The enzymatic decolorization of textile dyes by the immobilized polyphenol oxidase from quince leaves.
ABSTRACT: Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color its products. In this work, polyphenol oxidase enzyme from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves immobilized on calcium alginate beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme was extracted from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves and immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The kinetic properties of free and immobilized PPO were determined. Quince leaf PPO enzyme stability was increased after immobilization. The immobilized and free enzymes were employed for the decolorization of textile dyes. The dye solutions were prepared in the concentration of 100 mg/L in distilled water and incubated with free and immobilized quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaf PPO for one hour. The percent decolorization was calculated by taking untreated dye solution. Immobilized PPO was significantly more effective in decolorizing the dyes as compared to free enzyme. Our results showed that the immobilized quince leaf PPO enzyme could be efficiently used for the removal of synthetic dyes from industrial effluents.
Project description:We evaluated the effect of a crude hot-water extract (HW) of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent late-phase immune reactions of mast cells using in vitro system. Mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cells were treated with quince HW and late-phase reaction was then induced by stimulation with IgE + Antigen. Quince HW reduced the elevation of interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-? expression level. Furthermore, quince HW suppressed these cytokine expressions of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), a normal mast cell model. Leukotriene C(4) and prostaglandin D(2) production in BMMCs after 1 and 6 h of stimulation, respectively, were also reduced by treating the cells with quince HW. We found that the induction of intracellular cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression but not COX-1 expression in BMMCs was reduced by quince HW. These results suggest that quince HW has an inhibitory effect on broad range of the late-phase immune reactions of mast cells.
Project description:Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) is a deciduous shrub belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince seed extract has long been used as a cosmetic ingredient for its moisturizing effect. However, little is known about whether quince seed extract has therapeutic effects on keratinocyte-associated skin inflammation.In the present study, we investigated the effect of the topical application of ethanol extract of quince seeds (QSEtE) on atopic dermatitis (AD) symptoms in NC/Nga mice. The direct effect of QSEtE on keratinocytes was evaluated using the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT.The preliminary application of QSEtE markedly reduced house dust mite allergen-induced skin lesions. The expression of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) in dorsal skin was downregulated. QSEtE directly suppressed the expression and production of TARC in HaCaT cells.The results suggest that the topical application of QSEtE is effective in preventing the onset of and ameliorating the atopic symptoms of keratinocyte-associated skin inflammation by suppressing TARC production in keratinocytes.
Project description:In this study we report the purification of laccase produced by Trichoderma harzianum strain HZN10 (using wheat bran under solid state fermentation) and its application in decolorization of synthetic dyes. Extracellular laccase was purified to homogeneity by DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography with specific activity of 162.5 U/mg and 25-fold purification. Purified laccase was immobilized in various entrapments like calcium alginate, copper alginate, calcium alginate-chitosan beads and sol-gel matrix. Optimization results revealed that the laccase immobilized in sol-gel was optimally active in wide pH range (4.0-7.0) and thermo-stable (50-70 °C) than free enzyme which was optimum at 50 °C and pH 6.0. Kinetic analysis showed K m of 0.5 mM and 2.0 mM and V max of 285 U/mg and 500 U/mg by free laccase and sol-gel immobilized laccase respectively with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) [ABTS] substrate. Free and immobilized laccase was employed for decolorization of three different synthetic dyes (malachite green, methylene blue and congo red). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis results revealed that approximately 100% of malachite green, 90% of methylene blue and 60% of congo red dyes at initial concentration of 200 mg/L were decolorized within 16, 18 and 20 h, respectively by laccase immobilized in sol-gel matrix in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) mediator. During the decolorization all three synthetic dyes showed various peaks on HPLC chromatogram indicating different by-products formation. Finally, phytotoxicity analysis results revealed that the by-products of synthetic dyes (formed during decolorization) showed less toxicity against Phaseolus mungo compared to untreated synthetic dyes.
Project description:Due to its environmental friendliness and biodegradable ability, the enzymatic decolorization of azo dyes is the best option. However, the free enzyme suffers from various limitations, including poor stability, no repeatable use, and a high expense, which is the key drawback for its practical use. In this analysis, the laccase enzyme was immobilized in mesoporous silica coated magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-MWCNTs@SiO<sub>2</sub>) by a glutaraldehyde cross-linker to create an easily separable and stable enzyme. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to characterize the as-synthesized Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-MWCNTs@SiO<sub>2</sub>. Laccase immobilized in Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-MWCNTs@SiO<sub>2</sub> showed a good improvement in temperature, pH, and storage stability. Moreover, the operational stability of the biocatalyst was improved, retaining 87% of its original activity even after 10 cycles of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) oxidation. The biocatalysts were applied for the decolorization of selected azo dyes without a mediator, and up to 99% of Eriochrome Black T (EBT), 98% of Acid Red 88 (AR 88), and 66% of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) were decolorized. Based on these properties, the biocatalysts can be potentially utilized in various environmental and industrial applications.
Project description:The selected strains of microscopic fungi, Haematonectria haematococca (BwIII43, K37) and Trichoderma harzianum (BsIII33), decolorized the following monoathraquinone dyes with different efficiency: 0.03 % Alizarin Blue Black B, 0.01 % Carminic Acid, 0.01 % Poly R-478, and 0.2 % post-industrial lignin. The most effective was the removal of 0.03 % Alizarin Blue Black B (50-60 %) and 0.01 % Carminic Acid (55-85 %). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to determine the main enzyme responsible for the biodecolorization process of the dye substrates and indicated that horseradish-type (HRP-like), lignin (LiP), and manganese-dependent (MnP) peroxidases were responsible for the decolorization of anthraquinone dyes by the strains tested. The participation of particular enzymes in the decolorization of monoanthraquinone dyes ranged from 44.48 to 51.70 % for 0.01 % Carminic Acid and from 38.46 to 61.12 % for Poly R-478. The highest precipitation in decolorization of these dyes showed HRP-like peroxidase, respectively, 54-74 and 70-95 %. The degree of decolorization of 0.2 % post-industrial lignin by the selected strains of H. haematococca and T. harzianum amounted to 58.20, 61.38, and 65.13 %, respectively. The rate of 0.2 % post-industrial lignin decolorization was conditioned by the activity of HRP-like (71-90 %) and LiP (87-94 %) peroxidases.
Project description:Azo dyes constitute the largest and most versatile class of synthetic dyes used in the textile, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries and represent major components in wastewater from these industrial dying processes. Biological decolorization of azo dyes occurs efficiently under low oxygen to anaerobic conditions. However, this process results in the formation of toxic and carcinogenic amines that are resistant to further detoxification under low oxygen conditions. Moreover, the ability to detoxify these amines under aerobic conditions is not a wide spread metabolic activity. In this study we describe the use of Brevibacterium sp. strain VN-15, isolated from an activated sludge process of a textile company, for the sequential decolorization and detoxification of the azo dyes Reactive Yellow 107 (RY107), Reactive Black 5 (RB5), Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Blue 71 (DB71). Tyrosinase activity was observed during the biotreatment process suggesting the role of this enzyme in the decolorization and degradation process, but no-activity was observed for laccase and peroxidase. Toxicity, measured using Daphnia magna, was completely eliminated.
Project description:Synthetic dyes are widely used in many industries, but they cause serious environmental problems due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. In contrast to traditional physical and chemical treatments, biodegradation is generally considered an environmental-friendly, efficient, and inexpensive way to eliminate dye contaminants. Here, a novel laccase-like enzyme Lac1326 was cloned from a marine metagenomic library. It showed a maximum activity at 60°C, and it retained more than 40% of its maximal activity at 10°C and more than 50% at 20-70°C. Interestingly, the laccase behaved stably below 50°C, even in commonly used water-miscible organic solvents. The enzyme decolorized all tested dyes with high decolorization efficiency. This thermostable enzyme with high decolorization activity and excellent tolerance of organic solvents and salt has remarkable potential for bioremediation of dye wastewater. It is thus proposed as an industrial enzyme.
Project description:Laccases have huge potential for biotechnological applications due to their broad substrate spectrum and wide range of reactions they are able to catalyze. These include, for example, the formation and degradation of dimers, oligomers, polymers, and ring cleavage as well as oxidation of aromatic compounds. Potential applications of laccases include detoxification of industrial effluents, decolorization of textile dyes and the synthesis of natural products by, for instance, dimerization of phenolic acids. We have recently published a report on the cloning and characterization of a CotA Bacillus licheniformis laccase, an enzyme that catalyzes dimerization of phenolic acids. However, the broad application of this laccase is limited by its low expression level of 26 mg l-1 that was achieved in Escherichia coli. To counteract this shortcoming, random and site-directed mutagenesis have been combined in order to improve functional expression and activity of CotA.A CotA double mutant, K316N/D500G, was constructed by combining random and site-directed mutagenesis. It can be functionally expressed at an 11.4-fold higher level than the wild-type enzyme. In addition, it is able to convert ferulic acid much faster than the wild-type enzyme (21% vs. 14%) and is far more efficient in decolorizing a range of industrial dyes. The investigation of the effects of the mutations K316N and D500G showed that amino acid at position 316 had a major influence on enzyme activity and position 500 had a major influence on the expression of the laccase.The constructed double mutant K316N/D500G of the Bacillus licheniformis CotA laccase is an appropriate candidate for biotechnological applications due to its high expression level and high activity in dimerization of phenolic acids and decolorization of industrial dyes.
Project description:Resistance to 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy is a major cause of therapeutic failure in colon cancer cure. Development of combined therapies constitutes an effective strategy to inhibit cancer cells and prevent the emergence of drug resistance. For this purpose, we investigated the anti-tumoral effect of thirteen phenolic compounds, from the Tunisian quince Cydonia oblonga Miller, alone or combined to 5-FU, on the human 5-FU-resistant LS174-R colon cancer cells in comparison to parental cells. Our results showed that only Kaempferol was able to chemo-sensitize 5-FU-resistant LS174-R cells. This phenolic compound combined with 5-FU exerted synergistic inhibitory effect on cell viability. This combination enhanced the apoptosis and induced cell cycle arrest of both chemo-resistant and sensitive cells through impacting the expression levels of different cellular effectors. Kaempferol also blocked the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and modulated the expression of JAK/STAT3, MAPK, PI3K/AKT and NF-?B. In silico docking analysis suggested that the potent anti-tumoral effect of Kaempferol, compared to its two analogs (Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and Kampferol 3-O-rutinoside), can be explained by the absence of glucosyl groups. Overall, our data propose Kaempferol as a potential chemotherapeutic agent to be used alone or in combination with 5-FU to overcome colon cancer drug resistance.