Chimeras of p14ARF and p16: functional hybrids with the ability to arrest growth.
ABSTRACT: The INK4A locus codes for two independent tumor suppressors, p14ARF and p16/CDKN2A, and is frequently mutated in many cancers. Here we report a novel deletion/substitution from CC to T in the shared exon 2 of p14ARF/p16 in a melanoma cell line. This mutation aligns the reading frames of p14ARF and p16 mid-transcript, producing one protein which is half p14ARF and half p16, chimera ARF (chARF), and another which is half p16 and half non-p14ARF/non-p16 amino acids, p16-Alternate Carboxyl Terminal (p16-ACT). In an effort to understand the cellular impact of this novel mutation and others like it, we expressed the two protein products in a tumor cell line and analyzed common p14ARF and p16 pathways, including the p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 pathways, as well as the influence of the two proteins on growth and the cell cycle. We report that chARF mimicked wild-type p14ARF by inducing the p53/p21 pathway, inhibiting cell growth through G2/M arrest and maintaining a certain percentage of cells in G1 during nocodazole-induced G2 arrest. chARF also demonstrated p16 activity by binding CDK4. However, rather than preventing cyclin D1 from binding CDK4, chARF stabilized this interaction through p21 which bound CDK4. p16-ACT had no p16-related function as it was unable to inhibit cyclin D1/CDK4 complex formation and was unable to arrest the cell cycle, though it did inhibit colony formation. We conclude that these novel chimeric proteins, which are very similar to predicted p16/p14ARF chimeric proteins found in other primary cancers, result in maintained p14ARF-p53-p21 signaling while p16-dependent CDK4 inhibition is lost.
Project description:As part of a cell's inherent protection against carcinogenesis, p14ARF is upregulated in response to hyperproliferative signalling to induce cell cycle arrest. This property makes p14ARF a leading candidate for cancer therapy. This study explores the consequences of reactivating p14ARF in breast cancer and the potential of targeting p14ARF in breast cancer treatment. Our results show that activation of the p14ARF-p53-p21-Rb pathway in the estrogen sensitive MCF-7 breast cancer cells induces many hallmarks of senescence including a large flat cell morphology, multinucleation, senescence-associated-?-gal staining, and rapid G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. P14ARF also induces the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1, which is most often associated with a transition from G1-S phase and is highly expressed in breast cancers with poor clinical prognosis. In this study, siRNA knockdown of cyclin D1, p21 and p53 show p21 plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of high cyclin D1 expression, cell cycle and growth arrest post-p14ARF induction. High p53 and p14ARF expression and low p21/cyclin D1 did not cause cell-cycle arrest. Knockdown of cyclin D1 stops proliferation but does not reverse senescence-associated cell growth. Furthermore, cyclin D1 accumulation in the nucleus post-p14ARF activation correlated with a rapid loss of nucleolar Ki-67 protein and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Latent effects of the p14ARF-induced cellular processes resulting from high nuclear cyclin D1 accumulation included a redistribution of Ki-67 into the nucleoli, aberrant nuclear growth (multinucleation), and cell proliferation. Lastly, downregulation of cyclin D1 through inhibition of ER abrogated latent recurrence. The mediation of these latent effects by continuous expression of p14ARF further suggests a novel mechanism whereby dysregulation of cyclin D1 could have a double-edged effect. Our results suggest that p14ARF induced-senescence is related to late-onset breast cancer in estrogen responsive breast cancers and/or the recurrence of more aggressive breast cancer post-therapy.
Project description:Cellular senescence, the stable cell cycle arrest elicited by various forms of stress, is an important facet of tumor suppression. Although much is known about the key players in the implementation of senescence, including the pRb and p53 axes and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16(INK4a) and p21(CIP1), many details remain unresolved. In studying conditional senescence in human fibroblasts that express a temperature sensitive SV40 large T-antigen (T-Ag), we uncovered an unexpected role for CDK4. At the permissive temperature, where pRb and p53 are functionally compromised by T-Ag, cyclin D-CDK4 complexes are disrupted by the high p16(INK4a) levels and reduced expression of p21(CIP1). In cells arrested at the non-permissive temperature, p21(CIP1) promotes reassembly of cyclin D-CDK4 yet pRb is in a hypo-phosphorylated state, consistent with cell cycle arrest. In exploring whether the reassembled cyclin D-CDK4-p21 complexes are functional, we found that shRNA-mediated knockdown or chemical inhibition of CDK4 prevented the increase in cell size associated with the senescent phenotype by allowing the cells to arrest in G1 rather than G2/M. The data point to a role for CDK4 kinase activity in a G2 checkpoint that contributes to senescence.
Project description:BACKGROUND Hesa-A is a natural compound with anticancer properties. The exact mechanism of its action in esophageal cancer is not clear, yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cell toxicity effect of Hesa-A on the esophageal carcinoma cell lines, KYSE-30, and cell cycle genes expression. METHODS In this study, we tested cell toxicity with MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay and flow cytometry to evaluatet he cell cycle arrest. Real time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the expression of P53, P16, P21, cyclin D1, and cyclin B1 genes. RESULTS Our results showed that Hesa-A is effective in the expression of cell cycling check point proteins. Hesa-A induced an arrest in G2 phase of esophageal cell cycle. The levels of P53 (>13 times), P21 (>21 times), P16, cyclin B1, and cyclin D1 genes were increased 48 hours after Hesa-A treatment. CONCLUSION P21 and P16 expression were the potential mechanisms for G2 arrest of KYSE-30 esophageal cancer cell line by Hesa-A.
Project description:Relapse with drug-resistant disease is the main cause of death in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma patients. MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells in vitro are characterized by a failure to arrest at the G(1)-S checkpoint after irradiation- or drug-induced DNA damage. We show that several MYCN-amplified cell lines harbor additional chromosomal aberrations targeting p53 and/or pRB pathway components, including CDK4/CCND1/MDM2 amplifications, p16INK4A/p14ARF deletions or TP53 mutations. Cells with these additional aberrations undergo significantly lower levels of cell death after doxorubicin treatment compared with MYCN-amplified cells, with no additional mutations in these pathways. In MYCN-amplified cells CDK4 expression is elevated, increasing the competition between CDK4 and CDK2 for binding p21. This results in insufficient p21 to inhibit CDK2, leading to high CDK4 and CDK2 kinase activity upon doxorubicin treatment. CDK4 inhibition by siRNAs, selective small compounds or p19(INK4D) overexpression partly restored G(1)-S arrest, delayed S-phase progression and reduced cell viability upon doxorubicin treatment. Our results suggest a specific function of p19(INK4D), but not p16(INK4A), in sensitizing MYCN-amplified cells with a functional p53 pathway to doxorubicin-induced cell death. In summary, the CDK4/cyclin D-pRB axis is altered in MYCN-amplified cells to evade a G(1)-S arrest after doxorubicin-induced DNA damage. Additional chromosomal aberrations affecting the p53-p21 and CDK4-pRB axes compound the effects of MYCN on the G(1) checkpoint and reduce sensitivity to cell death after doxorubicin treatment. CDK4 inhibition partly restores G(1)-S arrest and sensitizes cells to doxorubicin-mediated cell death in MYCN-amplified cells with an intact p53 pathway.
Project description:CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN2A (p16) inhibit CDK4/6, initiating senescence. According to our view on senescence, the role of p21 and p16 is to cause cell cycle arrest, whereas MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) drives geroconversion to senescence. Recently we demonstrated that one of the markers of p21- and p16-initiated senescence is MEK-dependent hyper-elevation of cyclin D1. We noticed that a synthetic inhibitor of CDK 4/6 (PD0332991) also induced cyclin D1-positive senescence. We demonstrated that PD0332991 and p21 caused almost identical senescence phenotypes. p21, p16, and PD0332991 do not inhibit MTOR, and rapamycin decelerates geroconversion caused by all 3 molecules. Like p21, PD0332991 initiated senescence at any concentration that inhibited cell proliferation. This confirms the notion that a mere arrest in the presence of active MTOR may lead to senescence.
Project description:Cisplatin is a DNA-damaging antitumor agent that is highly effective in treating ovarian cancer. It activates the p53/p21 pathway for its cytotoxic mode of action, but it does not induce p21-dependent cell cycle arrest in G1. Therefore, we investigated this paradox, and used the model analog DAP as a positive control for p21-dependent G1-arrest.Studies were conducted in p53-proficient ovarian A2780 tumor cells to examine Cdk activity, cell cycle distribution and DNA damage signaling after cisplatin or DAP in combination with the mitotic inhibitor nocodazole.Cisplatin consistently induced transient S-phase arrest by inhibiting Cdk2/cyclin A complex in S-phase at 12 h and then a durable G2/M-arrest by inhibiting Cdc2/cyclin B complex at 12-18 h. These inhibitions were associated with Chk1 and Chk2 activation and resultant increase in inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of Cdk2 and Cdc2. Cisplatin also potently inhibited G1-phase Cdk4/cyclin D1 and Cdk2/cyclin E activities at ~18 h. In agreement, exposure of cisplatin-treated A2780, HCT-116(p53-/-) and HCT-116(p21-/-) tumor cells to nocodazole revealed limited G1-arrest that was dependent on p53 and p21. In contrast, the durable G1-arrest by DAP, which failed to activate Chk1 and Chk2, was unaffected by nocodazole.Cisplatin induced G1-arrest, but at an attenuated level. This was primarily due to orchestration of Cdk inhibition in S-phase first, then in G2, and finally in G1 that effectively blocked cells in G2 and prevented cells from progressing and arresting in G1. These studies demonstrate that cisplatin unequivocally activates G1-checkpoint response, but the fidelity of G1-arrest is compromised by Chk1/2 activation and checkpoint response in S- and G2/M-phase.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is a reproductive system cancer in elderly men. We investigated the effects of betel nut arecoline on the growth of normal and cancerous prostate cells. Normal RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells, androgen-independent PC-3 PCa cells, and androgen-dependent LNCaP PCa cells were used. Arecoline inhibited their growth in dose- and time-dependent manners. Arecoline caused RWPE-1 and PC-3 cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and LNCaP cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase. In RWPE-1 cells, arecoline increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, p21, and cyclins B1 and D3, decreased the expression of CDK2, and had no effects on CDK4 and cyclin D1 expression. In PC-3 cells, arecoline decreased CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, p21, p27, and cyclin D1 and D3 protein expression and increased cyclin B1 protein expression. In LNCaP cells, arecoline decreased CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1 expression; increased p21, p27, and cyclin D3 expression; had no effects on CDK1 and cyclin B1 expression. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked the arecoline-induced increase in reactive oxygen species production, decreased cell viability, altered the cell cycle, and changed the cell cycle regulatory protein levels. Thus, arecoline oxidant exerts differential effects on the cell cycle through modulations of regulatory proteins.
Project description:Loss of hSNF5 function is usually observed in malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), a highly aggressive pediatric neoplasm. Previous studies have shown that reexpression of hSNF5 in MRT cell lines causes G1 cell cycle arrest with p16(INK4A), p21(CIP1/WAF1), and cyclin D1 playing key roles in MRT cell growth control. However, we have shown that reexpression of hSNF5 induced cell cycle arrest in the absence of p16(INK4A) expression. These results indicate that the mechanism of hSNF5-induced cell cycle arrest is context dependent. Here, we investigated the relationship between p21(CIP1/WAF1) and hSNF5 in the regulation of growth using several MRT cell lines. We found that G1 cell cycle arrest occurred concomitant with an increase in p21(CIP1/WAF1) mRNA and protein levels and preceded p16(INK4A) mRNA and protein upregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation data confirmed that hSNF5 appeared at both p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p16(INK4A) promoters after reexpression. We further showed that p21(CIP1/WAF1) induction showed both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. We also showed that reduction of p21(CIP1/WAF1) expression by RNAi significantly inhibited hSNF5-induced G(1) arrest. Our results show that both p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p16(INK4A) are targets for hSNF5 and that p21(CIP1/WAF1) upregulation during hSNF5-induced G(1) arrest precedes p16(INK4A) upregulation. These findings indicate that SNF5 mediates a temporally controlled program of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition to restrict aberrant proliferation in MRT cells.
Project description:Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) are commonly present with latent EBV infection. However, events regulating EBV infection at early stages of the disease and the role of EBV in disease pathogenesis are largely undefined. Genetic alterations leading to activation of cyclin D1 signaling in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) cells have been postulated to predispose cells to EBV infection. We previously reported that loss of p16, a negative regulator of cyclin D1 signaling, is a frequent feature of NPC tumors. Here, we report that early premalignant lesions of nasopharyngeal epithelium overexpress cyclin D1. Furthermore, overexpression of cyclin D1 is closely associated with EBV infection. Therefore we investigated the potential role of cyclin D1 overexpression in dysplastic NPE cells in vitro. In human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized NPE cells, overexpression of cyclin D1 or a p16-resistant form of CDK4 (CDK4(R24C)) suppressed differentiation. This suppression may have implications for the close association of EBV infection with undifferentiated NPC. In these in vitro models, we found that cellular growth arrest and senescence occurred in EBV-infected cell populations immediately after infection. Nevertheless, overexpression of cyclin D1 or a p16-resistant form of CDK4 or knockdown of p16 in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized NPE cell lines could counteract the EBV-induced growth arrest and senescence. We conclude that dysregulated expression of cyclin D1 in NPE cells may contribute to NPC pathogenesis by enabling persistent infection of EBV.
Project description:Replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) is largely implemented by the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p16(INK4a) and p21(CIP1). Their accumulation results in a loss of CDK2 activity, and cells arrest with the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in its hypophosphorylated state. It has become standard practice to bypass the effects of p16(INK4a) by overexpressing CDK4 or a variant form that is unable to bind to INK4 proteins. Although CDK4 and CDK6 and their INK4-insensitive variants can extend the life span of HDFs, they also cause a substantial increase in the levels of endogenous p16(INK4a). Here we show that CDK4 and CDK6 can extend the life span of HDFs that have inactivating mutations in both alleles of INK4a or in which INK4a levels are repressed, indicating that overexpression of CDK4/6 is not equivalent to ablation of p16(INK4a). However, catalytically inactive versions of these kinases are unable to extend the replicative life span, suggesting that the impact of ectopic CDK4/6 depends on their ability to phosphorylate as yet unidentified substrates rather than to sequester CDK inhibitors. Since p16(INK4a) deficiency, CDK4 expression, and p53 or p21(CIP1) ablation have additive effects on replicative life span, our results underscore the idea that senescence is an integrated response to diverse signals.