Differentiation of antigen-specific T cells with limited functional capacity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
ABSTRACT: Despite the generation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell immune responses during the course of infection, only 5 to 10% of exposed individuals develop active disease, while others develop a latent infection. This phenomenon suggests defective M. tuberculosis-specific immunity, which necessitates more careful characterization of M. tuberculosis-specific T cell responses. Here, we longitudinally analyzed the phenotypes and functions of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells. In contrast to the functional exhaustion of T cells observed after chronic infection, M. tuberculosis-specific CD8(+) T cells differentiated into either effector (CD127(lo) CD62L(lo)) or effector memory (CD127(hi) CD62L(lo)) cells, but not central memory cells (CD127(hi) CD62L(hi)), with low programmed death 1 (PD-1) expression, even in the presence of high levels of bacteria. Additionally, M. tuberculosis-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells produced substantial levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and gamma interferon (IFN-?), but not interleukin 2 (IL-2), upon in vitro restimulation. Among M. tuberculosis-specific CD8(+) T cells, CD127(hi) effector memory cells displayed slower ongoing turnover but greater survival potential. In addition, these cells produced more IFN-? and TNF-? and displayed lytic activity upon antigen stimulation. However, the effector function of M. tuberculosis-specific CD8(+) CD127(hi) effector memory T cells was inferior to that of canonical CD8(+) CD127(hi) memory T cells generated after acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Collectively, our data demonstrate that M. tuberculosis-specific T cells can differentiate into memory T cells during the course of M. tuberculosis infection independent of the bacterial burden but with limited functionality. These results provide a framework for further understanding the mechanisms of M. tuberculosis infection that can be used to develop more effective vaccines.
Project description:CD8(+) tumor infiltrating T cells (TIL) lack effector-phase functions due to defective proximal TCR-mediated signaling previously shown to result from inactivation of p56(lck) kinase. We identify a novel interacting partner for p56(lck) in nonlytic TIL, Protocadherin-18 ('pcdh18'), and show that pcdh18 is transcribed upon in vitro or in vivo activation of all CD8(+) central memory T cells (CD44(+)CD62L(hi)CD127(+)) coincident with conversion into effector memory cells (CD44(+)CD62L(lo)CD127(+)). Expression of pcdh18 in primary CD8(+) effector cells induces the phenotype of nonlytic TIL: defective proximal TCR signaling, cytokine secretion, and cytolysis, and enhanced AICD. pcdh18 contains a motif (centered at Y842) shared with src kinases (QGQYQP) that is required for the inhibitory phenotype. Thus, pcdh18 is a novel activation marker of CD8(+) memory T cells that can function as an inhibitory signaling receptor and restrict the effector phase.
Project description:Most memory phenotype (MP) CD44(hi) CD8(+) cells are resting interleukin (IL)-15-dependent cells characterized by high expression of the IL-2/IL-15 receptor beta (CD122). However, some MP CD8(+) cells have a CD122(lo) phenotype and are IL-15 independent. Here, evidence is presented that the CD122(lo) subset of MP CD8(+) cells is controlled largely by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Many of these cells display surface markers typical of recently activated T cells (CD62L(lo), CD69(hi), CD43(hi), and CD127(lo)) and show a high rate of background proliferation. Cells with this phenotype are highly enriched in common gamma chain-deficient mice and absent from MHC-I(-/-) mice. Unlike CD122(hi) CD8(+) cells, CD122(lo) MP CD8(+) cells survive poorly after transfer to MHC-I(-/-) hosts and cease to proliferate. Although distinctly different from typical antigen-specific memory cells, CD122(lo) MP CD8(+) cells closely resemble the antigen-dependent memory CD8(+) cells found in chronic viral infections.
Project description:The rapid recall of influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T cell effector function is protective, although our understanding of T cell memory remains incomplete. Recent debate has focused particularly on the CD62L lymph node homing receptor. The present analysis shows that although functional memory can be established from both CD62L(hi) and CD62L(lo) CD8(+) T cell subsets soon after initial encounter between naïve precursors and antigen, the optimal precursors are CD8(+)CD44(hi)CD25(lo) immune lymphocytes isolated from draining lymph nodes on day 3.5 after influenza virus infection. Analysis of primed T cells at different times after challenge indicates that the capacity to transfer memory is diminished at the peak of the primary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, challenging speculations that the transition to memory first requires full differentiation to effector status. It seems that location rather than CD62Lhi/lo phenotype may be the more profitable focus for further dissection of the early establishment of T cell memory.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Our study aimed to investigate circulating CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell subpopulations and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 121 peripheral blood samples were obtained from 57 patients with NMOSD, 34 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) for detection of CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell subpopulations, including phenotypes of naïve (T<sub>N</sub> , CD62L<sup>hi</sup> CD45RO<sup>-</sup> ), effector/memory (T<sub>E/M</sub> , CD62L<sup>lo</sup> CD45RO<sup>+</sup> ), memory precursor (T<sub>MP</sub> , CD127<sup>hi</sup> KLRG1<sup>lo</sup> ), and short lived effector (T<sub>SLEC</sub> , CD127<sup>lo</sup> KLRG1<sup>hi</sup> ). In addition, 36 samples from 18 NMOSD, 12 MS, and 6 sex- and age-matched HCs for detecting pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN? and TNF?) using flow cytometry.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with HCs, we found significantly reduced CD8<sup>+</sup> T<sub>N</sub> and increased CD8<sup>+</sup> T<sub>E/M</sub> in both NMOSD and MS?while decreased CD8<sup>+</sup> T<sub>MP</sub> was only observed in NMOSD. Patients treated with immunotherapy were associated with increased CD8<sup>+</sup> T<sub>N</sub> and decreased CD8<sup>+</sup> T<sub>E/M</sub> in NMOSD. Moreover NMOSD cohort showed significant higher proportions of IFN?<sup>+</sup> CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells and proportions of TNF?<sup>+</sup> CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells than HC and MS cohorts. On the contrary, obviously decreased IFN? and TNF? were found in NMOSD patients treated with immunotherapy. Furthermore, Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that age was negatively correlated with CD8<sup>+</sup> T<sub>N</sub> and T<sub>MP</sub> , and positively associated with T<sub>SLEC</sub> ; however, sex, EDSS scores and disease phase were not significantly associated with CD8<sup>+</sup> T subpopulations.<h4>Interpretation</h4>This current study provides an evidence that circulating CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell with abnormal subpopulations and increased pro-inflammatory were associated with pathogenesis of autoimmune demyelinating disease of CNS, especially in NMOSD.
Project description:CD4 T cells orchestrate immunity against blood-stage malaria. However, a major challenge in designing vaccines to the disease is poor understanding of the requirements for the generation of protective memory T cells (Tmem) from responding effector T cells (Teff) in chronic parasite infection. In this study, we use a transgenic mouse model with T cells specific for the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1 of Plasmodium chabaudi to show that activated T cells generate three distinct Teff subsets with progressive activation phenotypes. The earliest observed Teff subsets (CD127(-)CD62L(hi)CD27(+)) are less divided than CD62L(lo) Teff and express memory genes. Intermediate (CD62L(lo)CD27(+)) effector subsets include the most multicytokine-producing T cells, whereas fully activated (CD62L(lo)CD27(-)) late effector cells have a terminal Teff phenotype (PD-1(+), Fas(hi), AnnexinV(+)). We show that although IL-2 promotes expansion, it actually slows terminal effector differentiation. Using adoptive transfer, we show that only early Teff survive the contraction phase and generate the terminal late Teff subsets, whereas in uninfected recipients, they become both central and effector Tmem. Furthermore, we show that progression toward full Teff activation is promoted by increased duration of infection, which in the long-term promotes Tem differentiation. Therefore, we have defined markers of progressive activation of CD4 Teff at the peak of malaria infection, including a subset that survives the contraction phase to make Tmem, and show that Ag and cytokine levels during CD4 T cell expansion influence the proportion of activated cells that can survive contraction and generate memory in malaria infection.
Project description:CD8(+) T cells play important roles in anti-tumor immunity but distribution profile or functional characteristics of effector memory subsets during tumor progression are unclear. We found that, in oral squamous carcinoma patients, circulating CD8(+) T cell pools skewed toward effector memory subsets with the distribution frequency of CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-) CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells negatively correlated with each other. A significantly higher frequency of CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells among total CD8(+) T cells was found in peripheral blood or tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, but not in regional lymph nodes. The CD127(hi) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells maintained significantly higher IFN-?, IL-2 productivity and ex vivo proliferative capacity, while the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells exhibited higher granzyme B productivity and susceptibility to activation induced cell death. A higher ratio of CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells to CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells was associated with advanced cancer staging and poor differentiation of tumor cells. Therefore, the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells are functionally similar CD8(+) T cell subsets which exhibit late differentiated effector phenotypes and the shift of peripheral CD8(+) effector memory balance toward CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells is associated with OSCC progression.
Project description:It is unclear where within tissues subsets of effector and memory CD8 T cells persist during viral infection and whether their localization affects function and long-term survival. Following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, we found most killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1)(lo)IL-7R(hi) effector and memory cells, which are long-lived and high proliferative capacity, in the T cell zone of the spleen. In contrast, KLRG1(hi)IL-7R(lo) cells, which appear terminally differentiated and have shorter life spans, were exclusively localized to the red pulp. KLRG1(lo)IL-7R(hi) T cells homed to the T cell zone using pertussis toxin-sensitive chemokine receptors and appeared to contact gp38(+) stromal cells, which produce the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and the T cell survival cytokine IL-7. The transcription factors T-bet and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 controlled effector CD8 T cell splenic migration. Effector CD8 T cells overexpressing T-bet homed to the red pulp, whereas those lacking B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 homed to the T cell zone. Upon memory formation, CD62L(+) memory T cells were predominantly found in the T cell zone, whereas CD62L(-) cells were found in the red pulp. Thus, effector and memory CD8 T cell subset localization within tissues is linked to their differentiation states, and this may identify anatomical niches that regulate their longevity and homeostasis.
Project description:Primary and secondary (boosted) memory CD8 T cells exhibit differences in gene expression, phenotype and function. The impact of repeated antigen stimulations on memory CD4 T cells is largely unknown. To address this issue, we utilized LCMV and Listeria monocytogenes infection of mice to characterize primary and secondary antigen (Ag)-specific Th1 CD4 T cell responses. Ag-specific primary memory CD4 T cells display a CD62L(lo)CCR7(hi) CD27(hi) CD127(hi) phenotype and are polyfunctional (most produce IFN?, TNF? and IL-2). Following homologous prime-boost immunization we observed pathogen-specific differences in the rate of CD62L and CCR7 upregulation on memory CD4 T cells as well as in IL-2+IFN?co-production by secondary effectors. Phenotypic and functional plasticity of memory Th1 cells was observed following heterologous prime-boost immunization, wherein secondary memory CD4 T cells acquired phenotypic and functional characteristics dictated by the boosting agent rather than the primary immunizing agent. Our data also demonstrate that secondary memory Th1 cells accelerated neutralizing Ab formation in response to LCMV infection, suggesting enhanced capacity of this population to provide quality help for antibody production. Collectively these data have important implications for prime-boost vaccination strategies that seek to enhance protective immune responses mediated by Th1 CD4 T cell responses.
Project description:CD8 T-cell responses are critical for protection against intracellular pathogens and tumors. The induction and properties of these responses are governed by a series of integrated processes that rely heavily on cell-cell interactions. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 functions to enhance the strength of antigenic stimulation, extend the duration of contact with antigen-presenting cells, and augment cytokine signals, which are all factors that influence peripheral CD8 T-cell differentiation. Although previous studies suggest that ICAM-1 is essential for establishing memory T-cell populations following peptide immunization, the roles of ICAM-1 in antiviral cellular immunity are less well understood. Here we show that, following a prototypic acute viral infection, the formation and maintenance of memory-phenotype CD127(hi), KLRG-1(lo) CD8 T cells does not require ICAM-1. Nevertheless, ICAM-1 expression on nonlymphocytes dictates the phenotypic and functional attributes of the antiviral CD8 T-cell populations that develop and promotes the gradual attrition of residual effector-like CD127(lo), KLRG-1(hi) CD8 T cells during the memory phase of the response. Although memory T cells do emerge and are maintained if ICAM-1 expression is abolished, the secondary proliferative capacity of these T cells is severely curtailed. Collectively, these studies reveal potential dual roles for ICAM-1 in both promoting the decay of effector responses and programming the sensitivity of memory CD8 T cells to secondary stimuli.
Project description:CD8(+) T cells play a crucial role in the clearance of intracellular pathogens through the generation of cytotoxic effector cells that eliminate infected cells and long-lived memory cells that provide enhanced protection against reinfection. We have previously shown that the inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, Id2, is necessary for accumulation of effector and memory CD8(+) T cells during infection. In this study, we show that CD8(+) T cells lacking Id2 did not generate a robust terminally differentiated killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1)(hi) effector population, but displayed a cell-surface phenotype and cytokine profile consistent with memory precursors, raising the question as to whether loss of Id2 impairs the differentiation and/or survival of effector memory cells. We found that deletion of Bim rescued Id2-deficient CD8(+) cell survival during infection. However, the dramatic reduction in KLRG1(hi) cells caused by loss of Id2 remained in the absence of Bim, such that Id2/Bim double-deficient cells form an exclusively KLRG1(lo)CD127(hi) memory precursor population. Thus, we describe a role for Id2 in both the survival and differentiation of normal CD8(+) effector and memory populations.