Cardiac G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 ablation induces a novel Ca2+ handling phenotype resistant to adverse alterations and remodeling after myocardial infarction.
ABSTRACT: G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a primary regulator of ?-adrenergic signaling in the heart. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 ablation impedes heart failure development, but elucidation of the cellular mechanisms has not been achieved, and such elucidation is the aim of this study.Myocyte contractility, Ca(2+) handling and excitation-contraction coupling were studied in isolated cardiomyocytes from wild-type and GRK2 knockout (GRK2KO) mice without (sham) or with myocardial infarction (MI). In cardiac myocytes isolated from unstressed wild-type and GRK2KO hearts, myocyte contractions and Ca(2+) transients were similar, but GRK2KO myocytes had lower sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content because of increased sodium-Ca(2+) exchanger activity and inhibited SR Ca(2+) ATPase by local protein kinase A-mediated activation of phosphodiesterase 4 resulting in hypophosphorylated phospholamban. This Ca(2+) handling phenotype is explained by a higher fractional SR Ca(2+) release induced by increased L-type Ca(2+) channel currents. After ?-adrenergic stimulation, GRK2KO myocytes revealed significant increases in contractility and Ca(2+) transients, which were not mediated through cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels but through an increased SR Ca(2+). Interestingly, post-MI GRK2KO mice showed better cardiac function than post-MI control mice, which is explained by an improved Ca(2+) handling phenotype. The SR Ca(2+) content was better maintained in post-MI GRK2KO myocytes than in post-MI control myocytes because of better-maintained L-type Ca(2+) channel current density and no increase in sodium-Ca(2+) exchanger in GRK2KO myocytes. An L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil, reversed some beneficial effects of GRK2KO.These data argue for novel differential regulation of L-type Ca(2+) channel currents and SR load by GRK2. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 ablation represents a novel beneficial Ca(2+) handling phenotype resisting adverse remodeling after MI.
Project description:Although cardiac alternans is a known predictor of lethal arrhythmias, its underlying causes remain largely undefined in disease settings. The potential role of, and mechanisms responsible for, beat-to-beat alternations in the amplitude of systolic Ca(2+) transients (Ca(2+) alternans) was investigated in a canine post-myocardial infarction (MI) model of sudden cardiac death (SCD).Post-MI dogs had preserved left ventricular (LV) function and susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation (VF) during exercise. LV wedge preparations from VF dogs were more susceptible to action potential (AP) alternans and the frequency-dependence of Ca(2+) alternans was shifted towards slower rates in myocytes isolated from VF dogs relative to controls. In both groups of cells, cytosolic Ca(2+) transients ([Ca(2+)](c)) alternated in phase with changes in diastolic Ca(2+) in sarcoplasmic reticulum ([Ca(2+)](SR)), but the dependence of [Ca(2+)](c) amplitude on [Ca(2+)](SR) was steeper in VF cells. Abnormal ryanodine receptor (RyR) function in VF cells was indicated by increased fractional Ca(2+) release for a given amplitude of Ca(2+) current and elevated diastolic RyR-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak. SR Ca(2+) uptake activity did not differ between VF and control cells. VF myocytes had an increased rate of reactive oxygen species production and increased RyR oxidation. Treatment of VF myocytes with reducing agents normalized parameters of Ca(2+) handling and shifted the threshold of Ca(2+) alternans to higher frequencies.Redox modulation of RyRs promotes generation of Ca(2+) alternans by enhancing the steepness of the Ca(2+) release-load relationship and thereby providing a substrate for post-MI arrhythmias.
Project description:RATIONALE:Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to heart failure (HF) and premature death. The respective roles of myocyte death and depressed myocyte contractility in the induction of HF after MI have not been clearly defined and are the focus of this study. OBJECTIVES:We developed a mouse model in which we could prevent depressed myocyte contractility after MI and used it to test the idea that preventing depression of myocyte Ca(2+)-handling defects could avert post-MI cardiac pump dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS:MI was produced in mice with inducible, cardiac-specific expression of the ?2a subunit of the L-type Ca(2+) channel. Myocyte and cardiac function were compared in control and ?2a animals before and after MI. ?2a myocytes had increased Ca(2+) current; sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load, contraction and Ca(2+) transients (versus controls), and ?2a hearts had increased performance before MI. After MI, cardiac function decreased. However, ventricular dilation, myocyte hypertrophy and death, and depressed cardiac pump function were greater in ?2a versus control hearts after MI. ?2a animals also had poorer survival after MI. Myocytes isolated from ?2a hearts after MI did not develop depressed Ca(2+) handling, and Ca(2+) current, contractions, and Ca(2+) transients were still above control levels (before MI). CONCLUSIONS:Maintaining myocyte contractility after MI, by increasing Ca(2+) influx, depresses rather than improves cardiac pump function after MI by reducing myocyte number.
Project description:Abnormal behavior of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) has been linked to cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure (HF) after myocardial infarction (MI). It has been proposed that protein kinase A (PKA) hyperphosphorylation of the RyR2 at a single residue, Ser-2808, is a critical mediator of RyR dysfunction, depressed cardiac performance, and HF after MI.We used a mouse model (RyRS2808A) in which PKA hyperphosphorylation of the RyR2 at Ser-2808 is prevented to determine whether loss of PKA phosphorylation at this site averts post MI cardiac pump dysfunction.MI was induced in wild-type (WT) and S2808A mice. Myocyte and cardiac function were compared in WT and S2808A animals before and after MI. The effects of the PKA activator Isoproterenol (Iso) on L-type Ca(2+) current (I(CaL)), contractions, and [Ca(2+)](I) transients were also measured. Both WT and S2808A mice had depressed pump function after MI, and there were no differences between groups. MI size was also identical in both groups. L type Ca(2+) current, contractions, Ca(2+) transients, and SR Ca(2+) load were also not significantly different in WT versus S2808A myocytes either before or after MI. Iso effects on Ca(2+) current, contraction, Ca(2+) transients, and SR Ca(2+) load were identical in WT and S2808A myocytes before and after MI at both low and high concentrations.These results strongly support the idea that PKA phosphorylation of RyR-S2808 is irrelevant to the development of cardiac dysfunction after MI, at least in the mice used in this study.
Project description:The channel function of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is modulated by calmodulin (CaM). However, the involvement of CaM in aberrant Ca(2+) release in diseased hearts remains unclear. Here, we investigated the pathogenic role of defective CaM binding to the RyR2 in the channel dysfunction associated with heart failure.The involvement of CaM in aberrant Ca(2+) release was assessed in normal and pacing-induced failing canine hearts. The apparent affinity of CaM for RyR2 was considerably lower in failing sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) compared with normal SR. Thus, the amount of CaM bound to RyR2 was markedly decreased in failing myocytes. Expression of the CaM isoform Gly-Ser-His-CaM (GSH-CaM), which has much higher binding affinity than wild-type CaM for RyR1, restored normal CaM binding to RyR2 in both SR and myocytes of failing hearts. The Ca(2+) spark frequency (SpF) was markedly higher and the SR Ca(2+) content was lower in failing myocytes compared with normal myocytes. The incorporation of GSH-CaM into the failing myocytes corrected the aberrant SpF and SR Ca(2+) content to normal levels.Reduced CaM binding to RyR2 seems to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of aberrant Ca(2+) release in failing hearts. Correction of the reduced CaM binding to RyR2 stabilizes the RyR2 channel function and thereby restores normal Ca(2+) handling and contractile function to failing hearts.
Project description:An increase of late Na(+) current (INaL) in cardiac myocytes can raise the cytosolic Na(+) concentration and is associated with activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and Ca(2+) handling by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). We tested the hypothesis that augmentation of INaL can increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidation of CaMKII, resulting in spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release and increased diastolic Ca(2+) in myocytes. Increases of INaL and/or of the cytosolic Na(+) concentration led to mitochondrial ROS production and oxidation of CaMKII to cause dysregulation of Ca(2+) handling in rabbit cardiac myocytes.
Project description:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmic syndrome caused by mutations in genes encoding the calcium-regulation proteins cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2). Mechanistic studies indicate that CPVT is mediated by diastolic Ca(2+) overload and increased Ca(2+) leak through the RyR2 channel, implying that treatment targeting these defects might be efficacious in CPVT.CPVT mouse models that lack CASQ2 were treated with Ca(2+) -channel inhibitors, ?-adrenergic inhibitors, or Mg(2+) . Treatment effects on ventricular arrhythmia, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein expression and Ca(2+) transients of isolated myocytes were assessed. Each study agent reduced the frequency of stress-induced ventricular arrhythmia in mutant mice. The Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil was most efficacious and completely prevented arrhythmia in 85% of mice. Verapamil significantly increased the SR Ca(2+) content in mutant myocytes, diminished diastolic Ca(2+) overload, increased systolic Ca(2+) amplitude, and prevented Ca(2+) oscillations in stressed mutant myocytes.Ca(2+) channel inhibition by verapamil rectified abnormal calcium handling in CPVT myocytes and prevented ventricular arrhythmias. Verapamil-induced partial normalization of SR Ca(2+) content in mutant myocytes implicates CASQ2 as modulator of RyR2 activity, rather than or in addition to, Ca(2+) buffer protein. Agents such as verapamil that attenuate cardiomyocyte calcium overload are appropriate for assessing clinical efficacy in human CPVT.
Project description:Abnormal cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) function is recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). However, the specific molecular causes underlying RyR2 defects in HF remain poorly understood. In the present study, we used a canine model of chronic HF to test the hypothesis that the HF-related alterations in RyR2 function are caused by posttranslational modification by reactive oxygen species generated in the failing heart. Experimental approaches included imaging of cytosolic ([Ca(2+)](c)) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) luminal Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]SR) in isolated intact and permeabilized ventricular myocytes and single RyR2 channel recording using the planar lipid bilayer technique. The ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione, as well as the level of free thiols on RyR2 decreased markedly in failing versus control hearts consistent with increased oxidative stress in HF. RyR2-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak was significantly enhanced in permeabilized myocytes, resulting in reduced [Ca(2+)](SR) in HF compared to control cells. Both SR Ca(2+) leak and [Ca(2+)](SR) were partially normalized by treating HF myocytes with reducing agents. Conversely, oxidizing agents accelerated SR Ca(2+) leak and decreased [Ca(2+)](SR) in cells from normal hearts. Moreover, exposure to antioxidants significantly improved intracellular Ca(2+)-handling parameters in intact HF myocytes. Single RyR2 channel activity was significantly higher in HF versus control because of increased sensitivity to activation by luminal Ca(2+) and was partially normalized by reducing agents through restoring luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity oxidation of control RyR2s enhanced their luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity, thus reproducing the HF phenotype. These findings suggest that redox modification contributes to abnormal function of RyR2s in HF, presenting a potential therapeutic target for treating HF.
Project description:Ionizing radiation (IR) is an integral part of modern multimodal anti-cancer therapies. IR involves the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in targeted tissues. This is associated with subsequent cardiac dysfunction when applied during chest radiotherapy. We hypothesized that IR (i.e., ROS)-dependently impaired cardiac myocytes' Ca handling might contribute to IR-dependent cardiocellular dysfunction. Isolated ventricular mouse myocytes and the mediastinal area of anaesthetized mice (that included the heart) were exposed to graded doses of irradiation (sham 4 and 20 Gy) and investigated acutely (after ~1 h) as well as chronically (after ~1 week). IR induced a dose-dependent effect on myocytes' systolic function with acutely increased, but chronically decreased Ca transient amplitudes, which was associated with an acutely unaltered but chronically decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load. Likewise, in vivo echocardiography of anaesthetized mice revealed acutely enhanced left ventricular contractility (strain analysis) that declined after 1 week. Irradiated myocytes showed persistently increased diastolic SR Ca leakage, which was acutely compensated by an increase in SR Ca reuptake. This was reversed in the chronic setting in the face of slowed relaxation kinetics. As underlying cause, acutely increased ROS levels were identified to activate Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Accordingly, CaMKII-, but not PKA-dependent phosphorylation sites of the SR Ca release channels (RyR2, at Ser-2814) and phospholamban (at Thr-17) were found to be hyperphosphorylated following IR. Conversely, ROS-scavenging as well as CaMKII-inhibition significantly attenuated CaMKII-activation, disturbed Ca handling, and subsequent cellular dysfunction upon irradiation. Targeted cardiac irradiation induces a biphasic effect on cardiac myocytes Ca handling that is associated with chronic cardiocellular dysfunction. This appears to be mediated by increased oxidative stress and persistently activated CaMKII. Our findings suggest impaired cardiac myocytes Ca handling as a so far unknown mediator of IR-dependent cardiac damage that might be of relevance for radiation-induced cardiac dysfunction.
Project description:In heart failure (HF), abnormal myocyte Ca(2+) handling has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between Ca(2+) handling, reduced myocyte contractility, and enhanced arrhythmogenesis during HF progression in a canine model of non-ischaemic HF.Key Ca(2+) handling parameters were determined by measuring cytosolic and intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) [Ca(2+)] in isolated ventricular myocytes at different stages of HF. The progression of HF was associated with an early and continuous increase in ryanodine receptor (RyR2)-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak. The increase in RyR2 activity was paralleled by an increase in the frequency of diastolic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCWs) in HF myocytes under conditions of ?-adrenergic stimulation. In addition to causing arrhythmogenic-delayed afterdepolarizations, SCWs decreased the amplitude of subsequent electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients by depleting SR Ca(2+). At late stages of HF, Ca(2+) release oscillated essentially independent of electrical pacing. The increased propensity for the generation of SCWs in HF myocytes was attributable to reduced ability of the RyR2 channels to become refractory following Ca(2+) release. The progressive alterations in RyR2 function and Ca(2+) cycling in HF myocytes were associated with sequential modifications of RyR2 by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation and thiol oxidation.These findings suggest that destabilized RyR2 activity due to excessive CaMKII phopshorylation and oxidation resulting in impaired post-release refractoriness is a common mechanism involved in arrhythmogenesis and contractile dysfunction in the failing heart.
Project description:Ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is the major Ca(2+) channel of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and plays a crucial role in the generation of myocardial force. Changes in RyR2 gating properties and resulting increases in its open probability (Po) are associated with Ca(2+) leakage from the SR and arrhythmias; however, the effects of RyR2 dysfunction on myocardial contractility are unknown. Here, we investigated the possibility that a RyR2 mutation associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, R4496C, affects the contractile function of atrial and ventricular myocardium. We measured isometric twitch tension in left ventricular and atrial trabeculae from wild-type mice and heterozygous transgenic mice carrying the R4496C RyR2 mutation and found that twitch force was comparable under baseline conditions (30°C, 2 mM [Ca(2+)]o, 1 Hz). However, the positive inotropic responses to high stimulation frequency, 0.1 µM isoproterenol, and 5 mM [Ca(2+)]o were decreased in R4496C trabeculae, as was post-rest potentiation. We investigated the mechanisms underlying inotropic insufficiency in R4496C muscles in single ventricular myocytes. Under baseline conditions, the amplitude of the Ca(2+) transient was normal, despite the reduced SR Ca(2+) content. Under inotropic challenge, however, R4496C myocytes were unable to boost the amplitude of Ca(2+) transients because they are incapable of properly increasing the amount of Ca(2+) stored in the SR because of a larger SR Ca(2+) leakage. Recovery of force in response to premature stimuli was faster in R4496C myocardium, despite the unchanged rates of recovery of L-type Ca(2+) channel current (ICa-L) and SR Ca(2+) content in single myocytes. A faster recovery from inactivation of the mutant R4496C channels could explain this behavior. In conclusion, changes in RyR2 channel gating associated with the R4496C mutation could be directly responsible for the alterations in both ventricular and atrial contractility. The increased RyR2 Po and fractional Ca(2+) release from the SR induced by the R4496C mutation preserves baseline contractility despite a slight decrease in SR Ca(2+) content, but cannot compensate for the inability to increase SR Ca(2+) content during inotropic challenge.