Characterization of the interaction between protein Snu13p/15.5K and the Rsa1p/NUFIP factor and demonstration of its functional importance for snoRNP assembly.
ABSTRACT: The yeast Snu13p protein and its 15.5K human homolog both bind U4 snRNA and box C/D snoRNAs. They also bind the Rsa1p/NUFIP assembly factor, proposed to scaffold immature snoRNPs and to recruit the Hsp90-R2TP chaperone complex. However, the nature of the Snu13p/15.5K-Rsa1p/NUFIP interaction and its exact role in snoRNP assembly remained to be elucidated. By using biophysical, molecular and imaging approaches, here, we identify residues needed for Snu13p/15.5K-Rsa1p/NUFIP interaction. By NMR structure determination and docking approaches, we built a 3D model of the Snup13p-Rsa1p interface, suggesting that residues R249, R246 and K250 in Rsa1p and E72 and D73 in Snu13p form a network of electrostatic interactions shielded from the solvent by hydrophobic residues from both proteins and that residue W253 of Rsa1p is inserted in a hydrophobic cavity of Snu13p. Individual mutations of residues in yeast demonstrate the functional importance of the predicted interactions for both cell growth and snoRNP formation. Using archaeal box C/D sRNP 3D structures as templates, the association of Snu13p with Rsa1p is predicted to be exclusive of interactions in active snoRNPs. Rsa1p and NUFIP may thus prevent premature activity of pre-snoRNPs, and their removal may be a key step for active snoRNP production.
Project description:In vitro, assembly of box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs) involves the sequential recruitment of core proteins to snoRNAs. In vivo, however, assembly factors are required (NUFIP, BCD1, and the HSP90-R2TP complex), and it is unknown whether a similar sequential scheme applies. In this paper, we describe systematic quantitative stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture proteomic experiments and the crystal structure of the core protein Snu13p/15.5K bound to a fragment of the assembly factor Rsa1p/NUFIP. This revealed several unexpected features: (a) the existence of a protein-only pre-snoRNP complex containing five assembly factors and two core proteins, 15.5K and Nop58; (b) the characterization of ZNHIT3, which is present in the protein-only complex but gets released upon binding to C/D snoRNAs; (c) the dynamics of the R2TP complex, which appears to load/unload RuvBL AAA(+) adenosine triphosphatase from pre-snoRNPs; and (d) a potential mechanism for preventing premature activation of snoRNP catalytic activity. These data provide a framework for understanding the assembly of box C/D snoRNPs.
Project description:Pre-mRNA splicing is executed by the spliceosome, a complex of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and numerous proteins. One such protein, 15.5K/Snu13p, is associated with the spliceosomal U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP and box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (snoRNPs), which act during preribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing. As such, it is the first splicing factor to be identified in two functionally distinct particles. 15.5K binds to an internal helix-bulge-helix (K-turn) structure in the U4 snRNA and two such structures in the U3 snoRNA. Previous work has concentrated on the structural basis of the interaction of 15.5K with the RNAs and has been carried out in vitro. Here we present a functional analysis of Snu13p in vivo, using a galactose inducible SNU13 strain to investigate the basis of three lethal mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two are point mutations that map to the RNA-binding domain, and the third is a C-terminal deletion. These mutations result in accumulation of unspliced pre-mRNA, confirming a role for Snu13p in pre-mRNA splicing. In addition, these mutants also display rRNA processing defects that are variable in nature. Analysis of one mutant in the RNA-binding domain reveals a reduction in the levels of the U4 snRNA, U6 snRNA, and box C/D snoRNAs, but not H/ACA snoRNAs, supporting a role for Snu13p in accumulation and/or maintenance of specific RNAs. The mutations in the RNA-binding domain exhibit differential binding to the U4 snRNA and U3 snoRNA in vitro, suggesting that there are differences in the mode of interaction of Snu13p with these two RNAs.
Project description:The Sm proteins are loaded on snRNAs by the SMN complex, but how snRNP-specific proteins are assembled remains poorly characterized. U4 snRNP and box C/D snoRNPs have structural similarities. They both contain the 15.5K and proteins with NOP domains (PRP31 for U4, NOP56/58 for snoRNPs). Biogenesis of box C/D snoRNPs involves NUFIP and the HSP90/R2TP chaperone system and here, we explore the function of this machinery in U4 RNP assembly. We show that yeast Prp31 interacts with several components of the NUFIP/R2TP machinery, and that these interactions are separable from each other. In human cells, PRP31 mutants that fail to stably associate with U4 snRNA still interact with components of the NUFIP/R2TP system, indicating that these interactions precede binding of PRP31 to U4 snRNA. Knock-down of NUFIP leads to mislocalization of PRP31 and decreased association with U4. Moreover, NUFIP is associated with the SMN complex through direct interactions with Gemin3 and Gemin6. Altogether, our data suggest a model in which the NUFIP/R2TP system is connected with the SMN complex and facilitates assembly of U4 snRNP-specific proteins.
Project description:The eukaryal Snu13p/15.5K protein binds K-turn motifs in U4 snRNA and snoRNAs. Two Snu13p/15.5K molecules bind the nucleolar U3 snoRNA required for the early steps of preribosomal processing. Binding of one molecule on the C'/D motif allows association of proteins Nop1p, Nop56p, and Nop58p, whereas binding of the second molecule on the B/C motif allows Rrp9p recruitment. To understand how the Snu13p-Rrp9p pair recognizes the B/C motif, we first improved the identification of RNA determinants required for Snu13p binding by experiments using the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. This demonstrated the importance of a U.U pair stacked on the sheared pairs and revealed a direct link between Snu13p affinity and the stability of helices I and II. Sequence and structure requirements for efficient association of Rrp9p on the B/C motif were studied in yeast cells by expression of variant U3 snoRNAs and immunoselection assays. A G-C pair in stem II, a G residue at position 1 in the bulge, and a short stem I were found to be required. The data identify the in vivo function of most of the conserved residues of the U3 snoRNA B/C motif. They bring important information to understand how different K-turn motifs can recruit different sets of proteins after Snu13p association.
Project description:The box C/D small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs) are essential for the processing and modification of rRNA. The core box C/D proteins are restructured during human U3 box C/D snoRNP biogenesis; however, the molecular basis of this is unclear. Here we show that the U8 snoRNP is also restructured, suggesting that this may occur with all box C/D snoRNPs. We have characterized four novel human biogenesis factors (BCD1, NOP17, NUFIP, and TAF9) which, along with the ATPases TIP48 and TIP49, are likely to be involved in the formation of the pre-snoRNP. We have analyzed the in vitro protein-protein interactions between the assembly factors and core box C/D proteins. Surprisingly, this revealed few interactions between the individual core box C/D proteins. However, the novel biogenesis factors and TIP48 and TIP49 interacted with one or more of the core box C/D proteins, implying that they mediate the assembly of the pre-snoRNP. Consistent with this, we show that NUFIP bridges interactions between the core box C/D proteins in a partially reconstituted pre-snoRNP. Restructuring of the core complex probably reflects the conversion of the pre-snoRNP, where core protein-protein interactions are maintained by the bridging biogenesis factors, to the mature snoRNP.
Project description:Biogenesis of eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (C/D snoRNPs) involves conserved trans-acting factors, which are proposed to facilitate the assembly of the core proteins Snu13p/15.5K, Nop58p/NOP58, Nop56p/NOP56 and Nop1p/Fibrillarin on box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (C/D snoRNAs). In yeast, protein Rsa1 acts as a platform, interacting with both the RNA-binding core protein Snu13 and protein Pih1 of the Hsp82-R2TP chaperone complex. In this work, a proteomic approach coupled with functional and structural studies identifies protein Hit1 as a novel Rsa1p-interacting partner involved in C/D snoRNP assembly. Hit1p contributes to in vivo C/D snoRNA stability and pre-RNA maturation kinetics. It associates with U3 snoRNA precursors and influences its 3'-end processing. Remarkably, Hit1p is required to maintain steady-state levels of Rsa1p. This stabilizing activity is likely to be general across eukaryotic species, as the human protein ZNHIT3(TRIP3) showing sequence homology with Hit1p regulates the abundance of NUFIP1, the Rsa1p functional homolog. The nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the Rsa1p317-352-Hit1p70-164 complex reveals a novel mode of protein-protein association explaining the strong stability of the Rsa1p-Hit1p complex. Our biochemical data show that C/D snoRNAs and the core protein Nop58 can interact with the purified Snu13p-Rsa1p-Hit1p heterotrimer.
Project description:The U3 box C/D snoRNA is one key element of 90S pre-ribosome. It contains a 5΄ domain pairing with pre-rRNA and the U3B/C and U3C΄/D motifs for U3 packaging into a unique small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle (snoRNP). The RNA-binding protein Snu13/SNU13 nucleates on U3B/C the assembly of box C/D proteins Nop1p/FBL and Nop56p/NOP56, and the U3-specific protein Rrp9p/U3-55K. Snu13p/SNU13 has a much lower affinity for U3C΄/D but nevertheless forms on this motif an RNP with box C/D proteins Nop1p/FBL and Nop58p/NOP58. In this study, we characterized the influence of the RNP assembly protein Rsa1 in the early steps of U3 snoRNP biogenesis in yeast and we propose a refined model of U3 snoRNP biogenesis. While recombinant Snu13p enhances the binding of Rrp9p to U3B/C, we observed that Rsa1p has no effect on this activity but forms with Snu13p and Rrp9p a U3B/C pre-RNP. In contrast, we found that Rsa1p enhances Snu13p binding on U3C΄/D. RNA footprinting experiments indicate that this positive effect most likely occurs by direct contacts of Rsa1p with the U3 snoRNA 5΄ domain. In light of the recent U3 snoRNP cryo-EM structures, our data suggest that Rsa1p has a dual role by also preventing formation of a pre-mature functional U3 RNP.
Project description:Posttranslational SUMO modification is an important mechanism of regulating protein function, especially in the cell nucleus. The nucleolus is the subnuclear organelle responsible for rRNA synthesis, processing, and assembly of the large and small ribosome subunits. Here, we have used SILAC-based quantitative proteomics to identify nucleolar SUMOylated proteins. This reveals a role for SUMOylation in the biogenesis and/or function of small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein complexes (snoRNPs) via the targeting of Nhp2 and Nop58. Using combined in vitro and in vivo approaches, both Nhp2 and Nop58 (also known as Nop5) are shown to be substrates for SUMOylation. Mutational analyses revealed the sites of modification on Nhp2 as K5, and on Nop58 as K467 and K497. Unlike Nop58 and Nhp2, the closely related Nop56 and 15.5K proteins appear not to be SUMO targets. SUMOylation is essential for high-affinity Nop58 binding to snoRNAs. This study provides direct evidence linking SUMO modification with snoRNP function.
Project description:Selenoprotein synthesis in eukaryotes requires the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) RNA, a hairpin in the 3' untranslated region of selenoprotein mRNAs. The SECIS RNA is recognized by the SECIS-binding protein 2 (SBP2), which is a key player in this specialized translation machinery. The objective of this work was to obtain structural insight into the SBP2-SECIS RNA complex. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that SBP2 and the U4 snRNA-binding protein 15.5 kD/Snu13p share the same RNA binding domain of the L7A/L30 family, also found in the box H/ACA snoRNP protein Nhp2p and several ribosomal proteins. In corollary, we have detected a similar secondary structure motif in the SECIS and U4 RNAs. Combining the data of the crystal structure of the 15.5 kD-U4 snRNA complex, and the SBP2/15.5 kD sequence similarities, we designed a structure-guided strategy predicting 12 SBP2 amino acids that should be critical for SECIS RNA binding. Alanine substitution of these amino acids followed by gel shift assays of the SBP2 mutant proteins identified four residues whose mutation severely diminished or abolished SECIS RNA binding, the other eight provoking intermediate down effects. In addition to identifying key amino acids for SECIS recognition by SBP2, our findings led to the proposal that some of the recognition principles governing the 15.5 kD-U4 snRNA interaction must be similar in the SBP2-SECIS RNA complex.
Project description:By binding to SECIS elements located in the 3'-UTR of selenoprotein mRNAs, the protein SBP2 plays a key role in the assembly of the selenocysteine incorporation machinery. SBP2 contains an L7Ae/L30 RNA-binding domain similar to that of protein 15.5K/Snu13p, which binds K-turn motifs with a 3-nt bulge loop closed by a tandem of G.A and A.G pairs. Here, by SELEX experiments, we demonstrate the capacity of SBP2 to bind such K-turn motifs with a protruding U residue. However, we show that conversion of the bulge loop into an internal loop reinforces SBP2 affinity and to a greater extent RNP stability. Opposite variations were found for Snu13p. Accordingly, footprinting assays revealed strong contacts of SBP2 with helices I and II and the 5'-strand of the internal loop, as opposed to the loose interaction of Snu13p. Our data also identifies new determinants for SBP2 binding which are located in helix II. Among the L7Ae/L30 family members, these determinants are unique to SBP2. Finally, in accordance with functional data on SECIS elements, the identity of residues at positions 2 and 3 in the loop influences SBP2 affinity. Altogether, the data provide a very precise definition of the SBP2 RNA specificity.