The accuracy of caries risk assessment in children attending South Australian School Dental Service: a longitudinal study.
ABSTRACT: To determine the accuracy of the caries risk assessment system and performance of clinicians in their attempts to predict caries for children during routine practice.Longitudinal study.Data on caries risk assessment conducted by clinicians during routine practice while providing care for children in the South Australian School Dental Service (SA SDS) were collected from electronic patient records. Baseline data on caries experience, clinicians' ratings of caries risk status and child demographics were obtained for all SA SDS patients aged 5-15 years examined during 2002-2005.Children's caries incidence rate, calculated using examination data after a follow-up period of 6-48 months from baseline, was used as the gold standard to compute the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of clinicians' baseline ratings of caries risk. Multivariate binomial regression models were used to evaluate effects of children's baseline characteristics on Se and Sp.A total of 133 clinicians rated caries risk status of 71 430 children during 2002-2005. The observed Se and Sp were 0.48 and 0.86, respectively (Se+Sp=1.34). Caries experience at baseline was the strongest factor influencing accuracy in multivariable regression model. Among children with no caries experience at baseline, overall accuracy (Se+Sp) was only 1.05, whereas it was 1.28 among children with at least one tooth surfaces with caries experience at baseline.Clinicians' accuracy in predicting caries risk during routine practice was similar to levels reported in research settings that simulated patient care. Accuracy was acceptable in children who had prior caries experience at the baseline examination, while it was poor among children with no caries experience.
Project description:Background:Cariogram®, an algorithm-based software model, for predicting caries risk has been used to assess the caries risk profile of many different groups. The aims of the study were to evaluate Cariogram caries risk assessment during pregnancy with DMFT/dmft incidence in mothers and their children 4 years after pregnancy and to check if there is an association between children's caries risk profiles using Cariogram and caries risk profiles (by Cariogram) of their mothers during pregnancy. Methods:The study population consisted of 96 pregnant women (average age 27.4±7.2 years at baseline) who completed clinical baseline examination and salivary tests. The follow-up study was initiated 4 years later and the 80 pairs of mother and children (from that pregnancy) were re-examined using the same procedure at baseline. An individual caries risk profile and DMFT/dmft incidence were made for each woman and child. The prediction of the Cariogram was compared to the actual dental experience in 4 years. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for two cut-offs were calculated to express the outcome. Results:The results showed a strong association between the risk categories of pregnant women and their offspring as well as between caries development in offspring and the Cariogram risk categories of pregnant women. Sensitivity and PPV for new DMFT (?DMFT>0) 4 years after for women were high (>80%) for those participants assessed with 0-60% "chance to avoid caries", as well as diagnostic accuracy (74.00%). High specificity (91.00%), very high PPV (95.00%) and clinically useful values according to Youden's index (0.53) were obtained for moderate-risk and two lowest-risk groups for dmft in children. Conclusion:Cariogram was valid in the authors' sample only and highly predictive in caries risk assessment in investigated children based on caries risk assessment of their mothers in pregnancy.
Project description:We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher caries experience presented higher risk of developing new lesions. In conclusion, the caries activity system associated with the ICDAS presents predictive and construct validity in primary teeth in the assessment of occlusal caries lesions, but predictive validity was not observed in smooth surfaces.
Project description:The school and community context can contribute to inequity in child oral health. Whether the school and community affect the effectiveness of school-based caries prevention is unknown. The association between the school and community environment and dental caries, as well as their moderating effects with school-based caries prevention, was assessed using multilevel mixed-effects regression. Data were derived from a 6-y prospective cohort study of children participating in a school-based caries prevention program. For the school and community, living in a dental-shortage area and the proportion of children receiving free or reduced lunch were significantly related to an increased risk of dental caries at baseline. Caries prevention was associated with a significant per-visit decrease in the risk of untreated caries, but the rate of total caries experience increased over time. Caries prevention was more effective in children who had prior dental care at baseline and in schools with a higher proportion of low socioeconomic status students. There was significant variation across schools in the baseline prevalence of dental caries and the effect of prevention over time, although effects were modest. The school and community environment have a direct impact on oral health and moderate the association between school-based caries prevention and dental caries. Knowledge Transfer Statement: School-based caries prevention can be an effective means to reduce oral health inequity by embedding dental care within schools. However, the socioeconomic makeup of schools and characteristics of the surrounding community can affect the impact of school-based care.
Project description:Expanded partnership with the medical community is an important strategy for reducing dental caries disparities. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between fluoride (F) "in office" (drops/tablets and/or varnish), as prescribed or applied by a health care professional by age 1 y, and 1) caries development and 2) presence of other caries risk factors or mediators (e.g., socioeconomic status). Child-primary caregiver (PCG) pairs ( N = 1,325) were recruited in Indiana, Iowa, and North Carolina as part of a longitudinal cohort study to validate a caries risk tool for primary health care settings. PCGs completed a caries risk questionnaire, while children received caries examinations per the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System at ages 1, 2.5, and 4 y. Baseline responses regarding children's history of F in office were tested for association with other caries risk variables and caries experience at ages 2.5 and 4 y via generalized estimating equation models applied to logistic regression. The sample was 48% female, and many children (61%) were Medicaid enrolled. The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions increased from 7% at age 2.5 y to 25% by age 4 y. Children who received F in office were likely deemed at higher caries risk and indeed were significantly ( P < 0.01) more likely to develop cavitated caries lesions by ages 2.5 and 4 y, even after F application (odds ratios: 3.5 and 2.3, respectively). Factors significantly associated with receiving F included the following: child being Medicaid enrolled, not having an employed adult in the household, child and PCG often consuming sugary drinks and snacks, and PCG having recent caries experience. Increased F in office from a health care provider by age 1 y was associated with known caries risk factors. Most (69%) children had never been to the dentist, suggesting that risk factors could be alerting medical providers and/or parents, thereby affecting in-office F recommendations. Differences among states could also be related to state-specific F-varnish reimbursement policies (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01707797).
Project description:Evidence suggests caries experience is higher in children with asthma. This study compared caries experience in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children and defined whether variation in the distribution of caries experience differed between the two groups and was dependent on the presence of genetic variation in enamel formation genes.Children with asthma were recruited at the Istanbul University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Division of Paediatric Allergy and Pulmonary Diseases, and non-affected children were recruited at the Istanbul University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Paedodontics. Cases (N = 100) were defined as children between the ages of 6 and 12 years with asthma and controls (N = 100) as children without asthma. Cases and controls were matched by sex and age. All study subjects received a complete dental exam, provided demographic and other caries and asthma risk factors data, and a saliva sample for DNA extraction. Caries experience was defined based on DMFT/dmft and DMFS/dmfs scores. Genotypes of 11 SNPs were selected in intronic regions of enamel development genes. PCR with TaqMan chemistry was used for genotyping all selected markers. Association between caries experience (caries-free versus caries affected) depending on asthma status and SNPs was tested with PLINK by logistic regression, adjusting by risk, and other preventive measures. p values below 0.0045 (0.05/11) were considered statistically significant.Logistic regression analysis showed an association between AMBN rs4694075 and caries experience (p = 2.525e-007).This study provides, for the first time, evidence that ameloblastin is associated with caries in asthmatic children.
Project description:Early detection of leptospirosis with field-ready diagnostics may improve clinical management and mitigate outbreaks. We previously validated the point-of-care Dual Path Platform (DPP) for leptospirosis with sera in the laboratory. This prospective study compares the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the DPP using finger stick blood (FSB) against the serum DPP, venous whole blood (VWB) DPP, IgM-ELISA, and clinical impression. We sequentially enrolled 98 patients hospitalized for acute febrile illnesses, of which we confirmed 32 by leptospirosis reference tests. Among syndromes consistent with classic leptospirosis, the FSB DPP showed similar sensitivity and specificity (Se 93% and Sp 80%), and positive and negative predictive values (PPV 74% and NPV 95%), to VWB DPP (Se 96%, Sp 75%, PPV 68%, and NPV 97%), serum DPP (Se 85%, Sp 87%, PPV 79%, and NPV 91%) and IgM-ELISA (Se 81%, Sp 100%, PPV 100%, and NPV 90%). The FSB DPP provided a favorable likelihood ratio profile (positive LR 4.73, negative LR 0.09) in comparison to other assays and clinical impression alone. Additionally, we identified four of five leptospirosis-associated meningitis patients by whole blood DPP, none of which clinicians suspected. This demonstrates potential for the DPP in routine detection of this less common syndrome. The FSB DPP demonstrated similar discrimination for severe human leptospirosis compared with serum assays, and it is a simpler option for diagnosing leptospirosis. Its performance in other epidemiological settings and geographic regions, and for detecting atypical presentations, demands further evaluation.
Project description:Introduction:Maternal health during pregnancy plays a part in child health, and several conditions have been associated with adverse child outcomes. Objectives:To determine the socioeconomic determinants and maternal health factors associated with dental caries in young children. Methods:This cross-sectional study is part of a register-based cohort study including all children who were born from 2000 to 2003 and were residing in Stockholm County, Sweden, at age 3 y (n = 73,658). The study followed the cohort until individuals were 7 y old. The final study cohort comprised all children examined at 3 and 7 y (n = 65,259). Data on socioeconomic conditions, maternal health, and maternal health behavior were extracted from Swedish national registries. The multivariate analyses used 2 outcomes: caries experience at age 3 and 7 y (deft > 0 [decayed, extracted, and filled teeth]). Results:The results of this study show that socioeconomic and maternal health behaviors during pregnancy are important determinants of oral health in their preschool offspring. When all significant risk factors were present, the cumulative probability of being diagnosed with dental caries at age 7 y was 75%. Conclusion:This study also showed that maternal obesity and smoking during pregnancy were predictors of dental caries in preschool children. Strategies must be developed for increasing maternal motivation and self-efficacy and providing mothers with knowledge and caries-preventive tools. Knowledge Transfer Statement:The results of this study inform clinicians about the importance of including a more detailed history regarding maternal health and maternal health behaviors during pregnancy to assess caries risk in preschool children. Education, income, and other socioeconomic factors are difficult to modify in the short term. Therefore, strategies must be developed to increase parental motivation and self-efficacy to give parents the determination, knowledge, and tools for prevention.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine cumulative dental treatment experience in a retrospective clinical cohort, according to baseline caries risk assessment (CRA) information. METHODS:Evaluated were electronic records from a university pediatric dental clinic (2009 to 2014) of new, six- to 72- month-old patients who were not treated under sedation or general anesthesia (<small>N</small> equals 750). The mean number of teeth restored or extracted (two-year total and omitting the first 190 days post-baseline to discount initial treatment needs) was compared by baseline CRA category and CRA items (caries risk indicators, protective items, and clinical disease indicators). RESULTS:The CRA category was associated with mean treated teeth over two years (low equals 0.53, moderate equals 1.02, high/extreme equals 4.47) and post 190 days (low equals 0.51, moderate equals 0.89, high/extreme equals 2.11). Any treatment probability was greatest for high/extreme-risk children but not statistically significantly different between low- and moderate-risk. Age-standardized means were greater for all individual baseline clinical indicators and most risk indicators, but lower for most protective items (not statistically significantly for all items). Clinical indicators were the strongest outcome correlates. CONCLUSIONS:In this population, baseline risk information was associated with clinical outcomes. CRA can help identify patients needing more intensive caries prevention.
Project description:Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3-4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05). Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05). The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children's risk of developing caries.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Due to high prevalence and serious impacts, childhood caries represents a public health issue. Behavioural risk factors such as locus of health control have been implicated in the development of the disease; however their association with childhood caries has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the relationship between parental locus of health control and caries experience and untreated caries of their preschool children in a representative sample in Czech Republic, adjusting for relevant sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A representative sample of 285 preschool children and their parents was recruited. Study data included children's dental status recorded in nurseries and parental questionnaires with 13 attitudinal items regarding locus of control (LoC) in caries prevention. The association between parental locus of control and children's caries experience and level of untreated caries was analysed using logistic regression, adjusting for the effect of key sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: There was a statistically highly significant linear trend between increased parental LoC and higher probability of the children to be free from untreated caries, independent from the effect of sociodemographic variables of children and parents. A similar highly statistically significant trend, although not entirely linear, and independent from sociodemographic variables was observed with respect to the chance of the children to be free from caries experience with increasing strength of parental LoC. After full adjustment, children in the strongest parental LoC quintile were 2.81 (1.23-6.42, p< 0.05) times more likely to be free from untreated caries in comparison to the weakest parental LoC quintile and 2.32 (1.02-5.25, p< 0.05) times more likely to be free from caries experience in comparison to the weakest parental LoC quintile. CONCLUSION: The findings support the hypothesis that higher internal parental LoC is associated with better control of both untreated caries and caries experience in their preschool children and highlight that a more internal LoC within the family is advantageous in the prevention of dental caries.