Drug-induced trafficking of p-glycoprotein in human brain capillary endothelial cells as demonstrated by exposure to mitomycin C.
ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1/MDR1) is a major efflux transporter at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), restricting the penetration of various compounds. In other tissues, trafficking of Pgp from subcellular stores to the cell surface has been demonstrated and may constitute a rapid way of the cell to respond to toxic compounds by functional membrane insertion of the transporter. It is not known whether drug-induced Pgp trafficking also occurs in brain capillary endothelial cells that form the BBB. In this study, trafficking of Pgp was investigated in human brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) that were stably transfected with a doxycycline-inducible MDR1-EGFP fusion plasmid. In the presence of doxycycline, these cells exhibited a 15-fold increase in Pgp-EGFP fusion protein expression, which was associated with an increased efflux of the Pgp substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123). The chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MMC) was used to study drug-induced trafficking of Pgp. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of single hCMEC/D3-MDR1-EGFP cells revealed that Pgp redistribution from intracellular pools to the cell surface occurred within 2 h of MMC exposure. Pgp-EGFP exhibited a punctuate pattern at the cell surface compatible with concentrated regions of the fusion protein in membrane microdomains, i.e., lipid rafts, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis of biotinylated cell surface proteins in Lubrol-resistant membranes. MMC exposure also increased the functionality of Pgp as assessed in three functional assays with Pgp substrates (Rho123, eFluxx-ID Gold, calcein-AM). However, this increase occurred with some delay after the increased Pgp expression and coincided with the release of Pgp from the Lubrol-resistant membrane complexes. Disrupting rafts by depleting the membrane of cholesterol increased the functionality of Pgp. Our data present the first direct evidence of drug-induced Pgp trafficking at the human BBB and indicate that Pgp has to be released from lipid rafts to gain its full functionality.
Project description:The blood-brain barrier (BBB) controls the entry of compounds into the brain, thereby regulating brain homeostasis. Efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) significantly contribute to BBB function. Multiple signaling pathways modulate the expression and activity of Pgp in response to xenobiotics and disease. A non-genetic way of intercellular transfer of Pgp occurs in cancer cells, but whether this also occurs in non-cancer cells such as endothelial cells that form the BBB is not known. A human brain endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) was used to study whether cell-to-cell Pgp transfer occurs during co-culturing with Pgp-EGFP expressing hCMEC/D3 cells. The Pgp-EGFP fusion protein was transferred from donor to recipient cells by cell-to-cell contact and Pgp-EGFP enriched vesicles, which were exocytosed by donor cells and endocytosed by adherent recipient cells. Flow cytometry experiments with the Pgp substrate eFLUXX-ID Gold demonstrated that the transferred Pgp is functional in the recipient cells. Exposure of the donor cells with inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) resulted in an enhanced intercellular Pgp transfer. Non-genetic transfer of a resistance phenotype and its regulation by HDACs is a novel mechanism of altering BBB functionality. This mechanism may have important implications for understanding drug-induced alterations in Pgp expression and activity.
Project description:P-glycoprotein (Pgp) [the product of the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene] at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits central nervous system (CNS) entry of many prescribed drugs, contributing to the poor success rate of CNS drug candidates. Modulating Pgp expression could improve drug delivery into the brain; however, assays to predict regulation of human BBB Pgp are lacking. We developed a transgenic mouse model to monitor human MDR1 transcription in the brain and spinal cord in vivo. A reporter construct consisting of ?10 kb of the human MDR1 promoter controlling the firefly luciferase gene was used to generate a transgenic mouse line (MDR1-luc). Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the MDR1-luciferase transgene on chromosome 3. Reporter gene expression was monitored with an in vivo imaging system following D-luciferin injection. Basal expression was detectable in the brain, and treatment with activators of the constitutive androstane, pregnane X, and glucocorticoid receptors induced brain and spinal MDR1-luc transcription. Since D-luciferin is a substrate of ABCG2, the feasibility of improving D-luciferin brain accumulation (and luciferase signal) was tested by coadministering the dual ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar. The brain and spine MDR1-luc signal intensity was increased by elacridar treatment, suggesting enhanced D-luciferin brain bioavailability. There was regional heterogeneity in MDR1 transcription (cortex > cerebellum) that coincided with higher mouse Pgp protein expression. We confirmed luciferase expression in brain vessel endothelial cells by ex vivo analysis of tissue luciferase protein expression. We conclude that the MDR1-luc mouse provides a unique in vivo system to visualize MDR1 CNS expression and regulation.
Project description:This paper describes the preparation of giant unilamellar vesicles with reconstituted hamster P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) for studying the transport activity of this efflux pump in individual liposomes using optical microscopy. Pgp, a member of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter family, is known to contribute to the cellular multidrug resistance (MDR) against variety of drugs. The efficacy of many therapeutics is, thus, hampered by this efflux pump, leading to a high demand for simple and effective strategies to monitor the interactions of candidate drugs with this protein. Here, we applied small Pgp proteoliposomes to prepare giant Pgp-bearing liposomes via modified electroformation techniques. The presence of Pgp in the membrane of giant proteoliposomes was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Assessment of Pgp ATPase activity suggested that this transporter retained its activity upon reconstitution into giant liposomes, with an ATPase specific activity of 439 ± 103 nmol/mg protein/min. For further confirmation, we assessed the transport activity of Pgp in these proteoliposomes by monitoring the translocation of rhodamine 123 (Rho123) across the membrane using confocal microscopy at various ATP concentrations (0-2 mM) and in the presence of Pgp inhibitors. Rate of change in Rho123 concentration inside the liposomal lumen was used to estimate the Rho123 transport rates (1/s) for various ATP concentrations, which were then applied to retrieve the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of ATP in Rho123 transport (0.42 ± 0.75 mM). Similarly, inhibitory effects of verapamil, colchicine, and cyclosporin A on Pgp were studied in this system and the IC50 values for these Pgp inhibitors were found 26.6 ± 6.1 ?M, 94.6 ± 47.6 ?M, and 0.21 ± 0.07 ?M, respectively. We further analyzed the transport data using a kinetic model that enabled dissecting the passive diffusion of Rho123 from its Pgp-mediated transport across the membrane. Based on this model, the permeability coefficient of Rho123 across the liposomal membrane was approximately 1.25×10-7 cm/s. Comparing the membrane permeability in liposomes with and without Pgp revealed that the presence of this protein did not have a significant impact on membrane integrity and permeability. Furthermore, we used this model to obtain transport rate constants for the Pgp-mediated transport of Rho123 (m3/mol/s) at various ATP and inhibitor concentrations, which were then applied to estimate values of 0.53 ± 0.66 mM for Km of ATP and 25.2 ± 5.0 ?M for verapamil IC50, 61.8 ± 34.8 ?M for colchicine IC50, and 0.23 ± 0.09 ?M for cyclosporin A IC50. The kinetic parameters obtained from the two analyses were comparable, suggesting a minimal contribution from the passive Rho123 diffusion across the membrane. This approach may, therefore, be applied for screening the transport activity of Pgp against potential drug candidates.
Project description:The passage of drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the efficacy of chemotherapy in brain tumours. For instance, the anticancer drug doxorubicin, which is effective against glioblastoma in vitro, has poor efficacy in vivo, because it is extruded by P-glycoprotein (Pgp/ABCB1), multidrug resistance-related proteins and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in BBB cells. The aim of this study was to convert poorly permeant drugs like doxorubicin into drugs able to cross the BBB.Experiments were performed on primary human cerebral microvascular endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells, alone and co-cultured with human brain and epithelial tumour cells.Statins reduced the efflux activity of Pgp/ABCB1 and BCRP/ABCG2 in hCMEC/D3 cells by increasing the synthesis of NO, which elicits the nitration of critical tyrosine residues on these transporters. Statins also increased the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors exposed on the surface of BBB cells, as well as on tumour cells like human glioblastoma. We showed that the association of statins plus drug-loaded nanoparticles engineered as LDLs was effective as a vehicle for non-permeant drugs like doxorubicin to cross the BBB, allowing its delivery into primary and metastatic brain tumour cells and to achieve significant anti-tumour cytotoxicity.We suggest that our 'Trojan horse' approach, based on the administration of statins plus a LDL receptor-targeted liposomal drug, might have potential applications in the pharmacological therapy of different brain diseases for which the BBB represents an obstacle.
Project description:Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1, ABCB1, P-glycoprotein) is a critical efflux transporter that extrudes chemicals from the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and limits neuronal exposure to xenobiotics. Prior studies in malignant cells demonstrated that MDR1 expression can be altered by inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC), enzymes that modify histone structure and influence transcription factor binding to DNA. Here, we sought to identify the mechanisms responsible for the up-regulation of MDR1 by HDAC inhibitors in human BBB cells. Immortalized human brain capillary endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells were treated with HDAC inhibitors and assessed for MDR1 expression and function. Of the HDAC inhibitors profiled, valproic acid (VPA), apicidin, and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) increased MDR1 mRNA and protein levels by 30-200%, which corresponded with reduced intracellular accumulation of the MDR1 substrate rhodamine 123. Interestingly, induction of MDR1 mRNA by HDAC inhibitors mirrored increases in the expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and its target gene cytochrome P450 1A1. To explore the role of AHR in HDAC inhibitor-mediated regulation of MDR1, a pharmacological activator (?-naphthoflavone, ?NF) and inhibitor (CH-223191, CH) of AHR were tested. The induction of MDR1 in cells treated with SAHA was amplified by ?NF and attenuated by CH. Furthermore, SAHA increased the binding of acetylated histone H3K9/K14 and AHR proteins to regions of the MDR1 promoter that contain AHR response elements. In conclusion, HDAC inhibitors up-regulate the expression and activity of the MDR1 transporter in human brain endothelial cells by increasing histone acetylation and facilitating AHR binding at the MDR1 promoter.
Project description:Aim of this study was to determine whether the carbon-11-labeled antiepileptic drug [(11)C]mephobarbital is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and can be used to assess Pgp function at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with positron emission tomography (PET). We performed paired PET scans in rats, wild-type (FVB) and Mdr1a/b((-/-)) mice, before and after intravenous administration of the Pgp inhibitor tariquidar (15mg/kg). Brain-to-blood AUC(0-60) ratios in rats and brain AUC(0-60) values of [(11)C]mephobarbital in wild-type and Mdr1a/b((-/-)) mice were similar in scans 1 and 2, respectively, suggesting that in vivo brain distribution of [(11)C]mephobarbital is not influenced by Pgp efflux. Absence of Pgp transport was confirmed in vitro by performing concentration equilibrium transport assay in cell lines transfected with MDR1 or Mdr1a. PET experiments in wild-type mice, with and without pretreatment with the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) inhibitor MK571 (20mg/kg), and in Mrp1((-/-)) mice suggested that [(11)C]mephobarbital is also not transported by MRPs at the murine BBB, which was also supported by in vitro transport experiments using human MRP1-transfected cells. Our results are surprising, as phenobarbital, the N-desmethyl derivative of mephobarbital, has been shown to be a substrate of Pgp, which suggests that N-methylation abolishes Pgp affinity of barbiturates.
Project description:Drug delivery to the brain for the treatment of pathologies with a CNS component is a significant clinical challenge. P-glycoprotein (PgP), a drug efflux pump in the endothelial cell membrane, is a major factor in preventing therapeutics from crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Identifying PgP regulatory mechanisms is key to developing agents to modulate PgP activity. Previously, we found that PgP trafficking was altered concomitant with increased PgP activity and disassembly of high molecular weight PgP-containing complexes during acute peripheral inflammatory pain. These data suggest that PgP activity is post-translationally regulated at the BBB. The goal of the current study was to identify proteins that co-localize with PgP in rat brain microvessel endothelial cell membrane microdomains and use the data to suggest potential regulatory mechanisms. Using new density gradients of microvessel homogenates, we identified two unique pools (1,2) of PgP in membrane fractions. Caveolar constituents, caveolin1, cavin1, and cavin2, co-localized with PgP in these fractions indicating the two pools contained caveolae. A chaperone (Hsc71), protein disulfide isomerase and endosomal/lysosomal sorting proteins (Rab5, Rab11a) also co-fractionated with PgP in the gradients. These data suggest signaling pathways with a potential role in post-translational regulation of PgP activity at the BBB.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (Isentress®)(RALT) has demonstrated excellent efficacy in both treatment-experienced and naïve patients with HIV-1 infection, and is the first strand transfer integrase inhibitor to be approved for use in HIV infected adults worldwide. Since the in vivo efficacy of this class of antiviral drugs depends on their access to intracellular sites where HIV-1 replicates, we analyzed the biological effects induced by RALT on human MDR cell systems expressing multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein (MDR1-Pgp). METHODS: Our study about RALT was performed by using a set of consolidated methodologies suitable for evaluating the MDR1-Pgp substrate nature of chemical and biological agents, namely: i) assay of drug efflux function; ii) analysis of MDR reversing capability by using cell proliferation assays; iii) monoclonal antibody UIC2 (mAb) shift test, as a sensitive assay to analyze conformational transition associated with MDR1-Pgp function; and iv) induction of MDR1-Pgp expression in MDR cell variant subjected to RALT exposure. RESULTS: Functional assays demonstrated that the presence of RALT does not remarkably interfere with the efflux mechanism of CEM-VBL100 and HL60 MDR cells. Accordingly, cell proliferation assays clearly indicated that RALT does not revert MDR phenotype in human MDR1-Pgp expressing cells. Furthermore, exposure of CEM-VBL10 cells to RALT does not induce MDR1-Pgp functional conformation intercepted by monoclonal antibody (mAb) UIC2 binding; nor does exposure to RALT increase the expression of this drug transporter in MDR1-Pgp expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of RALT interaction with human MDR1-Pgp was observed in the in vitro MDR cell systems used in the present investigation, this incorporating all sets of studies recommended by the FDA guidelines. Taken in aggregate, these data suggest that RALT may express its curative potential in all sites were HIV-1 penetrates, including the MDR1-Pgp protected blood/tissue barrier. Moreover RALT, evading MDR1-Pgp drug efflux function, would not interfere with pharmacokinetic profiles of co-administered MDR1-Pgp substrate antiretroviral drugs.
Project description:Background The survival rate is poor in breast cancer patients with brain metastases. Thus, new concepts for therapeutic approaches are required. During metastasis, the cytoskeleton of cancer cells is highly dynamic and therefore cytoskeleton-associated proteins are interesting targets for tumour therapy. Methods Screening for genes showing a significant correlation with brain metastasis formation was performed based on microarray data from breast cancer patients with long-term follow up information. Validation of the most interesting target was performed by MTT-, Scratch- and Transwell-assay. In addition, intracellular trafficking was analyzed by live-cell imaging for secretory vesicles, early endosomes and multiple vesicular bodies (MVB) generating extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). Effect of EVs on the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) was examined by incubating endothelial cells of the BBB (hCMEC/D3) with EVs, and permeability as well as adhesion of breast cancer cells were analyzed. Clinical data of a breast cancer cohort was evaluated by ?2-tests, Kaplan-Meier-Analysis, and log-rank tests while for experimental data Student’s T-test was performed. Results Among those genes exhibiting a significant association with cerebral metastasis development, the only gene coding for a cytoskeleton-associated protein was Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase Like 4 (TTLL4). Overexpression of TTLL4 (TTLL4plus) in MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB468 breast cancer cells (TTLL4plus cells) significantly increased polyglutamylation of ?-tubulin. Moreover, trafficking of secretory vesicles and MVBs was increased in TTLL4plus cells. EVs derived from TTLL4plus cells promote adhesion of MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB468 cells to hCMEC/D3 cells and increase permeability of hCMEC/D3 cell layer. Conclusions These data suggest that TTLL4-mediated microtubule polyglutamylation alters exosome homeostasis by regulating trafficking of MVBs. The TTLL4plus-derived EVs may provide a pre-metastatic niche for breast cancer cells by manipulating endothelial cells of the BBB.
Project description:The ATP-binding cassette transporter multidrug resistance 1 P-glycoprotein (MDR1 Pgp) has been implicated with the transport of lipids from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While this has been unambigously shown for the fluorescent lipid analogues [N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl (C6-NBD)-phosphatidylcholine, -phosphatidylethanolamine, -sphingomyelin and -glucosylceramide, by using a novel approach we have now found significantly increased outward transport also for C6-NBD-phosphatidylserine (C6-NBD-PS) in EPG85-257 human gastric carcinoma cells overexpressing MDR1 (coding for MDR1 Pgp). The increased transport of C6-NBD-PS is mediated by MDR1 Pgp, shown by transport reduction nearly to the level of controls in the presence of MDR1 Pgp inhibitors [PSC 833, cyclosporin A and dexniguldipine hydrochloride (Dex)]. Addition of MK 571, a specific inhibitor of the MDR protein MRP1, does not decrease transport in either of the two cell lines. The plasma-membrane association of FITC-annexin V, a fluorescent protein conjugate binding PS, is significantly increased in MDR1-overexpressing cells as compared with controls, and can be reduced by an MDR1 Pgp inhibitor. This suggests that MDR1 Pgp transports endogenous PS, the lipid exhibiting the most pronounced transverse asymmetry in the plasma membrane.