Nitric oxide-dependent activation of CaMKII increases diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release in cardiac myocytes in response to adrenergic stimulation.
ABSTRACT: Spontaneous calcium waves in cardiac myocytes are caused by diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum release (SR Ca(2+) leak) through ryanodine receptors. Beta-adrenergic (?-AR) tone is known to increase this leak through the activation of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and the subsequent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. When ?-AR drive is chronic, as observed in heart failure, this CaMKII-dependent effect is exaggerated and becomes potentially arrhythmogenic. Recent evidence has indicated that CaMKII activation can be regulated by cellular oxidizing agents, such as reactive oxygen species. Here, we investigate how the cellular second messenger, nitric oxide, mediates CaMKII activity downstream of the adrenergic signaling cascade and promotes the generation of arrhythmogenic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in intact cardiomyocytes. Both SCaWs and SR Ca(2+) leak were measured in intact rabbit and mouse ventricular myocytes loaded with the Ca-dependent fluorescent dye, fluo-4. CaMKII activity in vitro and immunoblotting for phosphorylated residues on CaMKII, nitric oxide synthase, and Akt were measured to confirm activity of these enzymes as part of the adrenergic cascade. We demonstrate that stimulation of the ?-AR pathway by isoproterenol increased the CaMKII-dependent SR Ca(2+) leak. This increased leak was prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase 1 but not nitric oxide synthase 3. In ventricular myocytes isolated from wild-type mice, isoproterenol stimulation also increased the CaMKII-dependent leak. Critically, in myocytes isolated from nitric oxide synthase 1 knock-out mice this effect is ablated. We show that isoproterenol stimulation leads to an increase in nitric oxide production, and nitric oxide alone is sufficient to activate CaMKII and increase SR Ca(2+) leak. Mechanistically, our data links Akt to nitric oxide synthase 1 activation downstream of ?-AR stimulation. Collectively, this evidence supports the hypothesis that CaMKII is regulated by nitric oxide as part of the adrenergic cascade leading to arrhythmogenesis.
Project description:Chronic activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been implicated in the deleterious effects of ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) signaling on the heart, in part, by enhancing RyR2-mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. We used CaMKII? knockout (CaMKII?-KO) mice and knock-in mice with an inactivated CaMKII site S2814 on the ryanodine receptor type 2 (S2814A) to investigate the involvement of these processes in ?-AR signaling and cardiac remodeling. Langendorff-perfused hearts from CaMKII?-KO mice showed inotropic and chronotropic responses to isoproterenol (ISO) that were similar to those of wild type (WT) mice; however, in CaMKII?-KO mice, CaMKII phosphorylation of phospholamban and RyR2 was decreased and isolated myocytes from CaMKII?-KO mice had reduced SR Ca(2+) leak in response to isoproterenol (ISO). Chronic catecholamine stress with ISO induced comparable increases in relative heart weight and other measures of hypertrophy from day 9 through week 4 in WT and CaMKII?-KO mice, but the development of cardiac fibrosis was prevented in CaMKII?-KO animals. A 4-week challenge with ISO resulted in reduced cardiac function and pulmonary congestion in WT, but not in CaMKII?-KO or S2814A mice, implicating CaMKII?-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814 in the cardiomyopathy, independent of hypertrophy, induced by prolonged ?-AR stimulation.
Project description:?-Adrenergic receptor (?-AR) activation can provoke cardiac arrhythmias mediated by cAMP-dependent alterations of Ca(2+) signaling. However, cAMP can activate both protein kinase A and an exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), but their functional interaction is unclear. In heart, selective Epac activation can induce potentially arrhythmogenic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release that involves Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) effects on the ryanodine receptor (RyR).We tested whether physiological ?-AR activation causes Epac-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak and arrhythmias and whether it requires Epac1 versus Epac2, ?(1)-AR versus ?(2)-AR, and CaMKII?-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814. We used knockout (KO) mice for Epac1, Epac2, or both. All KOs exhibited unaltered basal cardiac function, Ca(2+) handling, and hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. However, SR Ca(2+) leak induced by the specific Epac activator 8-CPT in wild-type mice was abolished in Epac2-KO and double-KO mice but was unaltered in Epac1-KO mice. ?-AR-induced arrhythmias were also less inducible in Epac2-KO versus wild-type mice. ?-AR activation with protein kinase A inhibition mimicked 8-CPT effects on SR Ca(2+) leak and was prevented by blockade of ?(1)-AR but not ?(2)-AR. CaMKII inhibition (KN93) and genetic ablation of either CaMKII? or CaMKII phosphorylation on RyR2-S2814 prevented 8-CPT-induced SR Ca(2+) leak.?(1)-AR activates Epac2 to induce SR Ca(2+) leak via CaMKII?-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814. This pathway contributes to ?-AR-induced arrhythmias and reduced cardiac function.
Project description:Increased cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR)-dependent diastolic SR Ca leak is present in heart failure and in conditions when adrenergic tone is high. Increasing Ca leak from the SR could result in spontaneous Ca wave (SCaW) formation. SCaWs activate the inward Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) current causing a delayed afterdepolarization (DAD), potentially leading to arrhythmia. Here we examine SCaWs in ventricular myocytes isolated from failing and healthy rabbit hearts. Myocytes from healthy hearts did not exhibit SCaWs under baseline conditions versus 43% of those exposed to isoproterenol (ISO). This ISO-induced increase in activity was reversed by inhibition of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by KN93. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by H89 had no observed effect. Of myocytes treated with forskolin 50% showed SCaW activity, attributable to a large increase in SR Ca load ([Ca](SRT)) versus control. At similar [Ca](SRT) (121muM) myocytes treated with ISO plus KN93 had significantly fewer SCaWs versus those treated with ISO or ISO plus H89 (0.2+/-0.28 vs. 1.1+/-0.28 and 1.29+/-0.39 SCaWs cell(-)(1), respectively). In myocytes isolated from failing hearts ISO induced an increase in the percentage of cells generating SCaWs vs. baseline (74% vs. 11%) with no increase in [Ca](SRT). Inhibiting CaMKII reversed this effect (14%). At similar [Ca](SRT) (71microM) myocytes treated with ISO or ISO plus H89 had significantly more SCaWs per cell vs. untreated (2.5+/-0.5; 1.6+/-0.7 vs. 0.36+/-0.3, respectively). Treatment with ISO plus KN93 completely abolished this effect. The evidence suggests the ISO-dependent increase in SCaW activity in both healthy and failing myocytes is CaMKII-dependent, implicating CaMKII in arrhythmogenesis.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) derived from the activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) is involved in S-nitrosylation of key sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) handling proteins. Deficient S-nitrosylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) has a variable effect on SR Ca(2+) leak/sparks in isolated myocytes, likely dependent on the underlying physiological state. It remains unknown, however, whether such molecular aberrancies are causally related to arrhythmogenesis in the intact heart. Here we show in the intact heart, reduced NOS1 activity increased Ca(2+)-mediated ventricular arrhythmias only in the setting of elevated myocardial [Ca(2+)](i). These arrhythmias arose from increased spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release, resulting from a combination of decreased RyR2 S-nitrosylation (RyR2-SNO) and increased RyR2 oxidation (RyR-SOx) (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) from xanthine oxidoreductase activity) and could be suppressed with xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibition (i.e., allopurinol) or nitric oxide donors (i.e., S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO). Surprisingly, we found evidence of NOS1 down-regulation of RyR2 phosphorylation at the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) site (S2814), suggesting molecular cross-talk between nitrosylation and phosphorylation of RyR2. Finally, we show that nitroso-redox imbalance due to decreased NOS1 activity sensitizes RyR2 to a severe arrhythmic phenotype by oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that nitroso-redox imbalance is an important mechanism of ventricular arrhythmias in the intact heart under disease conditions (i.e., elevated [Ca(2+)](i) and oxidative stress), and that therapies restoring nitroso-redox balance in the heart could prevent sudden arrhythmic death.
Project description:Abnormal calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is considered an important trigger of atrial fibrillation (AF). Whereas increased Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity has been proposed to contribute to SR leak and AF induction, downstream targets of CaMKII remain controversial.To test the hypothesis that inhibition of CaMKII-phosphorylated type-2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) prevents AF initiation in FKBP12.6-deficient (-/-) mice.Mice lacking RyR2-stabilizing subunit FKBP12.6 had a higher incidence of spontaneous and pacing-induced AF compared with wild-type mice. Atrial myocytes from FKBP12.6-/- mice exhibited spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCaWs) leading to Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activation and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). Mutation S2814A in RyR2, which inhibits CaMKII phosphorylation, reduced Ca(2+) spark frequency, SR Ca(2+) leak, and DADs in atrial myocytes from FKBP12.6-/-:S2814A mice compared with FKBP12.6-/- mice. Moreover, FKBP12.6-/-:S2814A mice exhibited a reduced susceptibility to inducible AF, whereas FKBP12.6-/-:S2808A mice were not protected from AF.FKBP12.6 mice exhibit AF caused by SR Ca(2+) leak, Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activation, and DADs, which promote triggered activity. Genetic inhibition of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation prevents AF induction in FKBP12.6-/- mice by suppressing SR Ca(2+) leak and DADs. These results suggest suppression of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation as a potential anti-AF therapeutic target.
Project description:We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta(C) (CaMKII-TG) develop dilated cardiomyopathy associated with increased ryanodine receptors (RyR2) phosphorylation, enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak and lowering of SR Ca(2+) load. We hypothesized that phospholamban (PLN) ablation would restore SR Ca(2+) load and prevent the decreased ventricular contractility, dilation and mortality seen in CaMKII-TG.Our objectives were to generate CaMKII-TG mice lacking PLN, determine whether the maladaptive effects of cardiac CaMKIIdelta(C) expression were corrected, and establish the mechanistic basis for these changes.CaMKII-TG were crossed with PLN knockout (PLN-KO) mice to generate KO/TG mice. Myocytes from wild type (WT), CaMKII-TG, PLN-KO and KO/TG were compared. The decreased SR Ca(2+) load and twitch Ca(2+) transients seen in CaMKII-TG were normalized in KO/TG. Surprisingly the heart failure phenotype was exacerbated, as indicated by increased left ventricular dilation, decreased ventricular function, increased apoptosis and greater mortality. In KO/TG myocytes SR Ca(2+) sparks and leak were significantly increased, presumably because of the combined effects of restored SR Ca(2+) load and RyR2 phosphorylation. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading was increased in cardiomyocytes from KO/TG versus WT or CaMKII-TG mice and this was dependent on elevated SR Ca(2+) sparks. Cardiomyocytes from KO/TG showed poor viability, improved by inhibiting SR Ca(2+) release and mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading.Normalizing cardiomyocyte SR Ca(2+) loading in the face of elevated CaMKII and RyR2 phosphorylation leads to enhanced SR Ca(2+) leak and mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, associated with exacerbated cell death, heart failure and mortality.
Project description:Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is the second most common cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Recent studies have implicated enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak via type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) as a cause of VT in the mdx mouse model of DMD. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying induction of SR Ca(2+) leak and VT are poorly understood.To test whether enhanced Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation of RyR2 underlies SR Ca(2+) leak and induction of VT in mdx mice.Programmed electrical stimulation was performed on anesthetized mice and confocal imaging of Ca(2+) release events in isolated ventricular myocytes.Programmed electrical stimulation revealed inducible VT in mdx mice, which was inhibited by CaMKII inhibition or mutation S2814A in RyR2. Myocytes from mdx mice exhibited more Ca(2+) sparks and Ca(2+) waves compared with wild-type mice, in particular at faster pacing rates. Arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves were inhibited by CaMKII but not by protein kinase A inhibition. Moreover, mutation S2814A but not S2808A in RyR2 suppressed spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in myocytes from mdx mice.CaMKII blockade and genetic inhibition of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation prevent VT induction in a mouse model of DMD. In ventricular myocytes from mdx mice, spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks and Ca(2+) waves can be suppressed by CaMKII inhibition or mutation S2814A in RyR2. Thus, the inhibition of CaMKII-induced SR Ca(2+) leak might be a new strategy to prevent arrhythmias in patients with DMD without heart failure.
Project description:In heart failure (HF), abnormal myocyte Ca(2+) handling has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between Ca(2+) handling, reduced myocyte contractility, and enhanced arrhythmogenesis during HF progression in a canine model of non-ischaemic HF.Key Ca(2+) handling parameters were determined by measuring cytosolic and intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) [Ca(2+)] in isolated ventricular myocytes at different stages of HF. The progression of HF was associated with an early and continuous increase in ryanodine receptor (RyR2)-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak. The increase in RyR2 activity was paralleled by an increase in the frequency of diastolic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCWs) in HF myocytes under conditions of ?-adrenergic stimulation. In addition to causing arrhythmogenic-delayed afterdepolarizations, SCWs decreased the amplitude of subsequent electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients by depleting SR Ca(2+). At late stages of HF, Ca(2+) release oscillated essentially independent of electrical pacing. The increased propensity for the generation of SCWs in HF myocytes was attributable to reduced ability of the RyR2 channels to become refractory following Ca(2+) release. The progressive alterations in RyR2 function and Ca(2+) cycling in HF myocytes were associated with sequential modifications of RyR2 by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation and thiol oxidation.These findings suggest that destabilized RyR2 activity due to excessive CaMKII phopshorylation and oxidation resulting in impaired post-release refractoriness is a common mechanism involved in arrhythmogenesis and contractile dysfunction in the failing heart.
Project description:CaMKII contributes to impaired contractility in heart failure by inducing SR Ca(2+)-leak. CaMKII-inhibition in the heart was suggested to be a novel therapeutic principle. Different CaMKII isoforms exist. Specifically targeting CaMKII?, the dominant isoform in the heart, could be of therapeutic potential without impairing other CaMKII isoforms.We investigated whether cardiomyocyte function is affected by isoform-specific knockout (KO) of CaMKII? under basal conditions and upon stress, i.e. upon ß-adrenergic stimulation and during acidosis.Systolic cardiac function was largely preserved in the KO in vivo (echocardiography) corresponding to unchanged Ca(2+)-transient amplitudes and isolated myocyte contractility in vitro. CaMKII activity was dramatically reduced while phosphatase-1 inhibitor-1 was significantly increased. Surprisingly, while diastolic Ca(2+)-elimination was slower in KO most likely due to decreased phospholamban Thr-17 phosphorylation, frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation was still present. Despite decreased SR Ca(2+)-reuptake at lower frequencies, SR Ca(2+)-content was not diminished, which might be due to reduced diastolic SR Ca(2+)-loss in the KO as a consequence of lower RyR Ser-2815 phosphorylation. Challenging KO myocytes with isoproterenol showed intact inotropic and lusitropic responses. During acidosis, SR Ca(2+)-reuptake and SR Ca(2+)-loading were significantly impaired in KO, resulting in an inability to maintain systolic Ca(2+)-transients during acidosis and impaired recovery.Inhibition of CaMKII? appears to be safe under basal physiologic conditions. Specific conditions exist (e.g. during acidosis) under which CaMKII-inhibition might not be helpful or even detrimental. These conditions will have to be more clearly defined before CaMKII inhibition is used therapeutically.
Project description:Diastolic calcium (Ca) leak via cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) can cause arrhythmias and heart failure (HF). Ca/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is upregulated and more active in HF, promoting RyR2-mediated Ca leak by RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation. Here, we tested a mechanistic hypothesis that RyR2 phosphorylation by CaMKII increases Ca leak by promoting a pathological RyR2 conformation with reduced CaM affinity. Acute CaMKII activation in wild-type RyR2, and phosphomimetic RyR2-S2814D (vs. non-phosphorylatable RyR2-S2814A) knock-in mouse myocytes increased SR Ca leak, reduced CaM-RyR2 affinity, and caused a pathological shift in RyR2 conformation (detected via increased access of the RyR2 structural peptide DPc10). This same trio of effects was seen in myocytes from rabbits with pressure/volume-overload induced HF. Excess CaM quieted leak and restored control conformation, consistent with negative allosteric coupling between CaM affinity and DPc10 accessible conformation. Dantrolene (DAN) also restored CaM affinity, reduced DPc10 access, and suppressed RyR2-mediated Ca leak and ventricular tachycardia in RyR2-S2814D mice. We propose that a common pathological RyR2 conformational state (low CaM affinity, high DPc10 access, and elevated leak) may be caused by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation, oxidation, and HF. Moreover, DAN (or excess CaM) can shift this pathological gating state back to the normal physiological conformation, a potentially important therapeutic approach.