Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analysis of nevirapine in hypersensitive and tolerant HIV-infected patients from Malawi.
ABSTRACT: We modeled nevirapine (NVP) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected Malawian patients to assess the relationship between drug exposure and patient characteristics, genetic polymorphisms, and development of hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). One thousand one hundred seventeen patients were prospectively recruited and followed for 26 weeks with multiple or single serum samples obtained in a subset of patients for NVP quantification. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes were typed. Nonlinear mixed effects modeling was utilized to assess the influence of patient characteristics and host genetics on NVP apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and to explore the relationship between NVP CL/F and HSR. Published haplotype distributions were used to simulate NVP concentrations in Caucasians versus Africans. One hundred eighty patients (101 female) were included in the model; 25 experienced HSR. No associations between patient demographics or HSR and NVP CL/F were evident. A significant relationship between CYP2B6 c.983T>C and CYP2B6 c.516G>T and NVP CL/F was observed (P < 0.01). NVP CL/F was reduced by 23% and 36% in patients with CYP2B6 983TT/516TT and 983TC/516GG or GT, respectively, compared to the reference genotype. Simulated exposures suggested similar proportions (13 to 17%) of patients with subtherapeutic NVP among Caucasians and an African population. Influence of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on NVP CL/F in this population is in agreement with other reports. Our data indicate a lack of association between NVP exposure and HSR. Based on these data, dose optimization based solely on ethnicity (without individual gene testing) is unlikely to impact on risk of treatment failure or toxicity even in an African population with high carriage of poor metabolizer mutations.
Project description:AIMS:Using a model-based approach, the efavirenz steady-state pharmacokinetics in African children is characterized, quantifying demographic and genotypic effects on the drug's disposition. Simulations are also conducted allowing prediction of optimized doses of efavirenz in this population. METHODS:We modelled the steady-state population pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in Ugandan and Zambian children using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Individual mid-dose efavirenz concentrations were derived and simulations explored genotype-based dose optimization strategies. RESULTS:A two-compartment model with absorption through transit compartments well described 2086 concentration-time points in 169 children. The combined effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 516G>T and 983T>C explained 44.5% and 14.7% of the variability in efavirenz clearance and bioavailability, respectively. The detected frequencies of composite CYP2B6 genotype were 0.33 for 516GG|983TT, 0.35 for 516GT|983TT, 0.06 for 516GG|983TC, 0.18 for 516TT|983TT, 0.07 516GT|983TC and 0.01 for 516GG|983CC. The corresponding estimated clearance rates were 6.94, 4.90, 3.93, 1.92, 1.36, and 0.74 l h(-1) for a 15.4 kg child and median (95% CI) observed mid-dose concentrations 1.55 (0.51-2.94), 2.20 (0.97-4.40), 2.03 (1.19-4.53), 7.55 (2.40-14.74), 7.79 (3.66-24.59) and 18.22 (11.84-22.76) mg l(-1) , respectively. Simulations showed that wild-type individuals had exposures at the bottom of therapeutic range, while slower metabolizers were overexposed. CONCLUSIONS:Dosage guidelines for African children should take into consideration the combined effect of SNPs CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To characterize the effects of CYP2B6 polymorphisms, diurnal variation and demographic factors on nevirapine pharmacokinetics in African children. METHODS:Non-linear mixed-effects modelling conducted in NONMEM 7.3 described nevirapine plasma concentration-time data from 414 children aged 0.3-15 years. RESULTS:Nevirapine pharmacokinetics was best described using a one-compartment disposition model with elimination through a well-stirred liver model accounting for a first-pass effect and transit-compartment absorption. Intrinsic clearance was affected by diurnal variation (characterized using a cosine function with peak amplitude 29% at 12 noon) and CYP2B6 metabolizer status [extensive metabolizer (EM) 516GG|983TT, reference; intermediate metabolizer (IM) 516GT|983TT or 516GG|983TC, 17% lower; slow metabolizer (SM) 516TT|983TT or 516GT|983TC, 50% lower; ultra-slow metabolizer (USM) 516GG|983CC, 68% lower]. Age was found to affect pre-hepatic bioavailability: 31.7% lower at birth and increasing exponentially. Median (90% CI) evening Cmin values in the different metabolizer groups were 5.01 (3.01-7.47), 6.55 (3.65-13.32), 11.59 (5.44-22.71) and 12.32 (12.32-27.25) mg/L, respectively. Evening Cmin values were <3 mg/L in 43% of EM weighing <6 kg and 26% of IM weighing <6 kg, while 73% of SM and 88% of USM in all weight-bands had evening Cmin values >8 mg/L. Cmin was not markedly affected by administration time, but was altered by unequal splitting of the daily dose. CONCLUSIONS:Diurnal variation does not greatly affect nevirapine exposure. However, when daily doses cannot be split equally, the larger dose should be given in the morning. To achieve homogeneous exposures, nevirapine doses for SM and USM should be reduced by 50%, and children weighing <6 kg with EM or IM metabolizer status should receive the same dose as children weighing 6-10 kg.
Project description:Polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) affect the steady state plasma concentration of nevirapine. CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C are common in African populations, but data on their influence on plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical response in African women are limited. We investigated the impact of CYP 516G>T and 983T>C on plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical outcomes in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected Kenyan women.Study subjects were 66 HIV-1-seropositive women taking nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Plasma collected at week 12 was analyzed for nevirapine concentration by high performance liquid chromatography. Baseline samples were genotyped for CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C single nucleotide polymorphisms by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load, and genotypic drug resistance in plasma and genital secretions were assessed at baseline and during follow up. We evaluated the effect of each genotype on plasma nevirapine concentration at week 12 and on change in CD4 cell count at months 3, 6 and 12. Associations between plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical outcomes were analyzed by logistic or linear regression.Women with CYP2B6 516TT genotype (n=9) had higher mean nevirapine plasma levels (14.33 μg/mL) compared to those with heterozygous 516GT (9.18 μg/mL; n=25) and wild- type 516GG (7.95 μg/mL; n=32) genotypes (P=0.01). Women heterozygous for the CYP2B6 983TC genotype (n=13) had higher mean nevirapine plasma levels (12.94 μg/mL), compared to women with the homozygous 983TT (8.35 μg/mL; n=53) genotype (P=0.007). In Generalized Estimating Equation analysis, plasma nevirapine levels predicted greater change in CD4 cell count after ART initiation (adjusted beta 119.4 cells/μL, 95% CI, 27.3-211.5 cells/μL, P=0.01). The CYP2B6 983TT genotype also predicted greater change in CD4 cell count (adjusted beta 68.6 cells/μL, 95% CI, 3.9-133.4 cells/μL, P=0.04). We found no associations between CYP2B6 genotypes and virologic response or toxicity.CYP2B6 516G>T and CYP2B6 983T>C genotypes were strongly associated with plasma nevirapine concentration, which predicted immunologic response in women on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. These data support continued work on the potential utility of human genetic testing to inform nevirapine dosage optimization for individual patients.
Project description:The goal of this study was to determine the effect of CYP2B6 genetic variation on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of efavirenz (600 mg/d) in TB/HIV co-infected patients receiving concomitant rifampin, a potent CYP inducer. In the 26 patients studied, CYP2B6 c.516GG, GT, and TT genotype frequencies were 0.27, 0.50, and 0.23, respectively. Mean plasma efavirenz area under the curve was significantly higher in patients with CYP2B6 c.516TT than in those with GT (107 vs 27.6 microg x h/mL, P< .0001) or GG genotype (107 vs 23.0 microg x h/mL, P< .0001). Apparent oral clearance (CL/F) was significantly lower in patients with CYP2B6 c.516TT than in those with GT genotype (2.1 vs 8.4 mL/min/kg, P<0.0001) and GG genotype (2.1 vs 9.9 mL/min/kg, P< .0001). No differences in efavirenz exposure or CL/F existed between patients with CYP2B6 c.516GT and GG genotypes. Our results indicate that CYP2B6 c.516TT genotype can be used to identify efavirenz poor metabolizers in patients co-treated with rifampin.
Project description:Background:Only few data are available on the influence of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4/A5 polymorphisms on nevirapine plasma concentrations in the Caucasian population. Our aim was to assess the impact of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4/A5 polymorphisms on nevirapine plasma concentrations consecutively collected. Methods:We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of all HIV-positive patients who were followed at the Infectious Diseases Unit, DIBIC Luigi Sacco, University of Milan between January 2000 and December 2015. All patients with at least one nevirapine plasma trough concentration (NVP Cmin) determination were tested for CYP2B6 c.516 G>T, CYP3A4*22C>T and CYP3A5*3 A>G polymorphisms. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were carried out considering NVP Cmin as the dependent variable and genetic polymorphisms and clinical characteristics as independent variables. Results:A total of 143 patients were evaluated. Most of them were males (61.5%) and Caucasian (92.3%). Overall, NVP Cmin varied from 1571 to 14,189? ng/mL (median? =? 5063? ng/mL, interquartile range? =? 3915-6854). The median NVP Cmin significantly differed in patients with different CYP2B6 genotypes, but did not vary in those with different CYP3A phenotypes. In the final general linear model, factors significantly associated with a higher NVP Cmin were each extra unit of T alleles of CYP2B6 rs3745274 (?? =? 0.328, 95% confidence interval? =? 0.172-0.484; p? <? 0.0001), older age (?? =? 0.362, 95% confidence interval? =? 0.193-0.532; p? <? 0.0001) and hepatitis C virus coinfection (?? =? 0.161, 95% confidence interval? =? 0.006-0.315; p? <? 0.041). Conclusion:Our study, conducted in a prevalent Caucasian population, highlighted the importance of CYP2B6 genetic variants in influencing nevirapine plasma trough concentration. Furthermore, older age and hepatitis C virus coinfection significantly increase exposure to nevirapine.
Project description:<label>OBJECTIVES</label>To determine safety-specific, efficacy-specific and genotypic-specific dose requirements of efavirenz (EFV) in children aged 3 to less than 36 months with HIV infection.<label>DESIGN</label>IMPAACT P1070 was a 24-week prospective cohort trial of EFV (as open capsules) and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in children with HIV infection 3 to less than 36 months without tuberculosis (Cohort 1).<label>METHODS</label>CYP2B6 G516T genotype was determined, and intensive pharmacokinetics was performed at week 2. EFV dose was adjusted if outside the target area under the curve (AUC) 35-180??g*h/ml. Pharmacokinetic and CYP2B6 G516T genotype data were used to model EFV exposures based on Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved doses.<label>RESULTS</label>Forty-seven participants, median age 19 months, initiated the study regimen with 24 weeks median follow-up; 38 516GG/GT and 9 516TT genotypes. Initially, median EFV AUC was higher in 516TT vs. 516GG/GT (median 490 vs. 107??g*h/ml; P?=?0.0001) with all 516TT above AUC target. Following an amendment that reduced the 516TT EFV dose by 75%, pharmacokinetic modeling predicted that 83% of participants met the AUC target (31/38 516GG/GT, 8/9 516TT). In contrast, modeling using P1070 data predicted that FDA-approved doses would produce subtherapeutic AUCs in almost one-third of participants with 516GG/GT and excessive AUCs in more than 50% with 516TT genotypes.<label>CONCLUSION</label>CYP2B6 G516T genotype strongly influences EFV exposures in this age group. Genotype-directed dosing yields therapeutic EFV concentrations and appears to outperform other dosing approaches.
Project description:Objectives:There are limited data regarding efavirenz pharmacogenetics in admixed populations. The Brazilian population is highly admixed. In a Brazilian cohort, we sought to characterize associations between efavirenz adverse effects (all-cause and CNS) and polymorphisms in seven genes known or suspected to affect efavirenz metabolism and transport. Methods:We studied 225 HIV-positive individuals who had been prescribed efavirenz-containing regimens at a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Eighty-nine cases had efavirenz adverse effects, including 43 with CNS adverse effects, while 136 controls had no adverse effect of any antiretroviral after treatment for at least 6?months. A total of 67 candidate polymorphisms in ABCB1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, NR1I2 and NR1I3 genes were selected for association analysis. Admixture was assessed using 28 ancestry-informative polymorphisms previously validated for the Brazilian population. Associations were evaluated with logistic regression models adjusted for sex and genetic ancestry. Results:There was extensive African, European and Native American admixture in the cohort. Increased all-cause adverse effects were associated with the CYP2B6 genotype combination 15582CC-516TT-983TT (OR?=?7.26, P?=?0.003) and with the CYP2B6 slow metabolizer group 516TT or 516GT-983CT (OR?=?3.10, P?=?0.04). CNS adverse effects were nominally associated with CYP3A4 rs4646437 (OR?=?4.63, P?=?0.014), but not after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Conclusions:In a highly admixed Brazilian cohort, the CYP2B6 slow metabolizer genotype was associated with an increased risk of efavirenz adverse effects.
Project description:Whether the non-inferior efficacy and safety results of switching virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients from nevirapine immediate-release (NVP-IR) to NVP extended-release (NVP-XR) demonstrated in the TRANxITION study conducted in Europe and North America are also applicable to virologically suppressed HIV-infected Taiwanese patients remains unknown. We evaluated the comparative safety and efficacy of continuing NVP-IR versus switching to NVP-XR in virologically suppressed HIV-infected Taiwanese adults receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens.We conducted a retrospective cohort study at Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital from April 1, 2013, to March 31, 2015. Eighty-four virologically suppressed HIV-infected adults receiving NVP-IR cART were split into two groups: those continuing with NVP-IR (n = 49) and those being switched to NVP-XR (n = 35). Demographic characteristics, clinical variables, and laboratory findings were compared. Therapeutic drug monitoring of steady-state plasma NVP concentrations and genotype analysis of CYP2B6 516 were also performed in 22 participants. The primary endpoint was continued virological suppression at the end of the study. Secondary endpoints were time to loss of virological response and adverse events.During a mean follow-up of 18.4 months, the NVP-XR group demonstrated similar success at maintaining virological response compared with the NVP-IR group (82.9% vs. 85.7%; P = 0.72). Cox regression analysis indicated that there were no significant differences between NVP regimens for time to loss of virological response (hazard ratio: 0.940; P = 0.754). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in adverse events between these two groups. In the 22 participants, there was a non-significantly lower level of steady-state plasma NVP concentrations in the NVP-XR group than in NVP-IR recipients (5145.0 ng/mL vs. 6775.0 ng/mL; P = 0.267). The prevalence of CYP2B6 516 GT was 86.6%, and there was no significant difference in the distribution of CYP2B6 516 between these two groups.We found that switching from NVP-IR to NVP-XR appeared to have similar safety and efficacy compared with continuing NVP-IR among virologically suppressed, HIV-infected Taiwanese patients. Our finding of higher Ctrough levels in both groups compared with other studies conducted in Caucasian populations and the high prevalence of CYP2B6 516 GT requires further investigation in a larger Taiwanese cohort.
Project description:ENCORE1 demonstrated non-inferiority of daily efavirenz 400 mg (EFV400) versus 600 mg (EFV600) to 96 weeks in treatment-naïve, HIV-infected adults but concerns regarding lower EFV400 concentrations remained. Therefore, relationships between EFV pharmacokinetics (PK) and key genetic polymorphisms with 96-week efficacy and safety were investigated.Relationships between EFV PK parameters and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; CYP2B6, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, NR1I3, NR1I2, ABCB1) with plasma HIV-RNA (pVL) <200 copies/mL and EFV discontinuation and adverse events at 96 weeks were explored. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis evaluated the predictability of mid-dose interval (C12) cutoffs and 96-week pVL.A total of 606 patients (32 % female; 37 % African, 33 % Asian; n = 311 EFV400, n = 295 EFV600) were included. EFV PK parameters, including C12, were not associated with pVL <200 copies/mL at 96 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 5.25, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.41-67.90, p = 0.204). Lower risk of CNS-related adverse events was associated with CYP2B6 983TC/CC (OR 0.35, 95 % CI 0.15-0.81, p = 0.015) and higher risk was associated with CYP2B6 15582CT/TT and ABCB1 3435TT (OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.02-2.09, p = 0.040; OR 2.31, 95 % CI 1.33-4.02, p = 0.003, respectively). Discontinuation due to adverse events (clinician decision) was independently associated with dose (OR 2.54, 95 % CI 1.19-5.43, p = 0.016). C12 between 0.47 and 0.76 mg/L provided sensitivity/specificity >90 % (100 %/92.3 to 98.9 %/92.3 %) for achieving pVL <200 copies/mL at 96 weeks.A higher rate of EFV-related adverse events and discontinuations due to these events for EFV600 were not driven by polymorphisms assessed. Although a single threshold concentration associated with HIV suppression may be clinically useful, it was not viable for ENCORE1. Implementation of EFV400 would improve toxicity management whilst still maintaining good efficacy.
Project description:Efavirenz exhibits marked interindividual variability in plasma levels and toxicities. Prior pharmacogenetic studies usually measure exposure via single plasma levels, examine limited numbers of polymorphisms, and rarely model multiple contributors. We analyzed numerous genetic and nongenetic factors impacting short-term and long-term exposure in a large heterogeneous population of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women.We performed 24-hour intensive pharmacokinetic studies in 111 women receiving efavirenz under actual-use conditions and calculated the area-under-the-concentration-time curve (AUC) to assess short-term exposure; the efavirenz concentration in hair was measured to estimate long-term exposure. A total of 182 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 45 haplotypes in 9 genes were analyzed in relationship to exposure by use of multivariate models that included a number of nongenetic factors.Efavirenz AUCs increased 1.26-fold per doubling of the alanine aminotransferase level and 1.23-fold with orange and/or orange juice consumption. Individuals with the CYP2B6 516TT genotype displayed 3.5-fold increases in AUCs and 3.2-fold increases in hair concentrations, compared with individuals with the TG/GG genotype. Another SNP in CYP2B6 (983TT) and a p-glycoprotein haplotype affected AUCs without substantially altering long-term exposure.This comprehensive pharmacogenomics study showed that individuals with the CYP2B6 516TT genotype displayed >3-fold increases in both short-term and long-term efavirenz exposure, signifying durable effects. Pharmacogenetic testing combined with monitoring of hair levels may improve efavirenz outcomes and reduce toxicities.