Brilliant Blue G assisted epiretinal membrane surgery.
ABSTRACT: We report intensely staining epiretinal membrane (ERM) with Brilliant Blue G (BBG) under air for two minutes. ERM peeling was performed in 21 cases. After removal of posterior hyaloid, 0.2?mL BBG was first applied on the macula, to stain ERM under air conditions for 2 minutes. Internal limiting membrane (ILM) was intensely stained and peeled in all cases following ERM removal. In 4 cases, the ERM was also observed to be intensely stained with BBG and peeled with an ILM forceps. Postoperatively, the ganglion cell layer thickness was lower in three of the cases, however VA improved in all cases and multifocal electroretinogram revealed no toxicity. Light microscopy of ERM revealed masses of cells whereas; the ILM did not. The increased staining characteristics of ERM and ILM may be resulted from longer contact time of BBG under air pressure.
Project description:Our study was aimed at assessing the retinal binding of a new synthetic Brilliant Blue G (BBG) derivative (pure benzyl-Brilliant Blue G; PBB) ophthalmic formulation, to improve vitreoretinal surgery procedure. Protein affinity of the new molecule was evaluated in vitro (cell-free assay) and in silico. Furthermore, an ex vivo model of vitreoretinal surgery was developed by using porcine eyes to assess the pharmacological profile of PBB, compared to commercial formulations based on BBG and methyl-BBG (Me-BBG). PBB showed a higher affinity for proteins (p < 0.05), compared to BBG and Me-BBG. In vitro and in silico studies demonstrated that the high selectivity of PBB could be related to high lipophilicity and binding affinity to fibronectin, the main component of the retinal internal limiting membrane (ILM). The PBB staining capabilities were evaluated in porcine eyes in comparison with BBG and Me-BBG. Forty microliters of each formulation were slowly placed over the retinal surface and removed after 30 s. After that, ILM peeling was carried out, and the retina collected. BBG, Me-BBG, and PBB quantification in ILM and retina tissues was carried out by HPLC analysis. PBB levels in the ILM were significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to BBG and Me-BBG formulations. On the contrary, PBB showed a much lower (p < 0.05) distribution in retina (52 ng/mg tissue) compared to BBG and Me-BBG, in particular PBB levels were significantly (p < 0.05) lower. Therefore, the new synthetic Brilliant Blue derivative (PBB) showed a great ILM selectivity in comparison to underneath retinal layers. In conclusion, these findings had high translational impact with a tangible improving in ex vivo model of retinal surgery, suggesting a future use during surgical practice.
Project description:Purpose:To assess the safety and effectiveness of the single-layered inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for treating chronic, large, or highly myopic macular holes (MHs). Methods:The medical records of 20 eyes of 20 consecutive Japanese patients with large MHs (n=6) (minimal diameter, >400??m), chronic MHs (n=2) (symptom duration, >24?months), MHs in high myopia (n=11) (axial length, >26?mm), and MHs in a patient unable to maintain prone positioning postoperatively (n=1) were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and the temporal inverted ILM flap technique. A semicircular ILM notch was made temporally two disc diameters from the MH using a 25-gauge knife, and the ILM was peeled temporally to create a semicircular ILM flap using a 25-gauge forceps. The single-layered ILM flap was inverted in a nasal direction to cover the MH. When an epiretinal membrane (ERM) was present, it was peeled before the ILM flap was inverted. Results:The MHs closed successfully in all (100%) eyes postoperatively. In the MHs associated with an ERM, after hole closure, gradual foveal deformation occurred in both the area from which the ILM was not peeled and the ILM flap inverted side. Conclusions:The single-layered inverted ILM flap technique, a simple surgery to treat MHs, provides scaffolding for retinal gliosis and may facilitate bridge formation between the walls of the MH under the flap. Considering the 100% success rate of MH closure, this technique seems to be effective and safe for treating chronic, large, or highly myopic MHs and MHs in patients unable to maintain postoperative prone positioning. In the MHs associated with ERMs, gradual foveal deformation was observed after ERM peeling. Further studies are needed to minimize surgical complications and understand the mechanism of this technique. This trial is registered with UMIN000035091.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling increases the idiopathic macular hole (IMH) closure rate but causes the inner retina dimplings. This study is to introduce a method to minimally peel the ILM, and with the ILM flap to ensure the IMH closure.<h4>Methods</h4>Twelve consecutive IMH eyes were treated with the minimal ILM peeling with ILM flap technique. The ILM around the MH is peeled off in an annular shape with a width of approximately 200 to 300??m. A tongue-shape ILM flap is created in the superior retina and the inferior margin of ILM is not peeled off. The ILM flap is then inverted to cover the MH, followed by fluid-air exchange and air or silicon tamponade. Spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and en face OCT for morphological assessment, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) for functional evaluation were performed at baseline and at each postoperative follow-up.<h4>Results</h4>All the 12 eyes achieved macular hole closure on SD-OCT after surgery (100%). At baseline, the mean preoperative BCVA was 0.83?±?0.33 and it improved to 0.39?±?0.28 postoperatively (p?<? 0.001). En face OCT showed the inner retinal dimplings were localized only in superior ILM-free retinas (7 eyes). The mERG response density in the central (R1), para-central (R2), R1/R2 ring ratios were remarkably improved at the last follow-up (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.033, p?=?0.018, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The minimal ILM peeling with ILM flap technique can achieve favorable MH closure with less inner retinal dimplings and has promising visual recovery for IMH eyes.
Project description:We describe the utilization of indocyanine green (ICG) dye to facilitate combined/en bloc removal of epiretinal membranes (ERM) along with internal limiting membranes (ILM). The method utilizes a highly diluted preparation of ICG in dextrose water solvent (D5W). Elimination of fluid air exchange step facilitating staining in the fluid phase and low intensity lighting help minimize potential ICG toxicity. The technique demonstrates how ICG facilitates negative staining of ERMs and how ILM peeling concomitantly can allow complete and efficient ERM removal minimizing surgical time and the necessity for dual or sequential staining.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a degenerative condition associated with age, which can cause loss of vision and/or metamorphopsia. The treatment of symptomatic ERM involves surgical removal including a vitrectomy followed by peeling of the ERM using a microforceps. As the internal limiting membrane (ILM) is adherent to the ERM, it is sometimes removed with it (spontaneous peeling). If ILM remains in place, it can be removed to reduce ERM recurrence. However, it is important to clarify the safety of ILM peeling, while it increases surgical risks and cause histological disorganization of the retina that can lead to microscotomas, may be responsible for definitive visual discomfort. METHODS:PEELING is a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind, and multicentered trial with two parallel arms. This study investigates the benefit/risk ratio of active ILM peeling among individuals undergoing ERM surgery without spontaneous ILM peeling. Randomization is done in the operating room after ERM removal if ILM remains in place. After randomization, the two groups-"active peeling of the ILM" and "no peeling of the ILM"-are compared during a total of three follow-up visits scheduled at month 1, month 6, and month 12. Primary endpoint is the difference in microscotomas before surgery and 6?months after surgery. Patients with spontaneous peeling are not randomized and are included in the ancillary study with the same follow-up visits and the same examinations as the principal study. Relevant inclusion criteria involve individuals aged >?18?years living with idiopathic symptomatic ERM, including pseudophakic patients with transparent posterior capsule or open capsule or lensed patients with age-related cataracts. The calculated sample size corresponds to 53 randomized eyes (one eye/patient) per arm that means 106 randomized eyes (106 randomized patients) in total and a maximum of 222 included patients (116 spontaneous peeling). DISCUSSION:ILM peeling is often practiced in ERM surgery to reduce ERM recurrence. It does not impair postoperative visual acuity, but it increases the surgical risks and causes anatomical damages. If active ILM peeling is significantly associated with more microscotomas, it may contraindicate the ILM peeling during primitive idiopathic ERM surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02146144. Registered on 22 May 2014. Recruitment is still ongoing.
Project description:The present study was performed to establish a novel ocular surgery simulator for training in peeling of the inner limited membrane (ILM). This simulator included a next-generation artificial ILM with mechanical properties similar to the natural ILM that could be peeled underwater in the same manner as in actual surgery. An artificial eye consisting of a fundus and eyeball parts was fabricated. The artificial eye was installed in the eye surgery simulator. The fundus part was mounted in the eyeball, which consisted of an artificial sclera, retina, and ILM. To measure the thickness of the fabricated ILM on the artificial retina, we calculated the distance of the step height as the thickness of the artificial ILM. Two experienced ophthalmologists then assessed the fabricated ILM by sensory evaluation. The minimum thickness of the artificial ILM was 1.9 ± 0.3 ?m (n = 3). We were able to perform the peeling task with the ILM in water. Based on the sensory evaluation, an ILM with a minimum thickness and 1000 degrees of polymerization was suitable for training. We installed the eye model on an ocular surgery simulator, which allowed for the performance of a sequence of operations similar to ILM peeling. In conclusion, we developed a novel ocular surgery simulator for ILM peeling. The artificial ILM was peeled underwater in the same manner as in an actual operation.
Project description:Studies on vitrectomy with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) have yielded uncertain results regarding clinical outcomes and recurrence rates.To compare the clinical outcomes of vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling for idiopathic ERM.Databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI databases, FDA.gov, and ClinicalTrials.gov, published until July 2016, were searched to identify studies comparing the clinical outcomes following vitrectomy with ERM and ILM peeling and with only ERM peeling, for treating idiopathic ERM. Studies with sufficient data were selected. Pooled results were expressed as mean differences (MDs) and risk ratios (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling with regard to postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and ERM recurrence rate.Eleven retrospective studies and one randomized controlled trial involving 756 eyes were identified. This demonstrated that the postoperative BCVA within 12 months was significantly better in the non-ILM peeling group (MD = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.08; P = 0.0460), but that the patients in the ILM peeling group had significantly better postoperative BCVA after 18 months (MD = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.04; P = 0.0049) than did those in the non-ILM peeling group. The non-ILM peeling group exhibited a higher reduction in postoperative CRT (MD = 51.55, 95% CI:-84.23 to -18.88; P = 0.0020) and a higher recurrence rate of ERM (RR = 0.34, 95% CI:0.16 to 0.72; P = 0.0048) than did the ILM peeling group. However, the improvement rates of BCVA (RR = 1.03, 95% CI:0.72 to 1.47; P = 0.8802) and postoperative CRTs (MD = 18.15, 95% CI:-2.29 to 38.60; P = 0.0818) were similar between the two groups.Vitrectomy with ILM peeling results in better visual improvement in long-term follow-ups and lower ERM recurrence rates, and vitrectomy with only ERM peeling is more efficacious in reduction of CRT than is vitrectomy with ILM peeling.
Project description:Background and Objectives: To compare the long-term toxicity of infracyanine green (IFCG) to brilliant blue G (BBG) in inverted internal limiting membrane flap surgery (I-ILMFS) for large, full-thickness macular holes (FTMHs). Materials and Methods: Prospective randomized study including 39 eyes with ? 400 µm idiopathic FTMH who underwent I-ILMFS with either IFCG or BBG. Postoperative 6- and 12-month corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), closure rate, and swept-source optical coherence tomography parameters, including ellipsoid zone (EZ) and external limiting membrane (ELM) mean defect length, central foveal thicknesses (CFT), parafoveal macular thickness (MT), ganglion cells and inner plexiform layer (GCL++) thickness, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness, were compared. Results: Nineteen eyes were included in the IFCG group and 20 eyes in the BBG group. In all cases a FTMH closure was found. CDVA improved at 6 and 12 months in both groups (p < 0.0005); the increase at 12 months was greater in the BBG group (p = 0.036). EZ and ELM defects did not differ between groups at either follow-up time. CFT at 12 months was greater in the BBG group (p = 0.041). A 12-months compared to 6-months MT decrease was present in both groups (p < 0.01). The GCL++ superior inner sector was thicker in the BBG group at 12 months (p = 0.036), as were the superior outer sector (p = 0.039 and p = 0.027 at 6 and 12 months, respectively) and inferior outer sector (p = 0.011 and p = 0.009 at 6 and 12 months, respectively). Conclusion: In our study BBG in I-ILMFS exhibits better long-term CDVA and retinal thickness than does IFCG, suggesting a lesser toxicity from BBG. These findings support the use of BBG over IFCG in I-ILMFS.
Project description:Purpose:To report the intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided surgery of a consolidated sub-internal limiting membrane (ILM) hemorrhage that developed into a sub-ILM fibrotic membrane in a child with a history of Terson syndrome. Observations:A one year-old boy with a history of Terson syndrome due to a motor vehicle accident presented three months after trauma with a white feather-shaped membrane in the left macula. Preoperative OCT showed a preretinal hyperreflective tissue at the foveal center. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy. After separation of the posterior hyaloid, intraoperative OCT did not show any change in structural components. After peeling the ILM, the fibrotic membrane persisted. A bent 30-gauged needle was used to create a plane of dissection in the adherent sub-ILM membrane, which was then peeled with ILM forceps without complication. Post-operative OCT confirmed complete excision without evidence of macular edema. Pathology results indicated presence of fibrocellular tissue that contained hemosiderin, consistent with old organized hemorrhage as a component of the membrane. Conclusion and importance:Sub-ILM hemorrhage may persist as a tautly adherent fibrotic membrane that can mimic the appearance of an epiretinal membrane or a chronic subhyaloidal hemorrhage during examination, especially in young children. Intraoperative OCT may aid in select complex macular surgery cases to better delineate the planes of dissection during sub-ILM fibrosis excision.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during primary vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) prevents the formation of postoperative macular epiretinal membrane (ERM). However, studies that compared vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling for RRD, have reported controversial outcomes.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the efficacy of ILM peeling versus non-ILM peeling during vitrectomy for RRD by a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies.<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase databases, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to April 2018 to identify studies that compared primary vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling for RRD with at least six months follow-up. Primary outcomes were the rate of postoperative ERM formation and mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) change after vitrectomy. Rate of recurrence of retinal detachment (RD) was assessed as secondary outcome. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) expressed pooled results for rate of ERM formation and rate of RD recurrence in ILM peeling and non-ILM peeling groups. Pooled results for BCVA change in the two groups were expressed as Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) with 95% CIs.<h4>Results</h4>Nine studies, one of which was a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with a total number of 404 eyes in the ILM peeling group and 365 eyes in the non-ILM peeling group, were included. The analysis from pooled data indicated a significant lower rate of postoperative ERM formation in the ILM peeling group compared to the non-ILM peeling group (9 studies, 769 eyes, RR = 0.14; CI: 0.07 to 0.28; P < 0.001). There was no statistical difference in mean BCVA change (9 studies, 769 eyes, WMD = 0.02; CI: -0.11 to 0.16; P = 0.75). Rate of recurrence of RD was lower in the ILM peeling group (6 studies, 603 eyes, RR = 0.32; CI = 0.17 to 0.61; P< 0.001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>ILM peeling during vitrectomy for RRD prevents the formation of macular epiretinal membrane postoperatively and reduces the incidence of RD recurrence, but better visual outcome was not found compared to non-ILM peeling vitrectomy.