky limited-stage HL received doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) followed by brentuximab vedotin (BV) consolidation. Forty-one patients were enrolled, and patient characteristics included median age of 29 years (range, 19 to 67 years), 58% were female, 45% had unfavorable disease, and 98% had stage II disease. Based on positron emission tomography (PET)-based risk stratification, patients received 2 to 6 cycles of ABVD followed by 6 cycles of BV. After ABVD followed by BV, 95% of evaluable patients (37 out of 39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 83%-99%) achieved PET-negative status. In the intent-to-treat patient population, the estimated 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 92%, and the overall survival (OS) rate was 97%, with a median follow-up of 47 months. All 37 patients who achieved negative PET status after BV consolidation effectively avoided RT and remain in remission with estimated 3-year PFS and OS rates of 100%. In conclusion, BV demonstrates encouraging clinical activity when it follows ABVD therapy in limited-stage HL. Early incorporation of BV may reduce the use of RT as well as conventional chemotherapy drugs while achieving favorable survival outcomes in risk-stratified patients with non-bulky limited-stage HL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01578967.
Project description:The antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) cAC10-vcMMAE consists of the tubulin inhibitor monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) conjugated to the chimeric anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody cAC10. This ADC potently interferes with the growth of CD30-positive haematological tumours, including Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. This study found improved antitumour activity in a preclinical model of HL when SGN-35 was combined with chemotherapeutic regimens such as ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) or gemcitabine. Improved efficacy was also observed in high tumour burden models, indicating that combining ADCs with chemotherapeutic agents may be advantageous for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory HL.
Project description:To assess therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (t-AML/MDS) risk in patients treated for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on successive generations of Stanford clinical trials.Patients with HL treated at Stanford with at least 5 years of follow-up after completing therapy were identified from our database. Records were reviewed for outcome and development of t-AML/MDS.Seven hundred fifty-four patients treated from 1974 to 2003 were identified. Therapy varied across studies. Radiotherapy evolved from extended fields (S and C studies) to involved fields (G studies). Primary chemotherapy was mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP) or procarbazine, mechlorethamine, and vinblastine (PAVe) in S studies; MOPP, PAVe, vinblastine, bleomycin, and methotrexate (VBM), or doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) in C studies; and VbM (reduced dose of bleomycin compared with VBM) or mechlorethamine, doxorubicin, vinblastine, vincristine, bleomycin, etoposide, and prednisone (Stanford V) in G studies. Cumulative exposure to alkylating agent (AA) was notably lower in the G studies compared with the S and C studies, with a 75% to 83% lower dose of nitrogen mustard in addition to omission of procarbazine and melphalan. Twenty-four (3.2%) of 754 patients developed t-AML/MDS, 15 after primary chemotherapy and nine after salvage chemotherapy for relapsed HL. The incidence of t-AML/MDS was significantly lower in the G studies (0.3%) compared with the S (5.7%) or C (5.2%) studies (P < .001). Additionally, in the G studies, no t-AML/MDS was noted after primary therapy, and the only patient who developed t-AML/MDS did so after second-line therapy.Our data demonstrate the relationship between the cumulative AA dose and t-AML/MDS. Limiting the dose of AA and decreased need for secondary treatments have significantly reduced the incidence of t-AML/MDS, which was extremely rare in the G studies (Stanford V era).