The identification of novel potential injury mechanisms and candidate biomarkers in renal allograft rejection by quantitative proteomics.
ABSTRACT: Early transplant dysfunction and failure because of immunological and nonimmunological factors still presents a significant clinical problem for transplant recipients. A critical unmet need is the noninvasive detection and prediction of immune injury such that acute injury can be reversed by proactive immunosuppression titration. In this study, we used iTRAQ -based proteomic discovery and targeted ELISA validation to discover and validate candidate urine protein biomarkers from 262 renal allograft recipients with biopsy-confirmed allograft injury. Urine samples were randomly split into a training set of 108 patients and an independent validation set of 154 patients, which comprised the clinical biopsy-confirmed phenotypes of acute rejection (AR) (n = 74), stable graft (STA) (n = 74), chronic allograft injury (CAI) (n = 58), BK virus nephritis (BKVN) (n = 38), nephrotic syndrome (NS) (n = 8), and healthy, normal control (HC) (n = 10). A total of 389 proteins were measured that displayed differential abundances across urine specimens of the injury types (p < 0.05) with a significant finding that SUMO2 (small ubiquitin-related modifier 2) was identified as a "hub" protein for graft injury irrespective of causation. Sixty-nine urine proteins had differences in abundance (p < 0.01) in AR compared with stable graft, of which 12 proteins were up-regulated in AR with a mean fold increase of 2.8. Nine urine proteins were highly specific for AR because of their significant differences (p < 0.01; fold increase >1.5) from all other transplant categories (HLA class II protein HLA-DRB1, KRT14, HIST1H4B, FGG, ACTB, FGB, FGA, KRT7, DPP4). Increased levels of three of these proteins, fibrinogen beta (FGB; p = 0.04), fibrinogen gamma (FGG; p = 0.03), and HLA DRB1 (p = 0.003) were validated by ELISA in AR using an independent sample set. The fibrinogen proteins further segregated AR from BK virus nephritis (FGB p = 0.03, FGG p = 0.02), a finding that supports the utility of monitoring these urinary proteins for the specific and sensitive noninvasive diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although plasma fibrinogen levels are related to cardiovascular risk, data regarding the role of fibrinogen genetic variation in myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary artery disease (CAD) etiology remain inconsistent. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of fibrinogen A (FGA), fibrinogen B (FGB) and fibrinogen G (FGG) gene SNPs and haplotypes on susceptibility to CAD in a homogeneous Greek population. METHODS: We genotyped for rs2070022, rs2070016, rs2070006 in FGA gene, the rs7673587, rs1800789, rs1800790, rs1800788, rs1800787, rs4681 and rs4220 in FGB gene and for the rs1118823, rs1800792 and rs2066865 SNPs in FGG gene applying an arrayed primer extension-based genotyping method (APEX-2) in a sample of CAD patients (n = 305) and controls (n = 305). Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), before and after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: None of the FGA and FGG SNPs and FGA, FGB, FGG and FGA-FGG haplotypes was associated with disease occurrence after adjustment. Nevertheless, rs1800787 and rs1800789 SNPs in FGB gene seem to decrease the risk of CAD, even after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.19-0.90, p = 0.026 and OR = 0.44, 95%CI:0.21-0.94, p = 0.039, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: FGA and FGG SNPs as well as FGA, FGB, FGG and FGA-FGG haplotypes do not seem to be important contributors to CAD occurrence in our sample. On the contrary, FGB rs1800787 and rs1800789 SNPs seem to confer protection to disease onset lowering the risk by about 50% in homozygotes for the minor alleles.
Project description:Fibrinogen is a highly pleiotropic protein that is involved in the final step of the coagulation cascade, wound healing, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Heterozygous mutations in A?, B?, or ? fibrinogen-chain genes (FGA, FGB, FGG) have been described as being responsible for fibrinogen deficiencies (hypofibrinogenemia, hypo-dysfibrinogenemia, dysfibrinogenemia) and for more rare conditions, such as fibrinogen storage disease and hereditary renal amyloidosis. Instead, biallelic mutations have been associated with afibrinogenemia/severe hypofibrinogenemia, i.e., the severest forms of fibrinogen deficiency, affecting approximately 1-2 cases per million people. However, the "true" prevalence for these conditions on a global scale is currently not available. Here, we defined the mutational burden of the FGA, FGB, and FGG genes, and estimated the prevalence of inherited fibrinogen disorders through a systematic analysis of exome/genome data from ~140,000 individuals belonging to the genome Aggregation Database. Our analysis showed that the world-wide prevalence for recessively-inherited fibrinogen deficiencies could be 10-fold higher than that reported so far (prevalence rates vary from 1 in 10? in East Asians to 24.5 in 10? in non-Finnish Europeans). The global prevalence for autosomal-dominant fibrinogen disorders was estimated to be ~11 in 1000 individuals, with heterozygous carriers present at a frequency varying from 3 every 1000 individuals in Finns, to 1-2 every 100 individuals among non-Finnish Europeans and Africans/African Americans. Our analysis also allowed for the identification of recurrent (i.e., FGG-p.Ala108Gly, FGG-Thr47Ile) or ethnic-specific mutations (e.g., FGB-p.Gly103Arg in Admixed Americans, FGG-p.Ser245Phe in Africans/African Americans).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Congenital afibrinogenemia (OMIM #202400) is a rare coagulation disorder that was first described in 1920. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait that is characterized by absent levels of fibrinogen (factor I) in plasma. Consanguinity in Pakistan and its neighboring countries has resulted in a higher number of cases of congenital fibrinogen deficiency in their respective populations. This study focused on the detection of mutations in fibrinogen genes using DNA sequencing and molecular modeling of missense mutations in all three genes [Fibrinogen gene alpha (FGA), beta (FGB) and gamma (FGG)] in Pakistani patients. METHODS:This descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted in Karachi and Lahore and fully complied with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients with fibrinogen deficiency were screened for mutations in the Fibrinogen alpha (FGA), beta (FGB) and gamma (FGG) genes by direct sequencing. Molecular modeling was performed to predict the putative structure functional impact of the missense mutations identified in this study. RESULTS:Ten patients had mutations in FGA followed by three mutations in FGB and three mutations in FGG, respectively. Twelve of these mutations were novel. The missense mutations were predicted to result in a loss of stability because they break ordered regions and cause clashes in the hydrophobic core of the protein. CONCLUSIONS:Congenital afibrinogenemia is a rapidly growing problem in regions where consanguinity is frequently practiced. This study illustrates that mutations in FGA are relatively more common in Pakistani patients and molecular modeling of the missense mutations has shown damaging protein structures which has profounding effect on phenotypic bleeding manifestations in these patients.
Project description:Several common genomic loci, involving various immunity- and metabolism-related genes, have been associated with plasma fibrinogen in European Americans (EAs). The genetic determinants of fibrinogen in African Americans (AAs) are poorly characterized. Using a vascular gene-centric array in 23,634 EA and 6657 AA participants from 6 studies comprising the Candidate Gene Association Resource project, we examined the association of 47,539 common and lower frequency variants with fibrinogen concentration. We identified a rare Pro265Leu variant in FGB (rs6054) associated with lower fibrinogen. Common fibrinogen gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (FGB rs1800787 and FGG rs2066861) significantly associated with fibrinogen in EAs were prevalent in AAs and showed consistent associations. Several fibrinogen locus single nucleotide polymorphism associated with lower fibrinogen were exclusive to AAs; these include a newly reported association with FGA rs10050257. For IL6R, IL1RN, and NLRP3 inflammatory gene loci, associations with fibrinogen were concordant between EAs and AAs, but not at other loci (CPS1, PCCB, and SCL22A5-IRF1). The association of FGG rs2066861 with fibrinogen differed according to assay type used to measure fibrinogen. Further characterization of common and lower-frequency genetic variants that contribute to interpopulation differences in fibrinogen phenotype may help refine our understanding of the contribution of hemostasis and inflammation to atherothrombotic risk.
Project description:Cessation of bleeding after trauma is a necessary evolutionary vertebrate adaption for survival. One of the major pathways regulating response to hemorrhage is the coagulation cascade, which ends with the cleavage of fibrinogen to form a stable clot. Patients with low or absent fibrinogen are at risk for bleeding. While much detailed information is known about fibrinogen regulation and function through studies of humans and mammalian models, bleeding risk in patients cannot always be accurately predicted purely based on fibrinogen levels, suggesting an influence of modifying factors and a need for additional genetic models. The zebrafish has orthologs to the three components of fibrinogen (fga, fgb, and fgg), but it hasn't yet been shown that zebrafish fibrinogen functions to prevent bleeding in vivo. Here we show that zebrafish fibrinogen is incorporated into an induced thrombus, and deficiency results in hemorrhage. An Fgb-eGFP fusion protein is incorporated into a developing thrombus induced by laser injury, but causes bleeding in adult transgenic fish. Antisense morpholino knockdown results in intracranial and intramuscular hemorrhage at 3 days post fertilization. The observed phenotypes are consistent with symptoms exhibited by patients with hypo- and afibrinogenemia. These data demonstrate that zebrafish possess highly conserved orthologs of the fibrinogen chains, which function similarly to mammals through the formation of a fibrin clot.
Project description:Congenital hypofibrinogenemia is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by a proportional decrease of functional and antigenic fibrinogen levels. Hypofibrinogenemia can be considered the phenotypic expression of heterozygous loss of function mutations occurring within one of the three fibrinogen genes (<i>FGA</i>, <i>FGB</i>, and <i>FGG</i>). Clinical manifestations are highly variable; most patients are usually asymptomatic, but may appear with mild to severe bleeding or thrombotic complications. We have sequenced all exons of the <i>FGA</i>, <i>FGB</i>, and <i>FGG</i> genes using the DNA isolated from the peripheral blood in two unrelated probands with mild hypofibrinogenemia. Coagulation screening, global hemostasis, and functional analysis tests were performed. Molecular modeling was used to predict the defect of synthesis and structural changes of the identified mutation. DNA sequencing revealed a novel heterozygous variant c.1421G>A in exon 8 of the <i>FGB</i> gene encoding a B? chain (p.Trp474Ter) in both patients. Clinical data from patients showed bleeding episodes. Protein modelling confirmed changes in the secondary structure of the molecule, with the loss of three ? sheet arrangements. As expected by the low fibrinogen levels, turbidity analyses showed a reduced fibrin polymerisation and imaging difference in thickness fibrin fibers. We have to emphasize that our patients have a quantitative fibrinogen disorder; therefore, the reduced function is due to the reduced concentration of fibrinogen, since the B? chains carrying the mutation predicted to be retained inside the cell. The study of fibrinogen molecules using protein modelling may help us to understand causality and effect of novel genetic mutations.
Project description:Evidence suggests the existence of association between a large panel of modifiable biomarkers representing inflammation, coagulation, paraoxonase, and endothelial activation pathways and carotid atherosclerosis. Thus, this study investigated whether CRP, FGA, FGB, FGG, PON1, and EDNRA gene variants affected plasma hs-CRP, fibrinogen levels, and thickness of carotid intima media thickness (IMT). Nineteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CRP, FGA, FGB, FGG, PON1, and EDNRA genes were examined in 480 participants from 160 families. Carotid IMT was measured by ultrasound. Generalized linear models with generalized estimating equation were utilized to consider the dependence of subjects within families. In the recessive model, homozygotes for the minor alleles of rs1800789, rs1800790 and rs4220 SNPs in FGB gene indicated a reduced risk of IMT (Exp. ? = 0.89, 0.89, 0.88), which remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors. Significant interaction effects between CRP SNP rs1130864 and rs3093059 and gender for IMT were observed with a significant association in men only. Men carrying minor-minor genotype of CRP SNP rs1130864 and rs3093059 had 0.70- and 0.78-fold lower IMT than men carrying minor-major/major-major genotype. We also observed that the interaction of CRP SNP rs1130864 and rs3093059 with obesity on IMT, hs-CRP and fibrinogen levels. These results support the hypothesis that inflammatory genes are involved in atherosclerosis, most likely via complex gene-gender and gene-obesity interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Blended phenotypes or co-occurrence of independent phenotypically distinct conditions are extremely rare and are due to coincidence of multiple pathogenic mutations, especially due to consanguinity. Hereditary fibrinogen deficiencies result from mutations in the genes FGA, FGB, and FGG, encoding the three different polypeptide chains that comprise fibrinogen. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities have not been associated with fibrinogen deficiencies. In this study, we report an unusual patient with a combination of two independently inherited genetic conditions; fibrinogen deficiency and early onset cortical atrophy. CASE PRESENTATION:The study describes a male child from consanguineous family presented with hypofibrinogenemia, diffuse cortical atrophy, microcephaly, hypertonia and axonal motor neuropathy. Through a combination of homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we identified bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in two genes: a homozygous novel truncating mutation in FGG (c.554del; p.Lys185Argfs*14) and a homozygous missense mutation in TBCD (c.1423G?>?A;p.Ala475Thr). Loss of function mutations in FGG have been associated with fibrinogen deficiency, while the c.1423G?>?A mutation in TBCD causes a novel syndrome of neurodegeneration and early onset encephalopathy. CONCLUSIONS:Our study highlights the importance of homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing in molecular prenatal diagnosis, especially when multiple gene mutations are responsible for the phenotype.
Project description:Elevated levels of plasma fibrinogen are associated with clot formation in the absence of inflammation or injury and is a biomarker for arterial clotting, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen levels are heritable with >50% attributed to genetic factors, however little is known about possible genetic modifiers that might explain the missing heritability. The fibrinogen gene cluster is comprised of three genes (FGA, FGB, and FGG) that make up the fibrinogen polypeptide essential for fibrinogen production in the blood. Given the known interaction with these genes, we tested 25 variants in the fibrinogen gene cluster for gene x gene and gene x environment interactions in 620 non-Hispanic blacks, 1,385 non-Hispanic whites, and 664 Mexican Americans from a cross-sectional dataset enriched with environmental data, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Using a multiplicative approach, we added cross product terms (gene x gene or gene x environment) to a linear regression model and declared significance at p < 0.05. We identified 19 unique gene x gene and 13 unique gene x environment interactions that impact fibrinogen levels in at least one population at p < 0.05. Over 90% of the gene x gene interactions identified include a variant in the rate-limiting gene, FGB that is essential for the formation of the fibrinogen polypeptide. We also detected gene x environment interactions with fibrinogen variants and sex, smoking, and body mass index. These findings highlight the potential for the discovery of genetic modifiers for complex phenotypes in multiple populations and give a better understanding of the interaction between genes and/or the environment for fibrinogen levels. The need for more powerful and robust methods to identify genetic modifiers is still warranted.
Project description:The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a main regulator of fibrinogen synthesis, though its interaction with fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, FGG) and subsequent impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is not well-studied. We investigated joint associations of fibrinogen and IL6 tagSNPs with fibrinogen concentrations, carotid intima-media thickness, and myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke in 3900 European-American Cardiovascular Health Study participants. To identify combinations of genetic main effects and interactions associated with outcomes, we used logic regression. We also evaluated whether the relationship between fibrinogen SNPs and fibrinogen level varied by IL-6 level using linear regression models with multiplicative interaction terms. Combinations of fibrinogen and IL6 SNPs were significantly associated with fibrinogen level (p < 0.005), but not with other outcomes. Fibrinogen levels were higher in individuals having FGB1437 (rs1800790) and lacking FGA6534 (rs6050) minor alleles; these SNPs interacted with IL6 rs1800796 to influence fibrinogen level. Marginally significant (p= 0.03) interactions between IL-6 level and FGA and FGG promoter SNPs associated with fibrinogen levels were detected. We identified potential gene-gene interactions influencing fibrinogen levels. Although IL-6 responsive binding sites are present in fibrinogen gene promoter regions, we did not find strong evidence of interaction between fibrinogen SNPs and IL6 SNPs or levels influencing CVD.