A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).
ABSTRACT: A rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) detection in gibel carp was developed. Following cloning and sequencing of the putative DNA helicase gene of CyHV-2 isolate from China, a set of four specific primers was designed based on the sequence. The MgCl2 concentration and the reaction temperature were optimized to 6?mM, 64°C, respectively. LAMP products were detected by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of SYBR Green I stain. The specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay were determined. No cross-reaction was observed with other fish DNA viruses including eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus, and Chinese giant salamander iridovirus. The LAMP assay was found to be equally sensitive as nested PCR. A comparative evaluation of 10 fish samples using LAMP and nested PCR assays showed an overall correlation in positive and negative results for CyHV-2. These results indicate that the LAMP assay is simple, sensitive, and specific and has a great potential use for CyHV-2 detection in the laboratory and field.
Project description:The complement systems play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, the complement C3 gene, designated CagC3, was cloned and sequenced from Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). The expression pattern of CagC3 in different tissues of healthy Gibel carp and after challenge with Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The full-length CagC3 cDNA was 5131 bp with an ORF of 4950 bp, encoding a predicted protein of 1649 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that CagC3 has conserved domains and residues known to be critical for C3 function. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that CagC3 clustered with homologs from common carp and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). CagC3 is expressed in all examined tissues of healthy Gibel carp, with the highest expression in liver. In vivo, after CyHV-2 challenge, CagC3 transcription was significantly upregulated in liver, spleen and kidney with the peaks at 24 hr, 2 d, and 2 d, respectively. In vitro, CagC3 expression in the Gibel carp brain cell line showed the same pattern as that in vivo after stimulation with CyHV-2 or poly(I:C). However, CagC3 expression was downregulated at 24 hr after induction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and then reached the peak at 2 d. These results suggest that CagC3 is involved in the innate immune response of Gibel carp to viral infection.
Project description:Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) infection is detrimental to gibel carp health and may result in severe economic loss in freshwater aquaculture. However, information regarding the interaction of this pathogen with the aquatic environment is scarce. In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing were used to determine the abundances of pathogens and bacterial community compositions in two aquaculture ponds in Jiangsu Province, China. The results indicate that the concentrations of six selected pathogens were higher in the water than in the sediment and that these concentrations peaked during disease outbreak. In total, 8,326 and 18,244 operational taxonomic units were identified from water and sediment samples, respectively. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chlorobi in water samples and Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes in sediment samples. Bacterial communities were similar at the phylum level in different ponds, although significant differences were observed at the genus level. In addition, bacterial diversity was associated with environmental factors (temperature, chemical oxygen demand, NO2 - -N, NO3 - -N, and NH4 + -N) in the pond where the outbreak occurred. Additionally, CyHV-2 abundance was positively correlated with dissolved oxygen levels and Aeromonas spp. abundance in pond water (p < .01). This study provides comprehensive insight into the mechanisms of interaction between potential pathogens and the freshwater environment of aquaculture ponds during CyHV-2 disease outbreaks. Furthermore, the results from this study can contribute to improvement of the aquatic environment and establishment of disease prevention and control measures.
Project description:Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) infection results in huge economic losses in gibel carp (<i>Carassius auratus gibelio</i>) industry. In this study, we first constructed recombinant plasmids pcORF25 and pcCCL35.2 as DNA vaccine and molecular adjuvant against CyHV-2, respectively, and confirmed that both recombinant plasmids could be effectively expressed in vitro and in vivo. Then, the vaccination and infection experiments (<i>n</i> = 50) were set as seven groups. The survival rate (70%) in ORF25/CCL35.2 group was highest. The highest specific antibody levels were found in ORF25/CCL35.2 group in major immune tissues by qRT-PCR, and confirmed in serum by ELISA assay, antibody neutralization titer, and serum incubation-infection experiments. Three crucial innate immune indices, namely C3 content, lysozyme, and total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) activities, were highest in ORF25/CCL35.2 group in serum. pcORF25/pcCCL35.2 can effectively up-regulate mRNA expressions of some important immune genes (IL-1?, IL-2, IFN-?2, and viperin), and significantly suppress CyHV-2 replication in head kidney and spleen tissues. The minimal tissue lesions can be seen in ORF25/CCL35.2 group in gill, spleen, and trunk kidney tissues by histopathological examination. The results indicated that the combination of DNA vaccine pcORF25 and molecular adjuvant pcCCL35.2 is an effective method against CyHV-2 infection, suggesting a feasible strategy for the control of fish viral diseases.
Project description:Encapsulation of antigens within protein microcrystals (polyhedra) is a promising approach for the stable delivery of vaccines. In this study, a vaccine was encapsulated into polyhedra against cyprinid herpesvirus II (CyHV-2). CyHV-2 typically infects gibel carp, <i>Carassius auratus</i> gibelio, causing gill hemorrhagic disease. The vaccine was constructed using a codon-optimized sequence, D4ORF, comprising the ORF72 (region 1-186 nt), ORF66 (region 993-1197 nt), ORF81 (region 603-783 nt), and ORF82 (region 85-186 nt) genes of CyHV-2. The H1-D4ORF and D4ORF-VP3 sequences were, respectively, obtained by fusing the H1-helix sequence (region 1-90 nt) ofBombyx mori cypovirus(BmCPV) polyhedrin to the 5' terminal end of D4ORF and by fusing a partial sequence (1-279 nt) of the BmCPV VP3 gene to the 3' terminal end of D4ORF. Furthermore, BmNPV-H1-D4ORF-polh and BmNPV-D4ORF-VP3-polh recombinant <i>B. mori</i> nucleopolyhedroviruses (BmNPVs), belonging to the family Baculoviridae, and co-expressing BmCPV polyhedrin and H1-D4ORF or D4ORF-VP3, were constructed. H1-D4ORF and D4ORF-VP3 fusion proteins were confirmed to be encapsulated into recombinant cytoplasmic polyhedra by Western blotting. Degradation of vaccine proteins was assessed by SDS-PAGE, and the results showed that the encapsulated vaccine proteins in polyhedra could be protected from degradation. Furthermore, when gibel carp were vaccinated with the purified polyhedra from BmNPV-H1-D4ORF-polh and BmNPV-D4ORF-VP3-polh via injection, the antibody titers in the serum of the vaccinated fish reached 1:6400-1:12,800 at 3 weeks post-vaccination. Therelative percentage of survival of immunized gibel carp reached 64.71% and 58.82%, respectively, following challenge with CyHV-2. These results suggest that incorporating vaccine protein into BmCPV polyhedra may be a novel approach for developing aquaculture microencapsulated vaccines.
Project description:Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.
Project description:Normally, fish will decrease food intake or even stop feeding during the winter. In previous studies, two widely cultured gibel carp strains (strain A and strain F) showed differences in lipid and glucose metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that the physiological changes during the overwintering period would be different between the two strains. Thus, the two strains were starved for 77 days, after which the levels of glucose and lipid metabolism, ER stress, autophagy, and apoptosis were determined. The starvation increased hepatic glycogenolysis and fatty acid ?-oxidation but suppressed lipogenesis in both strains overwintering. Considering the effects of genotype, strain F had higher levels of ER stress and autophagy but lower levels of apoptosis than strain A, suggesting that strain F might be more resistant to overwintering starvation. The interactions between strains and starvation periods were observed in plasma triglyceride contents and the mRNA levels of pyruvate kinase (pk), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (srebp1), activating transcription factor 4 (atf4), and autophagy protein 12 (atg12). In conclusion, long-term starvation during winter could induce hepatic glycogenolysis and fatty acid ?-oxidation but suppress lipogenesis, ER stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in gibel carp, and strain F may be more resistant to starvation during winter. Taken together, these results discovered the responses to prolonged starvation stress during winter in two strains of gibel carp and could provide information for genotype selection, especially for selecting strains better adapted to winter.
Project description:Gibel carp is an important aquaculture species in China, and a herpesvirus, called as Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV), has hampered the aquaculture development. Diverse gynogenetic clones of gibel carp have been identified or created, and some of them have been used as aquaculture varieties, but their resistances to herpesvirus and the underlying mechanism remain unknown.To reveal their susceptibility differences, we firstly performed herpesvirus challenge experiments in three gynogenetic clones of gibel carp, including the leading variety clone A+, candidate variety clone F and wild clone H. Three clones showed distinct resistances to CaHV. Moreover, 8772, 8679 and 10,982 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) were identified from comparative transcriptomes between diseased individuals and control individuals of clone A+, F and H, respectively. Comprehensive analysis of the shared DEUs in all three clones displayed common defense pathways to the herpesvirus infection, activating IFN system and suppressing complements. KEGG pathway analysis of specifically changed DEUs in respective clones revealed distinct immune responses to the herpesvirus infection. The DEU numbers identified from clone H in KEGG immune-related pathways, such as "chemokine signaling pathway", "Toll-like receptor signaling pathway" and others, were remarkably much more than those from clone A+ and F. Several IFN-related genes, including Mx1, viperin, PKR and others, showed higher increases in the resistant clone H than that in the others. IFNphi3, IFI44-like and Gig2 displayed the highest expression in clone F and IRF1 uniquely increased in susceptible clone A+. In contrast to strong immune defense in resistant clone H, susceptible clone A+ showed remarkable up-regulation of genes related to apoptosis or death, indicating that clone A+ failed to resist virus offensive and evidently induced apoptosis or death.Our study is the first attempt to screen distinct resistances and immune responses of three gynogenetic gibel carp clones to herpesvirus infection by comprehensive transcriptomes. These differential DEUs, immune-related pathways and IFN system genes identified from susceptible and resistant clones will be beneficial to marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding or molecular module-based resistance breeding in gibel carp.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Invasive gibel carp, <i>Carassius gibelio</i> (Bloch, 1782) has become well-established in the Hungarian waters and now are spreading in the European waters. On major concern now is the potential hybridization between gibel carp and the other invasive species in the <i>Carassius auratus</i> complex (CAC), which may further accelerate the spread of the whole invasive species complex. The identification of gibel carp and their hybrids is difficult because of its morphological similarity to the other species in CAC. Here we carry out a genomic assessment to understand the history of gibel carp invasion and its phylogenetic relationship with the other species in CAC. Three loci of the mitochondrial genome (D-loop, CoI, Cytb) were used to determine the phylogenetic origin of individuals and relarionship among six gibel carp populations and the other species in the CAC.<h4>Methodolgy</h4>A total of 132 gibel carp samples from six locations in Southern Transdanubia (Hungary) were collected after phenotypic identification to measure the genetic diversity within and among gibel carp populations of Southern Transdanubia (Hungary). The genetic background was examined by the sequences of the mitochondrial genome: D-loop, Cytochrome <i>c</i> oxidase I (CoI) and Cytochrome <i>b</i> (Cytb). Mitochondrial genetic markers are excellent tools for phylogenetic studies because they are maternally inherited. Successfully identified haplotypes were aligned and with reference sequences in nucleotide databases (<i>i.e.,</i> NCBI-BLAST: National Centre for Biotechnology Information and BOLD: Barcode of Life Data System). The phylogenetic relationships among gibel carp populations were then analyzed together with the reference sequences to understand the relationship and the level of hybridization with the species in CAC.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 132 aligned D-loop sequences 22 haplotypes were identified. Further examination of representative individuals of the 22 haplotypes, six Cytb and four CoI sequences were detected. The largest number of haplotypes of all three loci were found in Lake Balaton, the largest shallow lake in Central Europe. Based on the NCBI-BLAST alignment of the D-loop, haplotypes of <i>Carassius auratus auratus</i> and <i>Carassius a. buergeri</i> in CAC were identified in the <i>C. gibelio</i> samples. Further analysis of haplotypes with the other two mitochondrial markers confirmed the occurrence of intragenus hybridization of <i>C. gibelio</i> in the Hungarian waters.<h4>Conclusion</h4>By using three mitochondrial markers (D-loop, Cytb, CoI), we genomically characterized a gibel carp-complex in Hungarian waters and assessed the <i>C. gibelio</i> phylogenetic status between them. Hybrid origin of locally invasive <i>Carassius</i> taxon was detected in Hungary. It points out that invasive species are not only present in Hungary but reproduce with each other in the waters, further accelerating their spread.
Project description:Fluorescence real-time LAMP assays were designed for the <i>orf43</i> gene of CyHV-3 European genotype and the <i>p4a</i> gene of the CEV genogroup I. A third LAMP assay to detect the <i>ef1a</i> gene of the host common carp was designed as an internal control. The limit of detection was 10<sup>2</sup> and 10<sup>3</sup> viral copies under 25 min for CyHV-3 and CEV, respectively. The specificity of the CyHV-3 LAMP assay was 95.6% of 72 fish herpesviruses tested. Sixty-three non-lethal common carp mucus swabs were collected across 16 sites during disease investigations. DNA extractions were performed in under 10 min using the QuickExtract™ digestion buffer. The LAMP amplification of CyHV-3 DNA in mucus swabs from clinical cases was detected from 4 to 13 min in 13 sites, while a co-infection of CyHV-3 and CEV was confirmed by LAMP in a single site. The LAMP results agreed with the results of the reference laboratory. The common carp <i>ef1a</i> was amplified only in 61% of the mucus swabs collected, preventing its use as a robust internal control to distinguish false negatives from invalid tests. After further optimization, these tests could be implemented for border inspection posts surveillance and decentralizing testing during disease outbreaks.
Project description:Our previous studies in gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) have shown that cadmium (Cd) exposure elicits deleterious effects depending on the genetic background, and thus we hypothesized that mitigation via nutritional intervention may vary between strains. Therefore, two gibel carp strains (the A and F strains) were fed diets supplemented with 0% or 1% taurine for 8 weeks prior to 96 h Cd exposure, and the responses of antioxidant pathways, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy, and apoptosis were investigated. The results showed that taurine supplementation had no effect on the growth performance of gibel carp. After Cd exposure, histological damage to mitochondria and ER, induction of oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, occurrence of ER stress, and apoptotic signals were observed in the livers. Upon the diet effects, taurine supplementation alleviated the ER-stress-induced autophagy and apoptosis after Cd exposure and stimulated antioxidant pathways. Regarding the difference between strains, taurine played a protective role in alleviating Cd toxicity through the antioxidant response, ER stress, and autophagy in the F strain, whereas such effects were achieved by the attenuation of apoptosis in the A strain. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential use of taurine in the mitigation of heavy metal toxicity in aquatic organisms.