Lifetime occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes is associated with bronchitis symptoms and higher diffusion capacity in COPD patients.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients. METHODS: We studied 338 patients hospitalized for a first exacerbation of COPD in 9 Spanish hospitals, obtaining full occupational history in a face-to-face interview; job codes were linked to a job exposure matrix for semi-quantitative estimation of exposure to mineral/biological dust, and gases/fumes for each job held. Patients underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity testing and analysis of gases in stable conditions. Quality of life, dyspnea and chronic bronchitis symptoms were determined with a questionnaire interview. A high- resolution CT scan was available in 133 patients. RESULTS: 94% of the patients included were men, with a mean age of 68(8.5) years and a mean FEV1% predicted 52 (16). High exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher scores for symptom perception in the St. George's questionnaire. No occupational agent was associated with a lower FEV1. High exposure to all occupational agents was associated with better lung diffusion capacity, in long-term quitters. In the subgroup with CT data, patients with emphysema had 18% lower DLCO compared to those without emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of COPD patients, high exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and high exposure to all occupational agents was consistently associated with better diffusion capacity in long-term quitters.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the independent effects of occupational exposures and smoking on chronic bronchitis and airflow obstruction. We assessed the association between lifetime occupational exposures and airflow obstruction in a cross-sectional survey in an urban-industrial area of Catalonia, Spain. METHODS: We interviewed 576 subjects of both sexes aged 20-70 years (response rate 80%) randomly selected from census rolls, using the ATS questionnaire. Forced spirometry was performed by 497 subjects according to ATS normative. RESULTS: Lifetime occupational exposure to dust, gases or fumes was reported by 52% of the subjects (63% in men, 41% in women). Textile industry was the most frequently reported job in relation to these exposures (39%). Chronic cough, expectoration and wheeze were more prevalent in exposed subjects with odds ratios ranging from 1.7 to 2.0 being highest among never-smokers (2.1 to 4.3). Lung function differences between exposed and unexposed subjects were dependent on duration of exposure, but not on smoking habits. Subjects exposed more than 15 years to dusts, gases or fumes had lower lung function values (FEV1 -80 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) -186 to 26; MMEF -163 ml, CI -397 to 71; FEV1/FVC ratio -1.7%, CI -3.3 to -0.2) than non-exposed. CONCLUSION: Chronic bronchitis symptoms and airflow obstruction are associated with occupational exposures in a population with a high employment in the textile industry. Lung function impairment was related to the duration of occupational exposure, being independent of the effect of smoking.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This study examined the association of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD defined as self-reported doctor diagnosed chronic bronchitis or emphysema, with occupational exposure among ever-employed US adults. METHODS:Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 to 2011-2012, a nationally representative study of the non-institutionalized civilian US population. Reported current and/or longest held job were used to create prevalence estimates and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) (adjusted for age, gender, race, and smoking status) for airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD by occupational exposure, determined using both NHANES participants' self-reported exposures and eight categories of COPD job exposure matrix (JEM) assigned exposures. RESULTS:Significant PORs for airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD respectively were observed with self-reported exposure for ?20 years to mineral dust (POR?=?1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.85; POR?=?1.69; 95% CI 1.17-2.43) and exhaust fumes (POR?=?1.65; 95% CI 1.27-2.15; POR?=?2.22; 95% CI 1.37-3.58). Airflow obstruction or self-reported COPD were also associated with COPD-JEM assigned high exposure to mineral dust, combined dust, diesel exhaust, vapor-gas, sensitizers, and overall exposure. CONCLUSION:Airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD are associated with both self-reported and JEM-assigned exposures.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Recent studies suggest that occupational inhalant exposures trigger exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but findings are conflicting.<h4>Methods</h4>We included 7,768 individuals with self-reported asthma (n = 3,215) and/or spirometric airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/ forced expiratory volume (FVC) <0.70) (n = 5,275) who participated in The Copenhagen City Heart Study or The Copenhagen General Population Study from 2001-2016. Occupational exposure was assigned by linking job codes with job exposure matrices, and exacerbations were defined by register data on oral corticosteroid treatment, emergency care unit assessment or hospital admission. Associations between occupational inhalant exposure each year of follow-up and exacerbation were assessed by Cox regression with time varying exposure and age as the underlying time scale.<h4>Results</h4>Participants were followed for a median of 4.6 years (interquartile range, IQR 5.4), during which 870 exacerbations occurred. Exacerbations were not associated with any of the selected exposures (high molecular weight sensitizers, low molecular weight sensitizers, irritants or low and high levels of mineral dust, biological dust, gases & fumes or the composite variable vapours, gases, dusts or fumes). Hazards ratios ranged from 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.7;1.0) to 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.9;1.7).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Exacerbations of obstructive airway disease were not associated with occupational inhalant exposures assigned by a job exposure matrix. Further studies with alternative exposure assessment are warranted.
Project description:The contribution of occupational exposure to the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD in population-based studies is of interest. We compared the performance of self-reported exposure to a newly developed JEM in exposure-response evaluation.We used cross-sectional data from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based sample of 45-84 year olds free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. MESA ascertained the most recent job and employment, and the MESA Lung Study measured spirometry, and occupational exposures for 3686 participants. Associations between health outcomes (spirometry defined airflow limitation and Medical Research Council-defined chronic bronchitis) and occupational exposure [self-reported occupational exposure to vapor-gas, dust, or fumes (VGDF), severity of exposure, and a job-exposure matrix (JEM)-derived score] were evaluated using logistic regression models adjusted for non-occupational risk factors.The prevalence of airflow limitation was associated with self-reported exposure to vapor-gas (OR 2.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.3), severity of VGDF exposure (P-trend < 0.01), and JEM dust exposure (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1-5.0), and with organic dust exposure in females; these associations were generally of greater magnitude among never smokers. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis and wheeze was associated with exposure to VGDF. The association between airflow limitation and the combined effect of smoking and VGDF exposure showed an increasing trend. Self-reported vapor-gas, dust, fumes, years and severity of exposure were associated with increased prevalence of chronic bronchitis and wheeze (P < 0.001).Airflow limitation was associated with self-reported VGDF exposure, its severity, and JEM-ascertained dust exposure in smokers and never-smokers in this multiethnic study.
Project description:Occupational exposure to vapours, gases, dusts or fumes (VGDF) increases the prevalence of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) in adult-onset asthma. VGDF exposure is independently associated with ACO and an additive effect with smoking is proposed. http://bit.ly/2LiMiXW.
Project description:In epidemiological studies, items about physician-diagnosed COPD are often used. There is a lack of validation and standardization of these items.In a general population-based study, 1,050 subjects completed a questionnaire and performed spirometry, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) after inhalation of 400 µg of salbutamol. COPD was defined as the ratio of FEV1/FVC <0.7 after bronchodilation. Physician-diagnosed COPD was defined as an affirmative answer to the single item: "Have you ever had COPD diagnosed by a physician?", physician-diagnosed COPD/emphysema as an affirmative answer to any of the two single items; "Have you ever had COPD diagnosed by a physician?" or "Have you ever been told by a physician that you have emphysema?", physician-diagnosed chronic bronchitis as an affirmative answer to; "Have you ever been told by a physician that you have chronic bronchitis?" and physician-diagnosed COPD, emphysema or chronic bronchitis was defined as an affirmative answer to either of the three items above.For the single item about physician-diagnosed COPD, the sensitivity was around 0.11 and the specificity was almost 0.99 in relation to COPD. The sensitivity of the combined items about COPD/emphysema in detecting COPD was 0.11 and the specificity was high, 0.985. When the items about physician-diagnosed COPD, emphysema or chronic bronchitis were merged as one entity, the sensitivity went up (0.13) and the specificity went down (0.95).Items about physician-diagnosed COPD have low sensitivity but a very high specificity, indicating that these items will minimize the proportion of false positives. The low sensitivity will underestimate the total burden of COPD in the general population. Items about physician-diagnosed COPD may be used in studies of risk factors for COPD, but are not recommended in prevalence studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Population-based studies of the occupational contribution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease generally rely on self-reported exposures to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes (VGDF), which are susceptible to misclassification.<h4>Aims</h4>To develop an airborne chemical job exposure matrix (ACE JEM) for use with the UK Standard Occupational Classification (SOC 2000) system.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed the ACE JEM in stages: (i) agreement of definitions, (ii) a binary assignation of exposed/not exposed to VGDF, fibres or mists (VGDFFiM), for each of the individual 353 SOC codes and (iii) assignation of levels of exposure (L; low, medium and high) and (iv) the proportion of workers (P) likely to be exposed in each code. We then expanded the estimated exposures to include biological dusts, mineral dusts, metals, diesel fumes and asthmagens.<h4>Results</h4>We assigned 186 (53%) of all SOC codes as exposed to at least one category of VGDFFiM, with 23% assigned as having medium or high exposure. We assigned over 68% of all codes as not being exposed to fibres, gases or mists. The most common exposure was to dusts (22% of codes with >50% exposed); 12% of codes were assigned exposure to fibres. We assigned higher percentages of the codes as exposed to diesel fumes (14%) compared with metals (8%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We developed an expert-derived JEM, using a strict set of a priori defined rules. The ACE JEM could also be applied to studies to assess risks of diseases where the main route of occupational exposure is via inhalation.
Project description:While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) increase COPD risk. This case-control study estimated the risk of COPD attributable to occupational exposures among construction workers.The study population included 834 cases and 1243 controls participating in a national medical screening program for older construction workers between 1997 and 2013. Qualitative exposure indices were developed based on lifetime work and exposure histories.Approximately 18% (95% CI?=?2-24%) of COPD risk can be attributed to construction-related exposures, which are additive to the risk contributed by smoking. A measure of all VGDF exposures combined was a strong predictor of COPD risk.Construction workers are at increased risk of COPD as a result of broad and complex effects of many exposures acting independently or interactively. Control methods should be implemented to prevent worker exposures, and smoking cessation should be promoted.
Project description:As the clinical significance of chronic bronchitis among smokers without airflow obstruction is unclear, we sought to determine morbidity associated with this disorder.We examined subjects from the COPDGene study and compared those with FEV1/FVC ? 0.70, no diagnosis of asthma and chronic bronchitis as defined as a history of cough and phlegm production for ? 3 months/year for ? 2 years (NCB) to non-obstructed subjects without chronic bronchitis (CB-). Multivariate analysis was used to determine factors associated with and impact of NCB.We identified 597 NCB and 4283 CB- subjects. NCB participants were younger (55.4 vs. 57.2 years, p < 0.001) with greater tobacco exposure (42.9 vs. 37.8 pack-years, p < 0.001) and more often current smokers; more frequently reported occupational exposure to fumes (52.8% vs. 42.2%, p < 0.001), dust for ? 1 year (55.3% vs. 42.0%, p < 0.001) and were less likely to be currently working. NCB subjects demonstrated worse quality-of-life (SGRQ 35.6 vs. 15.1, p < 0.001) and exercise capacity (walk distance 415 vs. 449 m, p < 0.001) and more frequently reported respiratory "flare-ups" requiring treatment with antibiotics or steroids (0.30 vs. 0.10 annual events/subject, p < 0.001) prior to enrollment and during follow-up (0.34 vs. 0.16 annual events/subject, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, current smoking, GERD, sleep apnea and occupational exposures were significantly associated with NCB.While longitudinal data will be needed to determine whether NCB progresses to COPD, NCB patients have poorer quality-of-life, exercise capacity and frequent respiratory events. Beyond smoking cessation interventions, further research is warranted to determine the benefit of other therapeutics in this population. Clinical Trials Registration # NCT00608764 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00608764). Link to study protocol: http://www.copdgene.org/sites/default/files/COPDGeneProtocol-5-0_06-19-2009.pdf.
Project description:A recent article reported that occupational exposure to vapor-gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) was more common in a sample of rural adults than in a sample of adults in urban settings. In another study of the same urban adults, airflow obstruction (AO) was associated with occupational VGDF and the combination of smoking and occupational exposure. The goal of the current study was to determine if similar associations were evident in the sample of rural adults. We analyzed enrollment data from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study (KCRHS), which investigated the health of rural residents in Iowa. We used the same methods as the study of urban adults. A job-exposure matrix (JEM) assigned an occupational VGDF exposure level based on each participants' last reported job. The health outcome was AO, defined as both the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio?<?lower limit of normal. Of the 1699 KCRHS participants, 436 (25.7%) had high total VGDF occupational exposure, 661 (38.9%) had ever smoked cigarettes, and 110 (6.5%) had AO. The crude frequency of AO increased across the joint categories of smoking (never, ever) and high exposure (no, yes) (p?<?0.05 for linear trend). After adjusting for potential confounders, AO was associated with high total occupational VGDF exposure only among smokers (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.002 to 3.26). In conclusion, the association of AO with occupational exposure in the current study of rural adults was similar to what was previously observed among urban adults.