The RAVE complex is an isoform-specific V-ATPase assembly factor in yeast.
ABSTRACT: The regulator of ATPase of vacuoles and endosomes (RAVE) complex is implicated in vacuolar H(+)-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) assembly and activity. In yeast, rav1 mutants exhibit a Vma(-) growth phenotype characteristic of loss of V-ATPase activity only at high temperature. Synthetic genetic analysis identified mutations that exhibit a full, temperature-independent Vma(-) growth defect when combined with the rav1 mutation. These include class E vps mutations, which compromise endosomal sorting. The synthetic Vma(-) growth defect could not be attributed to loss of vacuolar acidification in the double mutants, as there was no vacuolar acidification in the rav1 mutant. The yeast V-ATPase a subunit is present as two isoforms, Stv1p in Golgi and endosomes and Vph1p in vacuoles. Rav1p interacts directly with the N-terminal domain of Vph1p. STV1 overexpression suppressed the growth defects of both rav1 and rav1vph1, and allowed RAVE-independent assembly of active Stv1p-containing V-ATPases in vacuoles. Mutations causing synthetic genetic defects in combination with rav1 perturbed the normal localization of Stv1-green fluorescent protein. We propose that RAVE is necessary for assembly of Vph1-containing V-ATPase complexes but not Stv1-containing complexes. Synthetic Vma(-) phenotypes arise from defects in Vph1p-containing complexes caused by rav1, combined with defects in Stv1p-containing V-ATPases caused by the second mutation. Thus RAVE is the first isoform-specific V-ATPase assembly factor.
Project description:The vacuolar-type, proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multisubunit enzyme responsible for organelle acidification in eukaryotic cells. Many organisms have evolved V-ATPase subunit isoforms that allow for increased specialization of this critical enzyme. Differential targeting of the V-ATPase to specific subcellular organelles occurs in eukaryotes from humans to budding yeast. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the two subunit a isoforms are the only difference between the two V-ATPase populations. Incorporation of Vph1p or Stv1p into the V-ATPase dictates the localization of the V-ATPase to the vacuole or late Golgi/endosome, respectively. A duplication event within fungi gave rise to two subunit a genes. We used ancestral gene reconstruction to generate the most recent common ancestor of Vph1p and Stv1p (Anc.a) and tested its function in yeast. Anc.a localized to both the Golgi/endosomal network and vacuolar membrane and acidified these compartments as part of a hybrid V-ATPase complex. Trafficking of Anc.a did not require retrograde transport from the late endosome to the Golgi that has evolved for retrieval of the Stv1p isoform. Rather, Anc.a localized to both structures through slowed anterograde transport en route to the vacuole. Our results suggest an evolutionary model that describes the differential localization of the two yeast V-ATPase isoforms.
Project description:Proton-translocating vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) are necessary for numerous processes in eukaryotic cells, including receptor-mediated endocytosis, protein maturation, and lysosomal acidification. In mammals, V-ATPase subunit isoforms are differentially targeted to various intracellular compartments or tissues, but how these subunit isoforms influence enzyme activity is not clear. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, isoform diversity is limited to two different versions of the proton-translocating subunit a: Vph1p, which is targeted to the vacuole, and Stv1p, which is targeted to the Golgi apparatus and endosomes. We show that purified V-ATPase complexes containing Vph1p have higher ATPase activity than complexes containing Stv1p and that the relative difference in activity depends on the presence of lipids. We also show that VO complexes containing Stv1p could be readily purified without attached V1 regions. We used this effect to determine structures of the membrane-embedded VO region with Stv1p at 3.1-Å resolution, which we compare with a structure of the VO region with Vph1p that we determine to 3.2-Å resolution. These maps reveal differences in the surface charge near the cytoplasmic proton half-channel. Both maps also show the presence of bound lipids, as well as regularly spaced densities that may correspond to ergosterol or bound detergent, around the c-ring.
Project description:Subunit a of the yeast vacuolar-type, proton-translocating ATPase enzyme complex (V-ATPase) is responsible for both proton translocation and subcellular localization of this highly conserved molecular machine. Inclusion of the Vph1p isoform causes the V-ATPase complex to traffic to the vacuolar membrane, whereas incorporation of Stv1p causes continued cycling between the trans-Golgi and endosome. We previously demonstrated that this targeting information is contained within the cytosolic, N-terminal portion of V-ATPase subunit a (Stv1p). To identify residues responsible for sorting of the Golgi isoform of the V-ATPase, a random mutagenesis was performed on the N terminus of Stv1p. Subsequent characterization of mutant alleles led to the identification of a short peptide sequence, W(83)KY, that is necessary for proper Stv1p localization. Based on three-dimensional homology modeling to the Meiothermus ruber subunit I, we propose a structural model of the intact Stv1p-containing V-ATPase demonstrating the accessibility of the W(83)KY sequence to retrograde sorting machinery. Finally, we characterized the sorting signal within the context of a reconstructed Stv1p ancestor (Anc.Stv1). This evolutionary intermediate includes an endogenous W(83)KY sorting motif and is sufficient to compete with sorting of the native yeast Stv1p V-ATPase isoform. These data define a novel sorting signal that is both necessary and sufficient for trafficking of the V-ATPase within the Golgi/endosomal network.
Project description:Hyperosmotic stress activates an array of cellular detoxification mechanisms, including the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. We report here that vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) activity helps provide osmotic tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. V-ATPase subunit genes exhibit complex haploinsufficiency interactions with HOG pathway components. vma mutants lacking V-ATPase function are sensitive to high concentrations of salt and exhibit Hog1p activation even at low salt concentrations, as demonstrated by phosphorylation of Hog1p, a shift in Hog1-green fluorescent protein localization, transcriptional activation of a subset of HOG pathway effectors, and transcriptional inhibition of parallel mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway targets. vma2? hog1? and vma3? pbs2? double mutants have a synthetic growth phenotype, poor salt tolerance, and an aberrant, hyper-elongated morphology on solid media, accompanied by activation of a filamentous response element-LacZ construct, indicating cross talk into the filamentous growth pathway. Vacuoles isolated from wild-type cells briefly exposed to salt show higher levels of V-ATPase activity, and Na(+)/H(+) exchange in isolated vacuolar vesicles suggests a biochemical basis for the genetic interactions observed. V-ATPase activity is upregulated during salt stress by increasing assembly of the catalytic V(1) sector with the membrane-bound V(o) sector. Together, these data suggest that the V-ATPase acts in parallel with the HOG pathway in order to mediate salt detoxification.
Project description:Many functions of vacuole depend on the activity of vacuolar ATPase which is essential to maintain an acidic lumen and create the driving forces for massive fluxes of ions and metabolites through vacuolar membrane. In filamentous fungus Magnaportheoryzae, subcellular colocalization and quinacrine staining suggested that the V1V0 domains of V-ATPase were fully assembled and the vacuoles were kept acidic during infection-related developments. Targeted gene disruption of MoVMA11 gene, encoding the putative c' subunit of V-ATPase, impaired vacuolar acidification and mimicked the phenotypes of yeast V-ATPase mutants in the poor colony morphology, abolished asexual and sexual reproductions, selective carbon source utilization, and increased calcium and heavy metals sensitivities, however, not in the typical pH conditional lethality. Strikingly, aerial hyphae of the MoVMA11 null mutant intertwined with each other to form extremely thick filamentous structures. The results also implicated that MoVMA11 was involved in cell wall integrity and appressorium formation. Abundant non-melanized swollen structures and rare, small appressoria without penetration ability were produced at the hyphal tips of the ?Movma11 mutant on onion epidermal cells. Finally, the MoVMA11 null mutant lost pathogenicity on both intact and wounded host leaves. Overall, our data indicated that MoVMA11, like other fungal VMA genes, is associated with numerous cellular functions and highlighted that V-ATPase is essential for infection-related morphogenesis and pathogenesis in M. oryzae.
Project description:Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPases (V-ATPases) are highly conserved, ATP-driven proton pumps regulated by reversible dissociation of its cytosolic, peripheral V1 domain from the integral membrane V(o) domain. Multiple stresses induce changes in V1-V(o) assembly, but the signaling mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here we show that certain stress-responsive changes in V-ATPase activity and assembly require the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2). V-ATPase activation through V1-V(o) assembly in response to salt stress is strongly dependent on PI(3,5)P2 synthesis. Purified V(o) complexes preferentially bind to PI(3,5)P2 on lipid arrays, suggesting direct binding between the lipid and the membrane sector of the V-ATPase. Increasing PI(3,5)P2 levels in vivo recruits the N-terminal domain of V(o)-sector subunit Vph1p from cytosol to membranes, independent of other subunits. This Vph1p domain is critical for V1-V(o) interaction, suggesting that interaction of Vph1p with PI(3,5)P2-containing membranes stabilizes V1-V(o) assembly and thus increases V-ATPase activity. These results help explain the previously described vacuolar acidification defect in yeast fab1 and vac14 mutants and suggest that human disease phenotypes associated with PI(3,5)P2 loss may arise from compromised V-ATPase stability and regulation.
Project description:The gradual acidification of the secretory pathway is conserved and extremely important for eukaryotic cells, but until now there was no pH sensor available to monitor the pH of the early Golgi apparatus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we developed a pHluorin-based sensor for in vivo measurements in the lumen of the Golgi. By using this new tool we show that the cis- and medial-Golgi pH is equal to 6.6-6.7 in wild type cells during exponential phase. As expected, V-ATPase inactivation results in a near neutral Golgi pH. We also uncover that surprisingly Vph1p isoform of the V-ATPase is prevalent to Stv1p for Golgi acidification. Additionally, we observe that during changes of the cytosolic pH, the Golgi pH is kept relatively stable, mainly thanks to the V-ATPase. Eventually, this new probe will allow to better understand the mechanisms involved in the acidification and the pH control within the secretory pathway.
Project description:Using confocal microscopy, we observed ring-like organelles, similar in size to nuclei, in the hyphal tip of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. These organelles contained a subset of vacuolar proteins. We hypothesize that they are novel prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We examined the locations of several vacuolar enzymes and of fluorescent compounds that target the vacuole. Vacuolar membrane proteins, such as the vacuolar ATPase (VMA-1) and the polyphosphate polymerase (VTC-4), were observed in the PVCs. A pigment produced by adenine auxotrophs, used to visualize vacuoles, also accumulated in PVCs. Soluble enzymes of the vacuolar lumen, alkaline phosphatase and carboxypeptidase Y, were not observed in PVCs. The fluorescent molecule Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid diacetate, succinimidyl ester (carboxy-DFFDA) accumulated in vacuoles and in a subset of PVCs, suggesting maturation of PVCs from the tip to distal regions. Three of the nine Rab GTPases in N. crassa, RAB-2, RAB-4, and RAB-7, localized to the PVCs. RAB-2 and RAB-4, which have similar amino acid sequences, are present in filamentous fungi but not in yeasts, and no function has previously been reported for these Rab GTPases in fungi. PVCs are highly pleomorphic, producing tubular projections that subsequently become detached. Dynein and dynactin formed globular clusters enclosed inside the lumen of PVCs. The size, structure, dynamic behavior, and protein composition of the PVCs appear to be significantly different from those of the well-studied prevacuolar compartment of yeasts.
Project description:Luminal pH and phosphoinositide content are fundamental features of organelle identity. Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) drive organelle acidification in all eukaryotes, and membrane-bound a-subunit isoforms of the V-ATPase are implicated in organelle-specific targeting and regulation. Earlier work demonstrated that the endolysosomal lipid PI(3,5)P2 activates V-ATPases containing the vacuolar a-subunit isoform in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Here we demonstrate that PI(4)P, the predominant Golgi phosphatidylinositol (PI) species, directly interacts with the cytosolic amino terminal (NT) domain of the yeast Golgi V-ATPase a-isoform Stv1. Lysine-84 of Stv1NT is essential for interaction with PI(4)P in vitro and in vivo, and interaction with PI(4)P is required for efficient localization of Stv1-containing V-ATPases. The cytosolic NT domain of the human V-ATPase a2 isoform specifically interacts with PI(4)P in vitro, consistent with its Golgi localization and function. We propose that NT domains of Vo a-subunit isoforms interact specifically with PI lipids in their organelles of residence. These interactions can transmit organelle-specific targeting or regulation information to V-ATPases.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multisubunit complex composed of a peripheral membrane sector (V1) responsible for ATP hydrolysis and an integral membrane sector (V0) required for proton translocation. Biogenesis of V0 requires an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized accessory factor, Vma21p. We found that in vma21Delta cells, the major proteolipid subunit of V0 failed to interact with the 100-kDa V0 subunit, Vph1p, indicating that Vma21p is necessary for V0 assembly. Immunoprecipitation of Vma21p from wild-type membranes resulted in coimmunoprecipitation of all five V0 subunits. Analysis of vmaDelta strains showed that binding of V0 subunits to Vma21p was mediated by the proteolipid subunit Vma11p. Although Vma21p/proteolipid interactions were independent of Vph1p, Vma21p/Vph1p association was dependent on all other V0 subunits, indicating that assembly of V0 occurs in a defined sequence, with Vph1p recruitment into a Vma21p/proteolipid/Vma6p complex representing the final step. An in vitro assay for ER export was used to demonstrate preferential packaging of the fully assembled Vma21p/proteolipid/Vma6p/Vph1p complex into COPII-coated transport vesicles. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the interaction between Vma21p and V0 was transient and that Vma21p/V0 dissociation was concomitant with V0/V1 assembly. Blocking ER export in vivo stabilized the interaction between Vma21p and V0 and abrogated assembly of V0/V1. Although a Vma21p mutant lacking an ER-retrieval signal remained associated with V0 in the vacuole, this interaction did not affect the assembly of vacuolar V0/V1 complexes. We conclude that Vma21p is not involved in regulating the interaction between V0 and V1 sectors, but that it has a crucial role in coordinating the assembly of V0 subunits and in escorting the assembled V0 complex into ER-derived transport vesicles.