Antimicrobial activity of solithromycin against clinical isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1.
ABSTRACT: The activity of solithromycin was evaluated against clinical Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) isolates (n = 196) collected in Ontario, Canada, from 1980 to 2011. Its in vitro activity was compared to that of azithromycin (AZM) using the broth microdilution method. Solithromycin had a MIC50 of ≤0.015 μg/ml and a MIC90 of 0.031 μg/ml, making its activity at least 8-fold to 32-fold higher than that of AZM (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively). Ninety-nine percent of the isolates had MICs for solithromycin ranging from ≤0.015 μg/ml to 0.031 μg/ml, whereas 83.6% of the isolates showed MICs for AZM ranging from 0.062 μg/ml to 0.25 μg/ml. Interestingly, 96.7% (30 out of 31 clinical isolates) identified with higher AZM MICs (0.5 μg/ml to 2 μg/ml) belonged to the clinically prevalent sequence type 1. To investigate the intracellular activity of solithromycin, in vitro invasion assays were also performed against a subset of representative Lp1 isolates internalized within human lung epithelial cells. Solithromycin and AZM both inhibited growth of all intracellular Lp1 isolates at 1× or 8× MICs, displaying bacteriostatic effects, as would be expected with protein synthesis inhibitor rather than bactericidal activity. Solithromycin demonstrated the highest in vitro and intracellular potency against all Lp1 isolates compared to AZM. Given the rapid spread of resistance mechanisms among respiratory pathogens and the reported treatment failures in legionellosis, the development of this new fluoroketolide, already in phase 3 oral clinical studies, constitutes a promising alternative option for the treatment of legionellosis.
Project description:We evaluated the activity of solithromycin against 196 clinical gonococcal isolates collected at the Public Health Ontario Laboratories, Toronto, Canada, including isolates with different levels of azithromycin resistance, as well as the role of pH in MIC determinations using pH-adjusted agar plates (pH range, 5.6 to 7.6). In vitro invasion assays were performed using monolayers of HeLa epithelial cells and clinical gonococci displaying different azithromycin MICs; infected cultures were treated with solithromycin, and its intracellular activity was determined by CFU assays after 3 and 20 h of exposure. Solithromycin displayed a MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.0625 and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively, making its activity at least 4-fold higher than that of azithromycin. Clinical isolates with elevated MICs for azithromycin (MICs of ≥2,048 μg/ml and 4 to 8 μg/ml) showed solithromycin MIC values of 8 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. In contrast to azithromycin, solithromycin MICs were not significantly affected by acidic pHs, suggesting more stability at lower pH. Moreover, when intracellular Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were incubated with solithromycin at 4 times, 1 times, and one-fourth of the MIC, the exposure to solithromycin resulted in the progressive loss of viability of most isolates over time. The intracellular activity of solithromycin, combined with the low MICs to this agent, indicates that it may be an attractive option for gonorrhea treatment if clinical trials in development reveal that this drug can be used safely in adult indications, especially when multidrug-resistant clinical isolates are now emerging.
Project description:A total of 10,451 contemporary (2016) Enterobacteriaceae isolates from 84 U.S. medical centers and 116 metallo-β-lactamase- and/or OXA-48-like-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from other countries were tested against aztreonam-avibactam and comparators. All U.S. isolates were inhibited at aztreonam-avibactam MICs of ≤8 μg/ml (MIC50, ≤0.03 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.12 μg/ml), including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing isolates (n = 102; MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), multidrug-resistant isolates (n = 876; MIC50, 0.06 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml), and extensively drug-resistant isolates (n = 111; MIC50, 0.12 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml). The highest aztreonam-avibactam MIC value among ex-U.S. isolates was 4 μg/ml.
Project description:Objective:The aims of this study were to describe azithromycin (AZM) susceptibility patterns among Shigella isolates in Anhui, China and identify predictors of resistance with mobile element-mediated genes. Methods:A total of 517 non-duplicate Shigella isolates (449 S. flexneri and 68 S. sonnei) were collected in the Anhui Province of China from September 2011-September 2015, and screened for the plasmid-mediated genes of decreased susceptibility to AZM (DSA), using polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Conjugation experiments and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were conducted for all mphA-positive DSA isolates. Results:The DSA rate for 449 S. flexneri isolates was 33.6%, compared with 39.7% for 68 S. sonnei isolates. Among 161 DSA S. flexneri isolates, 93 (57.8%) carried the mphA gene. Among 27 DSA S. sonnei isolates, 11 (40.7%) carried the mphA gene. However, other plasmid-mediated DSA genes were not found in these isolates. A total of 89 transconjugants (95.7%) were obtained from 93 mphA-positive S. flexneri isolates through conjugation, and 10 transconjugants (90.9%) were obtained from 11 mphA-positive S. sonnei isolates. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AZM among 89 S. flexneri transconjugants ranged from 4 to 128 ?g/mL, with an MIC50 of 8 ?g/mL and MIC90 of 32 ?g/mL. The MICs of AZM among 10 S. sonnei transconjugants ranged from 4 to 256 ?g/mL, with an MIC50 of 8 ?g/mL and MIC90 of 64 ?g/mL. Thirteen clusters were found for mphA-positive S. flexneri, and five clusters were found for mphA-positive S. sonnei. Furthermore, 10 homologous isolates among 13 mphA-positive S. flexneri isolates with high-level DSA were from Sixian county and were multidrug-resistant strains. Of the 10 homologous S. flexneri isolates, eight were from children (?5 years old), and two from the elderly (>60 years old). Conclusion:Our study demonstrates that the DSA for Shigella isolates was severe, and the plasmid-mediated mphA gene was the most common macrolide resistance gene detected in Shigella isolates collected in Anhui, China. The mphA-positive S. flexneri isolates with high-level DSA facilitated clonal spread in children and the elderly. This finding is noteworthy and warrants further study.
Project description:Vaborbactam (formerly RPX7009) is a novel inhibitor of serine β-lactamases, including Ambler class A carbapenemases, such as KPCs. The current study evaluated the in vitro activity of the combination agent meropenem-vaborbactam against a global collection of 991 isolates of KPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae collected in 2014 and 2015 using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standard broth microdilution method. The MIC90 of meropenem (when tested with a fixed concentration of 8 μg/ml of vaborbactam) for isolates of KPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae was 1 μg/ml, and MIC values ranged from ≤0.03 to >32 μg/ml; 99.0% (981/991) of isolates had meropenem-vaborbactam MICs of ≤4 μg/ml, the U.S. FDA-approved MIC breakpoint for susceptibility to meropenem-vaborbactam (Vabomere). Vaborbactam lowered the meropenem MIC50 from 32 to 0.06 μg/ml and the MIC90 from >32 to 1 μg/ml. There were no differences in the activity of meropenem-vaborbactam when the isolates were stratified by KPC variant type. We conclude that meropenem-vaborbactam demonstrates potent in vitro activity against a worldwide collection of clinical isolates of KPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae collected in 2014 and 2015.
Project description:Understanding which antimicrobial agents are likely to be active against Gram-negative bacilli can guide selection of antimicrobials for empirical therapy as mechanistic rapid diagnostics are adopted. In this study, we determined the MICs of a novel ?-lactam-?-lactamase inhibitor combination, imipenem-relebactam, along with ceftolozane-tazobactam, imipenem, ertapenem, meropenem, ceftriaxone, and cefepime, against 282 drug-resistant isolates of Gram-negative bacilli. For isolates harboring blaKPC (n = 110), the addition of relebactam to imipenem lowered the MIC50/MIC90 from 16/>128 ?g/ml for imipenem alone to 0.25/1 ?g/ml. For isolates harboring blaCTX-M (n = 48), the MIC50/MIC90 of ceftolozane-tazobactam were 0.5/16 ?g/ml (83% susceptible). For isolates harboring blaCMY-2 (n = 17), the MIC50/MIC90 of ceftolozane-tazobactam were 4/8 ?g/ml (47% susceptible). Imipenem-relebactam was active against most KPC-producing (but not NDM- or IMP-producing) Enterobacteriaceae and is an encouraging addition to the present antibiotic repertoire.
Project description:Although Candida albicans remains the most common fungal isolate from clinical specimens, many studies have detected a shift towards non-albicans Candida species. Despite worrying clinical pictures associated with latter species, there is little information regarding its susceptibility patterns against currently available antifungal agents, with only a small number of strains having been studied.We evaluated the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of clinical isolates of C. orthopsilosis already identified by two-steps PCR-RFLP and reconfirmed by sequence analysis of entire ITS rDNA region, to six antifungal drugs.The resulting MIC50 and MIC90 for all strains (n=18) were in increasing order, as follows: posaconazole (0.016 & 0.063 μg/ml); itraconazole (0.031 & 0.125 μg/ml); amphotericin B (0.5 & 1 μg/ml); fluconazole (0.25 & 0.5 μg/ml) and caspofungin (4 & 8 μg/ml). A uniform pattern of the MIC ranges was seen for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole, while a widest range and the highest MICs were observed for caspofungin.Although we emphasis on the careful species designation of the clinical isolates of Candida, the antifungal susceptibility patterns of these clinically important organisms may have an application in clinical and epidemiological setting and deserve the implementation of local surveillance programs to monitor.
Project description:Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast that causes a wide spectrum of infections, especially in intensive care settings. We investigated C. auris prevalence among 102 clinical isolates previously identified as Candida haemulonii or Candida famata by the Vitek 2 system. Internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequencing confirmed 88.2% of the isolates as C. auris, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) easily separated all related species, viz., C. auris (n = 90), C. haemulonii (n = 6), C. haemulonii var. vulnera (n = 1), and Candida duobushaemulonii (n = 5). The in vitro antifungal susceptibility was determined using CLSI broth microdilution (CLSI-BMD), the Vitek 2 antifungal susceptibility test, and the Etest method. C. auris isolates revealed uniformly elevated fluconazole MICs (MIC50, 64 μg/ml), and an alarming percentage of isolates (37%) exhibited elevated caspofungin MICs by CLSI-BMD. Notably, 34% of C. auris isolates had coexisting elevated MICs (≥2 μg/ml) for both fluconazole and voriconazole, and 10% of the isolates had elevated coexisting MICs (≥2 μg/ml) to two additional azoles, i.e., posaconazole and isavuconazole. In contrast to reduced amphotericin B MICs by CLSI-BMD (MIC50, 1 μg/ml) for C. auris, elevated MICs were noted by Vitek 2 (MIC50, 8 μg/ml), which were statistically significant. Candida auris remains an unnoticed pathogen in routine microbiology laboratories, as 90% of the isolates characterized by commercial identification systems are misidentified as C. haemulonii. MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a more robust diagnostic technique for rapid identification of C. auris. Considering that misleading elevated MICs of amphotericin B by the Vitek AST-YS07 card may lead to the selection of inappropriate therapy, a cautionary approach is recommended for laboratories relying on commercial systems for identification and antifungal susceptibility testing of rare yeasts.
Project description:A total of 7,272 unique patient clinical isolates were collected from 71 U.S. medical centers from patients with urinary tract infections in 2012 to 2014 and tested for susceptibility to ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators by broth microdilution methods. Ceftazidime-avibactam inhibited >99.9% of all Enterobacteriaceae at the susceptible breakpoint of ≤8 μg/ml (there were only three nonsusceptible strains). Ceftazidime-avibactam was also active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (MIC50, 2 μg/ml; MIC90, 4 μg/ml; 97.7% susceptible), including many isolates not susceptible to meropenem, ceftazidime, and/or piperacillin-tazobactam.
Project description:Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n = 110) from health care centers in central Indiana (from 2010 to 2013) were tested for susceptibility to combinations of avibactam (4 μg/ml) with ceftazidime, ceftaroline, or aztreonam. MIC50/MIC90 values were 1/2 μg/ml (ceftazidime-avibactam), 0.5/2 μg/ml (ceftaroline-avibactam), and 0.25/0.5 μg/ml (aztreonam-avibactam.) A β-lactam MIC of 8 μg/ml was reported for the three combinations against one Escherichia coli isolate with an unusual TIPY insertion following Tyr344 in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP 3) as the result of gene duplication.
Project description:Plazomicin and comparator agents were tested by using the CLSI reference broth microdilution method against 4,825 clinical isolates collected during 2014 and 2015 in 70 U.S. hospitals as part of the ALERT (Antimicrobial Longitudinal Evaluation and Resistance Trends) program. Plazomicin (MIC50/MIC90, 0.5/2 ?g/ml) inhibited 99.2% of 4,362 Enterobacteriaceae at ?4 ?g/ml. Amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin inhibited 98.9%, 90.3%, and 90.3% of these isolates, respectively, by applying CLSI breakpoints. The activities of plazomicin were similar among Enterobacteriaceae species, with MIC50 values ranging from 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml, with the exception of Proteus mirabilis and indole-positive Proteeae that displayed MIC50 values of 2 ?g/ml. For 97 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), which included 87 isolates carrying blaKPC, plazomicin inhibited all but 1 isolate at ?2 ?g/ml (99.0% and 98.9%, respectively). Amikacin and gentamicin inhibited 64.9% and 56.7% of the CRE isolates at the respective CLSI breakpoints. Plazomicin inhibited 96.5 and 95.5% of the gentamicin-resistant isolates, 96.9 and 96.5% of the tobramycin-resistant isolates, and 64.3 and 90.0% of the amikacin-resistant isolates according to CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints, respectively. The activities of plazomicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/MIC90, 4/16 ?g/ml) and Acinetobacter species (MIC50/MIC90, 2/16 ?g/ml) isolates were similar. Plazomicin was active against coagulase-negative staphylococci (MIC50/MIC90, 0.12/0.5 ?g/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50/MIC90, 0.5/0.5 ?g/ml) but had limited activity against Enterococcus spp. (MIC50/MIC90, 16/64 ?g/ml) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC50/MIC90, 32/64 ?g/ml). Plazomicin activity against the Enterobacteriaceae tested, including CRE and isolates carrying blaKPC from U.S. hospitals, supports the development plan for plazomicin to treat serious infections caused by resistant Enterobacteriaceae in patients with limited treatment options.