Disordered FGF23 and mineral metabolism in children with CKD.
ABSTRACT: In children with CKD, information is limited regarding the prevalence and determinants of fibroblast growth factor 23 excess and 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D deficiency across the spectrum of predialysis CKD. This study characterized circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 and 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D, and investigated their interrelationships and associations with GFR and secondary hyperparathyroidism in children with CKD who were enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children observational cohort study.Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations and determinants of mineral metabolism were measured in 464 children ages 1-16 years with predialysis CKD. GFR was measured by plasma disappearance of iohexol in 70% of participants and estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children estimating equation using serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations in the remainder of the participants. Participants were grouped according to CKD stage and by 10-ml/min categories of GFR.Median GFR for the cohort was 45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (interquartile range=33-57; range=15-109). Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 concentration was above the normal range in 67% of participants (with higher levels observed among participants with lower GFR) before higher levels of serum parathyroid hormone and phosphorus were observed. Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels were 34% higher in participants with glomerular disease than in participants with nonglomerular disease, despite similar GFR. Serum phosphorus levels, adjusted for age, were significantly lower at GFR of 60-69 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) than higher GFR, but thereafter they became higher in parallel with fibroblast growth factor 23 as GFR declined. Serum 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D concentrations were lower in those participants with low GFR values, high fibroblast growth factor 23 levels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, and proteinuria. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present in 55% of participants with GFR<50 ml/min per 1.73 m(2).In children with predialysis CKD, high plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 is the earliest detectable abnormality in mineral metabolism, and levels are highest in glomerular diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increase early in the course of CKD in children. High FGF23 levels associate with progression of CKD in adults. Whether FGF23 predicts CKD progression in children is unknown. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:We tested the hypothesis that high plasma FGF23 is an independent risk factor for CKD progression in 419 children, aged 1-16 years, enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study. We measured plasma FGF23 concentrations at baseline and determined GFR annually using plasma disappearance of iohexol or the CKiD study estimating equation. We analyzed the association of baseline FGF23 with risk of progression to the composite end point, defined as start of dialysis or kidney transplantation or 50% decline from baseline GFR, adjusted for demographics, baseline GFR, proteinuria, other CKD-specific factors, and other mineral metabolites. RESULTS:At enrollment, median age was 11 years [interquartile range (IQR), 8-15], GFR was 44 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (IQR, 33-57), and FGF23 was 132 RU/ml (IQR, 88-200). During a median follow-up of 5.5 years (IQR, 3.5-6.6), 32.5% of children reached the progression end point. Higher FGF23 concentrations were independently associated with higher risk of the composite outcome (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 2.52 in the highest versus lowest FGF23 tertile; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 4.39, P=0.002; fully adjusted hazard ratio, 1.33 per doubling of FGF23; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.56, P=0.001). The time to progression was 40% shorter for participants in the highest compared with the lowest FGF23 tertile. In contrast, serum phosphorus, vitamin D metabolites, and parathyroid hormone did not consistently associate with progression in adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS:High plasma FGF23 is an independent risk factor for CKD progression in children.
Project description:Proteinuria and hyperphosphatemia are cardiovascular risk factors independent of GFR. We hypothesized that proteinuria induces relative phosphate retention via increased proximal tubule phosphate reabsorption. To test the clinical relevance of this hypothesis, we studied phosphate handling in nephrotic children and patients with CKD. Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) concentration, plasma phosphate concentration, and tubular reabsorption of phosphate increased during the proteinuric phase compared with the remission phase in nephrotic children. Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of 1738 patients with CKD showed that albuminuria?300 mg/24 hours is predictive of higher phosphate levels, independent of GFR and other confounding factors. Albuminuric patients also displayed higher plasma FGF-23 and parathyroid hormone levels. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations, we induced glomerular proteinuria in two animal models. Rats with puromycin-aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic proteinuria displayed higher renal protein expression of the sodium-phosphate co-transporter NaPi-IIa, lower renal Klotho protein expression, and decreased phosphorylation of FGF receptor substrate 2?, a major FGF-23 receptor substrate. These findings were confirmed in transgenic mice that develop nephrotic-range proteinuria resulting from podocyte depletion. In vitro, albumin did not directly alter phosphate uptake in cultured proximal tubule OK cells. In conclusion, we show that proteinuria increases plasma phosphate concentration independent of GFR. This effect relies on increased proximal tubule NaPi-IIa expression secondary to decreased FGF-23 biologic activity. Proteinuria induces elevation of both plasma phosphate and FGF-23 concentrations, potentially contributing to cardiovascular disease.
Project description:The relationship between parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and indices of bone turnover and mineralization in children with early CKD is unknown; thus, this study characterizes the features of renal osteodystrophy and their relationship to biochemical markers of mineral metabolism.Fifty-two patients 2-21 years of age with predialysis CKD underwent tetracycline-labeled bone biopsy. Anthropomorphic measurements and biochemical values were obtained at the time of biopsy.Serum phosphorus levels were increased in 4% of patients with stage 3 CKD and 43% of those with stage 4/5 CKD. Parathyroid hormone concentrations were elevated in 36% of patients with stage 2, 71% with stage 3, and 93% with stage 4/5 CKD, whereas FGF-23 values were elevated in 81% of all patients, regardless of CKD stage. Bone turnover was normal in all patients with stage 2, but was increased in 13% with stage 3 and 29% with stage 4/5 CKD. Defective mineralization was present in 29% of patients with stage 2, 42% with stage 3, and 79% with stage 4/5 CKD. Defective skeletal mineralization was associated with lower serum calcium levels and increased parathyroid hormone concentrations.Elevated circulating FGF-23 levels and defects in skeletal mineralization early in the course of CKD suggest that factors other than the traditional markers of mineral deficiency play a crucial role in the development of renal bone disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Epidemiologic studies suggest that higher serum phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 levels are associated with increase morbidity and mortality. The aim of the FGF23 Reduction Efficacy of a New Phosphate Binder in CKD Trial was to evaluate the effect of sevelamer carbonate on serum C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in normophosphatemic patients with CKD stage 3b/4. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:Patients with CKD, eGFR between 45 and 15 ml/min per 1.73 m2, fasting serum phosphate concentration >3.1 mg/dl, and serum C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 >80 relative units/ml were included in our double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized multicenter study. All patients received 100,000 IU cholecalciferol at time of randomization. Participants received either placebo or sevelamer carbonate 4.8 g daily during a 12-week period. Biologic parameters, including serum C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23, intact fibroblast growth factor 23, and α-klotho, were evaluated at baseline and 12 weeks after inclusion. RESULTS:Of 96 screened patients, 78 (mean±SD age: 63±13 years old; 70% men; mean eGFR: 27±9 ml/min per 1.73 m2) met the inclusion criteria. At baseline, mean eGFR was 27±9 ml/min per 1.73 m2, mean serum phosphate level was 3.8±0.5 mg/dl, and median (interquartile range) serum C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 level was 157 (120-241) relative units/ml. After 12 weeks of treatment, urinary phosphate-to-creatinine ratio fell significantly in the sevelamer group. The sevelamer and placebo groups did not differ significantly in terms of median change in serum C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 levels: the median (interquartile range) change was 38 (-13-114) relative units/ml in the placebo group and 37 (-1-101) relative units/ml in the sevelamer group (P=0.77). There was no significant difference in serum intact fibroblast growth factor 23, α-klotho, or phosphate levels changes between the two groups. Serum total and LDL cholesterol levels fell significantly in the sevelamer group. CONCLUSIONS:In our double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study performed in normophosphatemic patients with CKD, a 12-week course of sevelamer carbonate significantly reduced phosphaturia without changing serum phosphorus but did not significantly modify serum C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 and intact fibroblast growth factor 23 or α-klotho levels.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Occlusive renovascular disease and hypertension may progress to CKD. Circulating levels of several biomarkers, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, Klotho, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), are altered in patients with CKD, but their role in essential hypertension (EH) and renovascular hypertension (RVH) remains unclear.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>Levels of FGF-23, Klotho, suPAR, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, tissue factor, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFI) were measured in the inferior vena cava and renal vein of hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (n=12) or age-matched participants with EH (n=12) and relatively preserved renal function. Single-kidney blood flow was measured to calculate renal release of markers. For control, peripheral vein levels were measured in healthy volunteers (HVs; n=12).<h4>Results</h4>FGF-23 levels did not differ among the groups, whereas Klotho levels were lower in participants with RVH and EH than in HVs, and suPAR levels were elevated in patients with RVH compared with HVs and patients with EH (6.1±1.5 versus 4.4±1.9 and 3.2±1.2 ng/ml, P<0.05). PAI-1 levels were higher in patients with RVH than in patients with EH, but tissue factor and TFI levels were not statistically significantly different. After adjustment for GFR, Klotho levels remained decreased in both RVH and EH, and suPAR and PAI-1 levels remained elevated in RVH. eGFR correlated inversely with systemic and renal vein suPAR levels, and directly with systemic Klotho levels.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Klotho levels are low in hypertensive patients, whereas suPAR and PAI-1 levels are specifically elevated in RVH, correlating with GFR. Klotho, PAI-1, and suPAR may be markers of kidney injury in hypertensive patients.
Project description:CKD progresses more rapidly to ESRD among African Americans compared with Caucasians. Disordered mineral metabolism is more severe among African Americans with CKD, which might partially explain the accelerated progression of their kidney disease. Here, using data from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension, we evaluated longitudinal changes in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a subset of 420 participants followed for a median of 4 years. We also examined the association of baseline levels of mineral metabolites with risk for ESRD or death in 809 participants. FGF23, PTH, and phosphate levels rose over time; participants with faster rates of decline in measured GFR had the greatest increases in these parameters (P<0.01 for each). Higher baseline levels of FGF23, PTH, and phosphate each associated with increased risk for ESRD or death independent of GFR. FGF23 exhibited a dose-response relationship with outcomes (HR=1.30 per doubling, 95% CI=1.15-1.47; HR=2.24 for highest compared with lowest quartile, 95% CI=1.39-3.60), whereas PTH and phosphate showed nonlinear relationships. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/ml) was present in 95% of participants, but lower levels did not independently associate with outcomes. Using death-censored ESRD as the outcome produced qualitatively similar results. In conclusion, abnormalities of mineral metabolism worsen with progressive CKD and associate with higher risk for ESRD among African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Plasma phosphate levels display considerable intraindividual variability. The phosphatonin fibroblast growth factor 23 is a central regulator of plasma phosphate levels, and it has been postulated to be a more stable marker than conventional CKD-mineral and bone disorder parameters. Thus, fibroblast growth factor 23 has been hypothesized to reflect time-averaged plasma phosphate levels in CKD patients.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>Among 40 patients from the outpatient dialysis center, serial measurements of plasma calcium and phosphate (before every dialysis session) as well as C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase (one time weekly) were performed over a study period of 4 weeks in November and December of 2011. Intraindividual variability of repeated plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 measurements compared with other CKD-mineral and bone disorder markers was tested, and the association of a single plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 measurement with time-averaged plasma phosphate levels was analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>Against expectations, intraindividual variability of fibroblast growth factor 23 (median coefficient of variation=27%; interquartile range=20-35) was not lower than variability of plasma phosphate (median coefficient of variation=15%; interquartile range=10-20), parathyroid hormone (median coefficient of variation=24%; interquartile range=15-39), plasma calcium (median coefficient of variation=3%; interquartile range=2-4), or alkaline phosphatase (median coefficient of variation=5%; interquartile range=3-10). Moreover, the correlation between the last fibroblast growth factor 23 measurement after 4 weeks and time-averaged plasma phosphate did not surpass the correlation between the last fibroblast growth factor 23 measurement and a single plasma phosphate value (r=0.67, P<0.001; r=0.76, P<0.001, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Surprisingly, fibroblast growth factor 23 was not more closely associated to time-averaged plasma phosphate levels than a single plasma phosphate value, and it did not show a lower intraindividual variability than other tested markers of CKD-mineral and bone disorder. Thus, fibroblast growth factor 23 should not be used in clinical practice as a reflector of time-averaged plasma phosphate levels.
Project description:High levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 are associated with accelerated progression of CKD. Whether high fibroblast growth factor 23 levels also predict incident CKD is uncertain.A prospective case-cohort study was conducted within the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Trial. The analytic sample consisted of a random subcohort of 590 patients with type 2 diabetes without prevalent CKD at baseline, 124 of whom developed incident CKD during follow-up, and 520 additional patients with incident CKD outside the random subcohort. The association between serum intact fibroblast growth factor 23 and incident CKD, defined as the new onset of eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) that represented a ?25% decrease from baseline in an individual with eGFR?60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and no microalbuminuria (<30 mg/g creatinine) at baseline, was tested.The mean baseline eGFR in the random subcohort was 90.9±22.7 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). During a median follow-up of 4.7 years, there was a total of 644 patients with incident CKD. The median baseline fibroblast growth factor 23 level was modestly higher among patients with incident CKD versus controls (43.5, interquartile range=34.7-55.1 versus 39.8, interquartile range=31.9-49.5 pg/ml; P<0.001). Higher baseline fibroblast growth factor 23 levels were associated with higher risk of incident CKD in unadjusted and demographics-adjusted models, but the effect was attenuated after additional adjustment for clinical risk factors and baseline eGFR (hazard ratio per SD of natural log fibroblast growth factor 23, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.94 to 1.27), which was the strongest predictor of incident CKD. Consistent with the results of primary analyses, baseline fibroblast growth factor 23 was not associated with eGFR slope.Higher fibroblast growth factor 23 levels are not independently associated with higher risk of incident CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Anemia is an early complication of CKD that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Prior data show associations between abnormal mineral metabolism markers and decreased erythropoiesis. However, few studies have investigated elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 as a risk factor for the development of anemia in patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3869 individuals with mild to severe CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study between 2003 and 2008 and followed through 2013. We hypothesized that elevated baseline fibroblast growth factor 23 levels are associated with prevalent anemia, decline in hemoglobin over time, and development of incident anemia, defined as serum hemoglobin level <13 g/dl in men, serum hemoglobin level <12 g/dl in women, or use of erythropoietin stimulating agents. RESULTS:In the 1872 of 3869 individuals who had prevalent anemia at baseline, mean age was 58 (11) years old, and mean eGFR was 39 (13) ml/min per 1.73 m2. Higher levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 were significantly associated with prevalent anemia (odds ratio per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed fibroblast growth factor 23, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.52), decline in hemoglobin over 4 years, and risk of incident anemia (hazard ratio per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed fibroblast growth factor 23, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.24; quartile 4 versus quartile 1: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 2.11) independent of demographic characteristics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, CKD-specific factors, and other mineral metabolism markers. The results of our prospective analyses remained unchanged after additional adjustment for time-varying eGFR. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with prevalent anemia, change in hemoglobin over time, and development of anemia. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms for these associations.
Project description:An elevated level of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is the earliest abnormality of mineral metabolism in CKD. High FGF-23 levels promote left ventricular hypertrophy but not coronary artery calcification. We used survival analysis to determine whether elevated FGF-23 is associated with greater risk of adjudicated congestive heart failure (CHF) and atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) in a prospective cohort of 3860 participants with CKD stages 2-4 (baseline estimated GFR [eGFR], 44±15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, 360 participants were hospitalized for CHF (27 events/1000 person-years) and 287 had an atherosclerotic event (22 events/1000 person-years). After adjustment for demographic characteristics, kidney function, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and medications, higher FGF-23 was independently associated with graded risk of CHF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.45 per doubling [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28 to 1.65]; HR for highest versus lowest quartile, 2.98 [95% CI, 1.97 to 4.52]) and atherosclerotic events (HR per doubling, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.09 to 1.40]; HR for highest versus lowest quartile, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.20 to 2.59]). Elevated FGF-23 was associated more strongly with CHF than with atherosclerotic events (P=0.02), and uniformly was associated with greater risk of CHF events across subgroups stratified by eGFR, proteinuria, prior heart disease, diabetes, BP control, anemia, sodium intake, income, fat-free mass, left ventricular mass index, and ejection fraction. Thus, higher FGF-23 is independently associated with greater risk of cardiovascular events, particularly CHF, in patients with CKD stages 2-4.