Alterations of pancreatic islet structure, metabolism and gene expression in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.
ABSTRACT: The reduction of functional ? cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Here, we studied metabolic functions and islet gene expression profiles of C57BL/6J mice with naturally occurring nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) deletion mutation, a widely used model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes. On high fat diet (HF), the mice developed obesity and hyperinsulinemia, while blood glucose levels were only mildly elevated indicating a substantial capacity to compensate for insulin resistance. The basal serum insulin levels were elevated in HF mice, but insulin secretion in response to glucose load was significantly blunted. Hyperinsulinemia in HF fed mice was associated with an increase in islet mass and size along with higher BrdU incorporation to ? cells. The temporal profiles of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) of isolated islets were comparable in HF and normal chow fed mice. Islets isolated from HF fed mice had elevated basal oxygen consumption per islet but failed to increase oxygen consumption further in response to glucose or carbonyl cyanide-4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). To obtain an unbiased assessment of metabolic pathways in islets, we performed microarray analysis comparing gene expression in islets from HF to normal chow-fed mice. A few genes, for example, those genes involved in the protection against oxidative stress (hypoxia upregulated protein 1) and Pgc1? were up-regulated in HF islets. In contrast, several genes in extracellular matrix and other pathways were suppressed in HF islets. These results indicate that islets from C57BL/6J mice with NNT deletion mutation develop structural, metabolic and gene expression features consistent with compensation and decompensation in response to HF diet.
Project description:Glucokinase (Gck) functions as a glucose sensor for insulin secretion, and in mice fed standard chow, haploinsufficiency of beta cell-specific Gck (Gck(+/-)) causes impaired insulin secretion to glucose, although the animals have a normal beta cell mass. When fed a high-fat (HF) diet, wild-type mice showed marked beta cell hyperplasia, whereas Gck(+/-) mice demonstrated decreased beta cell replication and insufficient beta cell hyperplasia despite showing a similar degree of insulin resistance. DNA chip analysis revealed decreased insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2) expression in HF diet-fed Gck(+/-) mouse islets compared with wild-type islets. Western blot analyses confirmed upregulated Irs2 expression in the islets of HF diet-fed wild-type mice compared with those fed standard chow and reduced expression in HF diet-fed Gck(+/-) mice compared with those of HF diet-fed wild-type mice. HF diet-fed Irs2(+/-) mice failed to show a sufficient increase in beta cell mass, and overexpression of Irs2 in beta cells of HF diet-fed Gck(+/-) mice partially prevented diabetes by increasing beta cell mass. These results suggest that Gck and Irs2 are critical requirements for beta cell hyperplasia to occur in response to HF diet-induced insulin resistance.
Project description:Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) decrease the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Pancreatic islets express RAS components, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which cleaves angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]. Overexpression of ACE2 in pancreas of diabetic mice improved glucose homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine if deficiency of endogenous ACE2 contributes to islet dysfunction and T2D. We hypothesized that ACE2 deficiency potentiates the decline in ?-cell function and augments the development of diet-induced T2D. Male Ace2(+/y) or Ace2(-/y) mice were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 1 or 4 mo. A subset of 1-mo HF-fed mice were infused with Sal (Sal), losartan (Los), or Ang-(1-7). At 4 mo, while both genotypes of HF-fed mice developed a similar level of insulin resistance, adaptive hyperinsulinemia was reduced in Ace2(-/y) vs. Ace2(+/y) mice. Similarly, in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was reduced in 1-mo HF-fed Ace2(-/y) compared with Ace2(+/y) mice, resulting in augmented hyperglycemia. The average islet area was significantly smaller in both LF- and HF-fed Ace2(-/y) vs. Ace2(+/y) mice. Additionally, ?-cell mass and proliferation were reduced significantly in HF-fed Ace2(-/y) vs. Ace2(+/y) mice. Neither infusion of Los nor Ang-(1-7) was able to correct impaired in vivo GSIS of HF-fed ACE2-deficient mice. These results demonstrate a critical role for endogenous ACE2 in the adaptive ?-cell hyperinsulinemic response to HF feeding through regulation of ?-cell proliferation and growth.
Project description:FK506 binding protein 12.6 kDa (FKBP12.6), a protein that regulates ryanodine Ca(2+) release channels, may act as an important regulator of insulin secretion. In this study, the role of FKBP12.6 in the control of insulin secretion and blood glucose is clarified using FKBP12.6(-/-) mice. FKBP12.6(-/-) mice showed significant fed hyperinsulinemia but exhibited normoglycemia, fasting normoinsulinemia, and normal body weight compared with wild-type (WT) littermate control mice. Deletion of FKBP12.6 resulted in enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) both in vivo and in vitro, a result that is due to enhanced glucose-induced islet Ca(2+) elevation. After a high-fat dietary challenge (HF diet) for 3 mo, FKBP12.6(-/-) mice displayed higher body weight, hyperinsulinemia, and lower fed blood glucose concentrations compared with WT mice. FKBP12.6(-/-) mice displayed hyperinsulinemia, and resistance to HF diet-induced hyperglycemia, suggesting that FKBP12.6 plays an important role in insulin secretion and blood glucose control, and raising the possibility that it may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:In insulin-resistant status such as obesity, failure of pancreatic islets to increase insulin secretion leads to diabetes. We sought to screen for the islet genes that facilitate islet adaptation to obesity by comparing gene expression profiles between two strains of obesity-prone inbred mice with different propensities for hyperglycemia. C57BL/6J and AKR/J were fed regular rodent chow or high-fat diet, after which islet morphology, secretory function, and gene expression were assessed. AKR/J had lower blood glucose and higher insulin levels compared with C57BL/6J mice on regular rodent chow or high-fat diet. Insulin secretion was 3.2-fold higher in AKR/J than C57BL/6J mice following intraperitoneal glucose injection. Likewise, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets was higher in AKR/J. Additionally, islet mass was 1.4-fold greater in AKR/J compared with C57BL/6J. To elucidate the factors associated with the differences in islet function, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in islets in AKR/J and C57BL/6J mice. Of 14,000 genes examined, 202 were upregulated and 270 were downregulated in islets from diet-induced obese AKR/J mice compared with C57BL/6J mice. Key genes involved in islet signaling and metabolism, e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, sterol Co-A desaturase 1 and 2, and fatty acid desaturase 2 were upregulated in obese AKR/J mice. The expression of multiple extracellular matrix proteins was also increased in AKR/J mice, suggesting a role in modulation of islet mass. Functional analyses of differentially regulated genes hold promise for elucidating factors linking obesity to alterations in islet function.
Project description:AIMS/INTRODUCTION:A high-carbohydrate diet is known to increase insulin secretion and induce obesity. However, whether or not a high-carbohydrate diet affects β-cell mass (BCM) has been little investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Both wild-type (WT) mice and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel-deficient (Kir6.2KO) mice were fed normal chow or high-starch (ST) diets for 22 weeks. BCM and the numbers of islets were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and gene expression levels in islets were investigated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. MIN6-K8 β-cells were stimulated in solution containing various concentrations of glucose combined with nifedipine and glimepiride, and gene expression was analyzed. RESULTS:Both WT and Kir6.2KO mice fed ST showed hyperinsulinemia and body weight gain. BCM, the number of islets and the expression levels of cyclinD2 messenger ribonucleic acid were increased in WT mice fed ST compared with those in WT mice fed normal chow. In contrast, no significant difference in BCM, the number of islets or the expression levels of cyclinD2 messenger ribonucleic acid were observed between Kir6.2KO mice fed normal chow and those fed ST. Incubation of MIN6-K8 β-cells in high-glucose media or with glimepiride increased cyclinD2 expression, whereas nifedipine attenuated a high-glucose-induced increase in cyclinD2 expression. CONCLUSIONS:These results show that a high-starch diet increases BCM in an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel-dependent manner, which is mediated through upregulation of cyclinD2 expression.
Project description:Ββ-Cell adaptation to insulin resistance is necessary to maintain glucose homeostasis in obesity. Failure of this mechanism is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hence, factors controlling functional β-cell compensation are potentially important targets for the treatment of T2D. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) integrates diverse signals in the β-cell and plays a critical role in the control of insulin secretion. However, the role of β-cell PKD1 in glucose homeostasis in vivo is essentially unknown. Using β-cell-specific, inducible PKD1 knockout mice (βPKD1KO), we examined the role of β-cell PKD1 under basal conditions and during high-fat feeding. βPKD1KO mice under a chow diet presented no significant difference in glucose tolerance or insulin secretion compared with mice expressing the Cre transgene alone; however, when compared with wild-type mice, both groups developed glucose intolerance. Under a high-fat diet, deletion of PKD1 in β-cells worsened hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. This was accompanied by impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion both in vivo in hyperglycemic clamps and ex vivo in isolated islets from high-fat diet-fed βPKD1KO mice without changes in islet mass. This study demonstrates an essential role for PKD1 in the β-cell adaptive secretory response to high-fat feeding in mice.
Project description:Exogenous ghrelin reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and endogenous ghrelin protects against hypoglycemia during starvation. Islet ?-cells produce ghrelin and ?-cells express growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), suggesting the possibility of a paracrine mechanism for islet ghrelin to reach high local concentrations and affect insulin secretion. GHSR has high constitutive activity and may act independently of ghrelin. The objective in this study was to determine whether an intraislet ghrelin-GHSR axis modulates insulin secretion and glucose metabolism using mouse models lacking ghrelin (Ghrl-/- ) or GHSR (Ghsr-/- ). Ghsr-/- and Ghsr+/+ mice had comparable islet ghrelin concentrations. Exogenous ghrelin decreased insulin secretion in perifused isolated islets in a GHSR-dependent manner. Islets isolated from Ghrl-/- or Ghsr-/- mice did not differ from controls in glucose-, alanine-, or GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion during perifusion. Consistent with this finding, Ghrl-/- and Ghsr-/- male mice studied after either 6 or 16 h of fasting had blood glucose concentrations comparable with those of controls following intraperitoneal glucose, or insulin tolerance tests, or after mixed nutrient meals. Collectively, our data provide strong evidence against a paracrine ghrelin-GHSR axis mediating insulin secretion or glucose tolerance in lean, chow-fed adult mice.
Project description:We recently reported that mitoquinone (mitoQ, 500 ?mol/L) added to drinking water of C57BL/6J mice attenuated weight gain and reduced oxidative stress when administered to high-fat (HF) fed mice. Here, we examined the effects of mitoQ administered to HF fed mice on pancreatic islet morphology, dynamics of insulin secretion, and islet mitochondrial metabolism. C57BL/6J mice were fed HF for 130 days while we administered vehicle (cyclodextrin [CD]) or mitoQ added to the drinking water at up to 500 ?mol/L. MitoQ-treated mice vs vehicle gained significantly less weight, expended significantly more energy as determined by indirect calorimetry, and trended to consume less (nonsignificant) food. As we and others reported before, mitoQ-treated mice drank less water but showed no difference in percent body fluid by nuclear magnetic resonance. Circulating insulin and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by isolated islets were decreased in mitoQ-treated mice while insulin sensitivity (plasma insulin x glucose) was greater. Islet respiration as basal oxygen consumption (OCR), OCR directed at ATP synthesis, and maximal uncoupled OCR were also reduced in mitoQ-treated mice. Quantitative morphologic studies revealed that islet size was reduced in the mitoQ-treated mice while visual inspection of histochemically stained sections suggested that mitoQ reduced islet lipid peroxides. MitoQ markedly improved liver function as determined by plasma alanine aminotransferase. In summary, mitoQ treatment reduced the demand for insulin and reduced islet size, likely consequent to the action of mitoQ to mitigate weight gain and improve liver function.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Increased extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen is a characteristic of muscle insulin resistance. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 is a primary enzyme that degrades collagen IV (ColIV). As a component of the basement membrane, ColIV plays a key role in ECM remodelling. We tested the hypotheses that genetic deletion of MMP9 in mice increases muscle ColIV, induces insulin resistance in lean mice and worsens diet-induced muscle insulin resistance. METHODS:Wild-type (Mmp9(+/+)) and Mmp9-null (Mmp9(-/-)) mice were chow or high-fat (HF) fed for 16 weeks. Insulin action was measured by the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp in conscious weight-matched surgically catheterised mice. RESULTS:Mmp9(-/-) and HF feeding independently increased muscle ColIV. ColIV in HF-fed Mmp9(-/-) mice was further increased. Mmp9(-/-) did not affect fasting insulin or glucose in chow- or HF-fed mice. The glucose infusion rate (GIR), endogenous glucose appearance (EndoRa) and glucose disappearance (Rd) rates, and a muscle glucose metabolic index (Rg), were the same in chow-fed Mmp9(+/+) and Mmp9(-/-) mice. In contrast, HF-fed Mmp9(-/-) mice had decreased GIR, insulin-stimulated increase in Rd and muscle Rg. Insulin-stimulated suppression of EndoRa, however, remained the same in HF-fed Mmp9(-/-) and Mmp9(+/+) mice. Decreased muscle Rg in HF-fed Mmp9(-/-) was associated with decreased muscle capillaries. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Despite increased muscle ColIV, genetic deletion of MMP9 does not induce insulin resistance in lean mice. In contrast, this deletion results in a more profound state of insulin resistance, specifically in the skeletal muscle of HF-fed mice. These results highlight the importance of ECM remodelling in determining muscle insulin resistance in the presence of HF diet.
Project description:BACKGROUND: C57BLKS/J (BLKS) mice are susceptible to islet exhaustion in insulin-resistant states as compared with C57BL6/J (B6) mice, as observed by the presence of the leptin receptor (Lepr) allele, Leprdb/db. Furthermore, DBA2/J (DBA) mice are also susceptible to beta-cell failure and share 25% of their genome with BLKS; thus the DBA genome may contribute to beta-cell dysfunction in BLKS mice. RESULTS: Here we show that BLKS mice exhibit elevated insulin secretion, as evidenced by improved glucose tolerance and increased islet insulin secretion compared with B6 mice, and describe interstrain transcriptional differences in glucose response. Transcriptional differences between BLKS and B6 mice were identified by expression profiling of isolated islets from both strains. Genomic mapping of gene expression differences demonstrated a significant association of expression differences with DBA loci in BLKS mice (P = 4x10-27). CONCLUSION: Two genes, Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) and Pleiomorphic adenoma gene like 1 (Plagl1), were 4 and 7.2-fold higher respectively in BLKS islets, and may be major contributors to increased insulin secretion by BLKS islets. Contrary to reports for B6 mice, BLKS mice do not harbor a mutant Nnt gene. We detected 16 synonymous polymorphisms and a two-amino acid deletion in the Plagl1 gene in BLKS mice. Several inflammatory glucose-responsive genes are expressed at a higher level in BLKS, suggesting an inflammatory component to BLKS islet dysfunction. This study describes physiological differences between BLKS and B6 mice, and provides evidence for a causative role of the DBA genome in beta-cell dysfunction in BLKS mice.