Molecular characterization of a catalase-negative methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus strain collected from a patient with cutaneous abscess.
ABSTRACT: We describe a cutaneous abscess caused by catalase-negative methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus in a patient who was concomitantly colonized with virulent USA300 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Sequencing of the katA gene demonstrated a thymine insertion leading to a frameshift mutation and premature truncation of catalase to 21 amino acids.
Project description:Methicillin-susceptible catalase-negative Staphylococcus aureus strain UCN61 was isolated from an arterial leg ulcer. The deduced sequence of the structural katA gene for the catalase was 99% identical to those of other S. aureus strains. Two mutations were identified in katA from S. aureus UCN61, including one leading to a substitution of key histidine 58 by a tyrosine.
Project description:Here we report a catalase-negative methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolate collected from a blood culture. Sequencing through the gene encoding catalase, katA, demonstrated a 2-bp insertion. The resulting frameshift mutation generates a protein that has lost 26 amino acids (aa) at its C-terminal domain.
Project description:We report a case of endocarditis and pericarditis caused by catalase-negative Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular characterization revealed a novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene, leading to a loss of 238 amino acids (47% of the wild-type catalase protein), including the heme-binding site, NADPH-binding region, and Tyr-337, essential for catalysis.
Project description:We report the first description of a rare catalase-negative strain of Staphylococcus aureus in Chile. This new variant was isolated from blood and synovial tissue samples of a pediatric patient. Sequencing analysis revealed that this catalase-negative strain is related to ST10 strain, which has earlier been described in relation to S. aureus carriers. Interestingly, sequence analysis of the catalase gene katA revealed presence of a novel nonsense mutation that causes premature translational truncation of the C-terminus of the enzyme leading to a loss of 222 amino acids. Our study suggests that loss of catalase activity in this rare catalase-negative Chilean strain is due to this novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene, which truncates the enzyme to just 283 amino acids.
Project description:The Staphylococcus aureus genome encodes three ferric uptake repressor (Fur) homologues: Fur, PerR, and Zur. To determine the exact role of Fur in S. aureus, we inactivated the fur gene by allelic replacement using a tetracycline resistance cassette, creating strain MJH010 (fur). The mutant had a growth defect in rich medium, and this defect was exacerbated in metal-depleted CL medium. This growth defect was partially suppressed by manganous ion, a metal ion with known antioxidant properties. This suggests that the fur mutation leads to an oxidative stress condition. Indeed, MJH010 (fur) has reduced levels of catalase activity resulting from decreased katA transcription. Using a katA-lacZ fusion we have determined that Fur functions, either directly or indirectly, as an iron-dependent positive regulator of katA expression. Transcription of katA is coregulated by Fur and PerR, since in MJH010 (fur) transcription was still repressed by manganese while transcription in MJH201 (fur perR) was unresponsive to the presence of iron or manganese. Siderophore biosynthesis was repressed by iron in 8325-4 (wild-type) but in MJH010 (fur) was constitutive. A number of putative Fur-regulated genes were identified in the incomplete genome databases using known S. aureus Fur box sequences. Of those tested, the sstABCD and sirABC operons and the fhuD2 and orf4 genes were found to have Fur-regulated expression. MJH010 (fur) was attenuated (P<0.04) in a murine skin abscess model of infection, as was double-mutant MJH201 (fur perR) (P<0.03). This demonstrates the importance in vivo of iron homeostasis and oxidative stress resistance regulation in S. aureus.
Project description:To determine the health and economic burdens of post-partum Staphylococcus aureus breast abscess.We conducted a matched cohort study (N = 216) in a population of pregnant women (N = 32,770) who delivered at our center during the study period from 10/1/03-9/30/10. Data were extracted from hospital databases, or via chart review if unavailable electronically. We compared cases of S. aureus breast abscess to controls matched by delivery date to compare health services utilization and mean attributable medical costs in 2012 United States dollars using Medicare and hospital-based estimates. We also evaluated whether resource utilization and health care costs differed between cases with methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus isolates.Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed post-partum S. aureus breast abscess were identified. Breastfeeding cessation (41%), milk fistula (11.1%) and hospital readmission (50%) occurred frequently among case patients. Breast abscess case patients had high rates of health services utilization compared to controls, including high rates of imaging and drainage procedures. The mean attributable cost of post-partum S. aureus breast abscess ranged from $2,340-$4,012, depending on the methods and data sources used. Mean attributable costs were not significantly higher among methicillin-resistant vs. -susceptible S. aureus cases.Post-partum S. aureus breast abscess is associated with worse health and economic outcomes for women and their infants, including high rates of breastfeeding cessation. Future study is needed to determine the optimal treatment and prevention of these infections.
Project description:Within the current worldwide epidemic of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections, attention has focused on the role of methicillin-resistant strains. We characterize methicillin-susceptible strains that also contribute to this epidemic.We tracked cultures from abscess specimens submitted to the microbiology laboratory at St. Louis Children's Hospital and examined Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. We further characterized some isolates by multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic susceptibility, accessory gene regulator (agr) allele, and presence of the arcA gene of the arginine catabolic mobile element.From 1999 to 2007, we detected a 250-fold increase in cultures of abscesses yielding methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and a 5-fold increase in abscess cultures yielding MSSA. MSSA isolates from abscesses and wounds were more likely to encode PVL than isolates from other sources. In contrast to PVL-negative isolates of MSSA, which were genetically diverse, PVL-positive isolates were predominantly multilocus sequence typing type 8 and agr type 1. More than half of PVL-positive MSSA isolates were resistant to erythromycin and susceptible to clindamycin with the absence of inducible resistance, a pattern uncommon in PVL-negative MSSA but frequent in the USA300 clone of MRSA. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of PVL-positive MSSA strains revealed the USA300 pattern.In addition to methicillin-resistant strains, the current epidemic of S. aureus infections includes infections caused by methicillin-susceptible strains that are closely related genetically and share phenotypic characteristics other than susceptibility to methicillin. These findings suggest that factors other than methicillin resistance are driving the epidemic.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus infections present an enormous global health concern complicated by an alarming increase in antibiotic resistance. S. aureus is among the few bacterial species that express nitric-oxide synthase (bNOS) and thus can catalyze NO production from L-arginine. Here we generate an isogenic bNOS-deficient mutant in the epidemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 clone to study its contribution to virulence and antibiotic susceptibility. Loss of bNOS increased MRSA susceptibility to reactive oxygen species and host cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides, which correlated with increased MRSA killing by human neutrophils and within neutrophil extracellular traps. bNOS also promoted resistance to the pharmaceutical antibiotics that act on the cell envelope such as vancomycin and daptomycin. Surprisingly, bNOS-deficient strains gained resistance to aminoglycosides, suggesting that the role of bNOS in antibiotic susceptibility is more complex than previously observed in Bacillus species. Finally, the MRSA bNOS mutant showed reduced virulence with decreased survival and smaller abscess generation in a mouse subcutaneous infection model. Together, these data indicate that bNOS contributes to MRSA innate immune and antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Future development of specific bNOS inhibitors could be an attractive option to simultaneously reduce MRSA pathology and enhance its susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics.
Project description:We describe the selection of reduced chlorhexidine susceptibility during chlorhexidine use in a patient with two episodes of cutaneous USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus abscess. The second clinical isolate harbors a novel plasmid that encodes the QacA efflux pump. Greater use of chlorhexidine for disease prevention warrants surveillance for resistance.
Project description:We describe an unusual clinical strain of catalase-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sensu stricto. Sequence analysis of its catalase gene showed 99.60% identities to the catalase genes of the reference strains. A 5-base deletion, however, led to a shift of the nucleotide reading frame and a loss of the enzymatic activity.