Characterization of new polyol/H+ symporters in Debaryomyces hansenii.
ABSTRACT: Debaryomyces hansenii is a halotolerant yeast that produces and assimilates a wide variety of polyols. In this work we evaluate polyol transport in D. hansenii CBS 767, detecting the occurrence of polyol/H(+) (and sugar/H(+)) symporter activity, through the transient extracellular alkalinization of unbuffered starved cell suspensions. From the D. hansenii genome database, we selected nine ORFs encoding putative transporter proteins to clone in a centromeric plasmid with C-terminal GFP tagging and screened for polyol/H(+) symporters by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Five distinct D. hansenii polyol/H(+) symporters were identified and characterized, with different specificities and affinities for polyols, namely one glycerol-specific (DhStl1), one D-galactitol-specific (DhSgl1, Symporter galactitol/H(+) 1), one D-(+)-chiro-inositol-specific (DhSyi1, Symporter D-(+)-chiro-inositol/H(+) 1), one for D-sorbitol/D-mannitol/ribitol/D-arabitol/D-galactitol (DhSyl1, Symporter Polyols 1) and another for D-sorbitol/D-mannitol/ribitol/D-arabitol (DhSyl2, Symporter Polyols 2). This work contributed to the annotation of new yeast polyol transporters, including two specific for uncommon substrates as galactitol and D-(+)-chiro-inositol.
Project description:The present article describes the first patient with a deficiency of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) (Enzyme Commission number 220.127.116.11) who presented with leukoencephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain revealed highly elevated levels of the polyols ribitol and D-arabitol, which were subsequently also found in high concentrations in body fluids. Deficient activity of RPI, one of the pentose-phosphate-pathway (PPP) enzymes, was demonstrated in fibroblasts. RPI gene-sequence analysis revealed a frameshift and a missense mutation. Recently, we described a patient with liver cirrhosis and abnormal polyol levels in body fluids, related to a deficiency of transaldolase, another enzyme in the PPP. RPI is the second known inborn error in the reversible phase of the PPP, confirming that defects in pentose and polyol metabolism constitute a new area of inborn metabolic disorders.
Project description:Sugar alcohols (polyols) are abundant carbohydrates in lichen-forming algae and transported to other lichen symbionts, fungi, and bacteria. Particularly, ribitol is an abundant polyol in the lichen Cetraria sp. Polyols have important physiological roles in lichen symbiosis, but polyol utilization in lichen-associated bacteria has been largely unreported. Herein, we purified and characterized a novel ribitol dehydrogenase (RDH) from a Cetraria sp.-associated bacterium Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26621 grown on a minimal medium containing D-ribitol (the RDH hereafter referred to as SpRDH). SpRDH is present as a trimer in its native form, and the molecular weight of SpRDH was estimated to be 39 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 117 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. SpRDH converted D-ribitol to D-ribulose using NAD+ as a cofactor. As far as we know, SpRDH is the first RDH belonging to the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Multiple sequence alignments indicated that the catalytic amino acid residues of SpRDH consist of Cys37, His65, Glu66, and Glu157, whereas those of short-chain RDHs consist of Ser, Tyr, and Lys. Furthermore, unlike other short-chain RDHs, SpRDH did not require divalent metal ions for its catalytic activity. Despite SpRDH originating from a psychrophilic Arctic bacterium, Sphingomonas sp., it had maximum activity at 60°C and exhibited high thermal stability within the 4-50°C range. Further studies on the structure/function relationship and catalytic mechanism of SpRDH will expand our understanding of its role in lichen symbiosis.
Project description:Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology.
Project description:The production of polyols in vitro by highly purified aldose reductase (EC 18.104.22.168) was monitored by g.l.c. In the presence of NADPH aldose reductase reduced glucose, galactose and xylose to the respective polyols sorbitol, galactitol and xylitol. The rates of formation of these polyols closely mirrored the Km values for the substrates obtained from kinetic measurements that monitored the rate of disappearance of NADPH. No polyol production occurred in the absence of purified aldose of purified aldose reductase, and analysis by g.l.c. revealed only the presence of unchanged monosaccharides. Addition of the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil to purified rat lens aldose reductase incubated with xylose in the presence of NADPH resulted in decreased xylitol production. However, aldose reductase inhibitors produced no effect in altering the rate of Nitro Blue Tetrazolium formation from either glucose or xylose, indicating that the observed inhibition in vitro does not result from a free-radical-scavenger effect.
Project description:Sugar alcohols (polyols) exist widely in nature. While some specific sugar alcohol phosphatases are known, there is no known phosphatase for some important sugar alcohols (e.g., sorbitol-6-phosphate). Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, we screened yeast strains with putative phosphatases of unknown function deleted. We show that the yeast gene YNL010W, which has close homologues in all fungi species and some plants, encodes a sugar alcohol phosphatase. We term this enzyme, which hydrolyzes sorbitol-6-phosphate, ribitol-5-phosphate, and (d)-glycerol-3-phosphate, polyol phosphatase 1 or PYP1. Polyol phosphates are structural analogs of the enediol intermediate of phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi). We find that sorbitol-6-phosphate and ribitol-5-phosphate inhibit Pgi and that Pyp1 activity is important for yeast to maintain Pgi activity in the presence of environmental sugar alcohols. Pyp1 expression is strongly positively correlated with yeast growth rate, presumably because faster growth requires greater glycolytic and accordingly Pgi flux. Thus, yeast express the previously uncharacterized enzyme Pyp1 to prevent inhibition of glycolysis by sugar alcohol phosphates. Pyp1 may be useful for engineering sugar alcohol production.
Project description:The unicellular red alga Galdieria sulphuraria is a facultative heterotrophic member of the Cyanidiaceae, a group of evolutionary highly conserved extremophilic red algae. Uptake of various sugars and polyols is accomplished by a large number of distinct plasma membrane transporters. We have cloned three transporters [GsSPT1 (G. sulphuraria sugar and polyol transporter 1), GsSPT2 and GsSPT4], followed their transcriptional regulation and assayed their transport capacities in the heterologous yeast system. SPT1 is a conserved type of sugar/H(+) symporter with 12 predicted transmembrane-spanning domains, whereas SPT2 and SPT4 represent monosaccharide transporters, characterized by only nine hydrophobic domains. Surprisingly, all three proteins are functional plasma membrane transporters, as demonstrated by genetic complementation of a sugar uptake-deficient yeast mutant. Substrate specificities were broad and largely redundant, except for glucose, which was only taken up by SPT1. Comparison of SPT1 and truncated SPT1(Delta1-3) indicated that the N-terminus of the protein is not required for sugar transport or substrate recognition. However, its deletion affected substrate affinity as well as maximal transport velocity and released the pH dependency of sugar uptake. In line with these results, uptake by SPT2 and SPT4 was active but not pH-dependent, making a H(+) symport mechanism unlikely for the truncated proteins. We postulate SPT2 and SPT4 as functional plasma membrane transporters in G. sulphuraria. Most likely, they originated from genes encoding active monosaccharide/H(+) symporters with 12 transmembrane-spanning domains.
Project description:1. Slices of rat kidney cortex, on incubation in a saline medium, formed d-glucose from the following substances: d-fructose, d-galactose, d-mannose, l-sorbose, l-arabinose, d-xylose, glycerol, myo-inositol, l-iditol, sorbitol, xylitol, ribitol, methylglyoxal, dihydroxyacetone, l-glyceraldehyde, d-glyceraldehyde, dl-glyceraldehyde, dl-glycerate. Values for the rates of glucose formation from these precursors are given. 2. No glucose was formed from l-rhamnose, d-arabitol, d-arabinose, d-ribose, l-fucose, d-lyxose, mannitol, dulcitol, d-glucuronate, propane-1,2-diol and propan-2-ol. 3. The pathways of glucose formation from the various precursors are discussed (Scheme 1). 4. l-Glyceraldehyde inhibited the formation of glucose from d-glyceraldehyde.
Project description:Some of inositol derivatives have been reported to help the action of insulin stimulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. Rat L6 myotubes were employed in an attempt to develop an in vitro model system for investigation of the possible insulin-like effect of eight inositol derivatives, namely allo-inositol, D: -chiro-inositol L: -chiro-inositol, epi-inositol, muco-inositol, myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol and D: -pinitol. At a higher concentration of 1 mM seven inositol derivatives other than myo-inositol were able to stimulate glucose uptake, while at 0.1 mM only D: -chiro-inositol, L: -chiro-inositol, epi-inositol and muco-inositol could induce glucose uptake, indicating their significant insulin-mimetic activity. Immunoblot analyses revealed that at least D: -chiro-inositol, L: -chiro-inositol, epi-inositol, muco-inositol and D: -pinitol were able to induce translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to plasma membrane not only in L6 myotubes but also in skeletal muscles of rats ex vivo. These results demonstrated that L6 myotubes appeared efficient as an in vitro system to identify inositol derivatives exerting an insulin-like effect on muscle cells depending on the induced translocation of GLUT4.
Project description:The D-ribulokinase and D-xylulokinase of Klebsiella aerogenes were purified to homogeneity from Escherichia coli K12 construct strains that synthesized these enzymes constitutively. The D-ribulokinase, which is encoded in the ribitol operon, is active as a dimer of 60 000 subunit mol.wt., whereas the D-xylulokinase, which is encoded in the D-arabitol operon, is active as a dimer of 54 000 subunit mol.wt. The amino acid compositions and N-terminal sequences of both pentulokinases are reported. The Kapp. values of the enzymes for their D-pentulose substrates were determined, and the D-ribulokinase was shown to have a low-affinity side-specificity for ribitol and D-arabitol. These results are discussed in the context of the evolution of the Klebsiella aerogenes pentitol operons.
Project description:Transaldolase (TALDO) deficiency is a rare metabolic disease in the pentose phosphate pathway, which manifests as a severe, early-onset multisystem disease. The body fluids of affected patients contain increased polyol concentrations and seven-carbon chain carbohydrates. We report the molecular and clinical findings in two recently diagnosed transaldolase-deficient children, both presented at birth. During infancy, they presented thin skin with a network of visible vessels, spider telangiectasias and multiple haemangiomas. Such unusual skin changes are characteristic of liver damage. Later, the patients developed rapidly progressive nodular liver fibrosis, tubulopathy and severe clotting disturbances. The clinical features of these patients were in line with previously studied patients with transaldolase deficiency. The diagnosis was established by detecting high concentrations of erythritol, ribitol, arabitol, sedoheptitol, perseitol, sedoheptulose and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate in the urine. Detection was made by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and then confirmed by molecular analysis of the TALDO gene.Transaldolase deficiency, a rare early-onset multisystem disease, should be considered by neonatologists, paediatricians, hepatologists and nephrologists in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anaemia, bleeding diathesis, liver failure and tubulopathy.