The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor BI-D1870 prevents gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis and mediates senescence via RSK- and p53-independent accumulation of p21WAF1/CIP1.
ABSTRACT: The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) family is a group of highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases that promote cell proliferation, growth, motility and survival. As they are almost exclusively activated downstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), therapeutic intervention by RSK inhibition is less likely to produce such severe side effects as those observed following inhibition of the upstream master regulators Raf, MEK and ERK1/2. Here, we report that BI-D1870, a potent small molecule inhibitor of RSKs, induces apoptosis, although preferentially, in a p21-deficient background. On the other hand, BI-D1870 also induces a strong transcription- and p53-independent accumulation of p21 protein and protects cells from gamma irradiation (?IR)-induced apoptosis, driving them into senescence even in the absence of ?IR. Although we identified p21 in in vitro kinase assays as a novel RSK substrate that specifically becomes phosphorylated by RSK1-3 at Ser116 and Ser146, RNA-interference, overexpression and co-immunoprecipitation studies as well as the use of SL0101, another specific RSK inhibitor, revealed that BI-D1870 mediates p21 accumulation via a yet unknown pathway that, besides its off-site targets polo-like kinase-1 and AuroraB, also does also not involve RSKs. Thus, this novel off-target effect of BI-D1870 should be taken into serious consideration in future studies investigating the role of RSKs in cellular signaling and tumorigenesis.
Project description:ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and their substrates RSKs (p90 ribosomal S6 kinases) phosphorylate different transcription factors, contributing differentially to transcriptomic profiles. In cardiomyocytes ERK1/2 are required for >70% of the transcriptomic response to endothelin-1. In the present study we investigated the role of RSKs in the transcriptomic responses to the G(q)-protein-coupled receptor agonists endothelin-1, phenylephrine (a generic ?(1)-adrenergic receptor agonist) and A61603 (?(1A)-adrenergic receptor selective). Phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-RSKs appeared in cardiomyocyte nuclei within 2-3 min of stimulation (endothelin-1>A61603?phenylephrine). All agonists increased nuclear RSK2, but only endothelin-1 increased the nuclear RSK1 content. PD184352 (inhibits ERK1/2 activation) and BI-D1870 (inhibits RSKs) were used to dissect the contribution of RSKs to the endothelin-1-responsive transcriptome. Of the 213 RNAs up-regulated after 1 h, 51% required RSKs for their up-regulation, whereas 29% required ERK1/2 but not RSKs. The transcriptomic response to phenylephrine overlapped with, but was not identical with, endothelin-1. As with endothelin-1, PD184352 inhibited the up-regulation of most phenylephrine-responsive transcripts, but the greater variation in the effects of BI-D1870 suggests that differential RSK signalling influences global gene expression. A61603 induced similar changes in RNA expression in cardiomyocytes as phenylephrine, indicating that the signal was mediated largely through ?(1A)-adrenergic receptors. A61603 also increased expression of immediate early genes in perfused adult rat hearts and, as in cardiomyocytes, up-regulation of the majority of genes was inhibited by PD184352. PD184352 or BI-D1870 prevented the increased surface area induced by endothelin-1 in cardiomyocytes. Thus RSKs play a significant role in regulating cardiomyocyte gene expression and hypertrophy in response to G(q)-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.
Project description:The 90 kDa Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) drives cell proliferation and survival in cancers, although its oncogenic mechanism has not been well characterized. Phosphorylated level of RSK (T573) was increased in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and associated with poor survival. To examine the role of RSK in AML, we analyzed apoptosis and the cell cycle profile following treatment with BI-D1870, a potent inhibitor of RSK. BI-D1870 treatment increased the G2/M population and induced apoptosis in AML cell lines and patient AML cells. Characterization of mitotic phases showed that the metaphase/anaphase transition was significantly inhibited by BI-D1870. BI-D1870 treatment impeded the association of activator CDC20 with APC/C, but increased binding of inhibitor MAD2 to CDC20, preventing mitotic exit. Moreover, the inactivation of spindle assembly checkpoint or MAD2 knockdown released cells from BI-D1870-induced metaphase arrest. Therefore, we investigated whether BI-D1870 potentiates the anti-leukemic activity of vincristine by targeting mitotic exit. Combination treatment of BI-D1870 and vincristine synergistically increased mitotic arrest and apoptosis in acute leukemia cells. These data show that BI-D1870 induces apoptosis of AML cells alone and in combination with vincristine through blocking mitotic exit, providing a novel approach to overcoming vincristine resistance in AML cells.
Project description:Protein kinase inhibitors frequently have interesting effects that cannot be fully ascribed to the intended target kinase(s) but identifying additional targets that might explain the effects is not straightforward. By comparing two different inhibitors of the Rsk (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) kinases, we found that the increasingly used compound BI-D1870 had biological effects in murine DCs (dendritic cells) that could not be solely ascribed to Rsk or other documented targets. We assessed the ability of BI-D1870 and a second Rsk inhibitor, BIX 02565 to protect enzyme active sites from reaction with biotinylated nucleotide acyl phosphates. Using SILAC (stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture)-labelled DC lysates as a source of enzyme targets, we identify several kinases that interact with BI-D1870 but not with BIX 02565. We confirmed that these kinases, including Slk, Lok and Mst1, are inhibited by BI-D1870 but to a much lesser extent by BIX 02565 and that phosphorylation of some of their substrates is blocked by BI-D1870 in living cells. Our results suggest that the BI-D1870 inhibitor should be used with caution. The SILAC-based methodology we used should be useful for further comparative unbiased profiling of the target spectrum of kinase inhibitors with interesting biological effects under conditions that closely mimic those found in cells.
Project description:Hormones and growth factors induce the activation of a number of protein kinases that belong to the AGC subfamily, including isoforms of PKA, protein kinase B (also known as Akt), PKC, S6K p70 (ribosomal S6 kinase), RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) and MSK (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase), which then mediate many of the physiological processes that are regulated by these extracellular agonists. It can be difficult to assess the individual functions of each AGC kinase because their substrate specificities are similar. Here we describe the small molecule BI-D1870, which inhibits RSK1, RSK2, RSK3 and RSK4 in vitro with an IC(50) of 10-30 nM, but does not signi-ficantly inhibit ten other AGC kinase members and over 40 other protein kinases tested at 100-fold higher concentrations. BI-D1870 is cell permeant and prevents the RSK-mediated phorbol ester- and EGF (epidermal growth factor)-induced phosphoryl-ation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and LKB1 in human embry-onic kidney 293 cells and Rat-2 cells. In contrast, BI-D1870 does not affect the agonist-triggered phosphorylation of substrates for six other AGC kinases. Moreover, BI-D1870 does not suppress the phorbol ester- or EGF-induced phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein), consistent with the genetic evidence indicating that MSK, and not RSK, isoforms mediate the mitogen-induced phosphorylation of this transcription factor.
Project description:In the canonical model of smooth muscle (SM) contraction, the contractile force is generated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC20) by the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Moreover, phosphorylation of the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of the RLC20 phosphatase (MLCP) by the RhoA-dependent ROCK kinase, inhibits the phosphatase activity and consequently inhibits dephosphorylation of RLC20 with concomitant increase in contractile force, at constant intracellular [Ca(2+)]. This pathway is referred to as Ca(2+)-sensitization. There is, however, emerging evidence suggesting that additional Ser/Thr kinases may contribute to the regulatory pathways in SM. Here, we report data implicating the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in SM contractility. During both Ca(2+)- and agonist (U46619) induced SM contraction, RSK inhibition by the highly selective compound BI-D1870 (which has no effect on MLCK or ROCK) resulted in significant suppression of contractile force. Furthermore, phosphorylation levels of RLC20 and MYPT1 were both significantly decreased. Experiments involving the irreversible MLCP inhibitor microcystin-LR, in the absence of Ca(2+), revealed that the decrease in phosphorylation levels of RLC20 upon RSK inhibition are not due solely to the increase in the phosphatase activity, but reflect direct or indirect phosphorylation of RLC20 by RSK. Finally, we show that agonist (U46619) stimulation of SM leads to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 and PDK1, consistent with a canonical activation cascade for RSK. Thus, we demonstrate a novel and important physiological function of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase, which to date has been typically associated with the regulation of gene expression.
Project description:The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) links the control of mRNA translation, cell growth, and metabolism to diverse stimuli. Inappropriate activation of mTORC1 can lead to cancer. Phorbol esters are naturally occurring products that act as potent tumor promoters. They activate isoforms of protein kinase C (PKCs) and stimulate the oncogenic MEK/ERK signaling cascade. They also activate mTORC1 signaling. Previous work indicated that mTORC1 activation by the phorbol ester PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) depends upon PKCs and may involve MEK. However, the precise mechanism(s) through which they activate mTORC1 remains unclear. Recent studies have implicated both the ERKs and the ERK-activated 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (p90(RSK)) in activating mTORC1 signaling via phosphorylation of TSC2 (a regulator of mTORC1) and/or the mTORC1 component raptor. However, the relative importance of each of these kinases and phosphorylation events for the activation of mTORC1 signaling is unknown. The recent availability of MEK (PD184352) and p90(RSK) (BI-D1870) inhibitors of improved specificity allowed us to address the roles of these protein kinases in controlling mTORC1 in a variety of human and rodent cell types. In parallel, we used specific shRNAs against p90(RSK1) and p90(RSK2) to further test their roles in regulating mTORC1 signaling. Our data indicate that p90(RSKs) are dispensable for the activation of mTORC1 signaling by phorbol esters in all cell types tested. Our data also reveal striking diversity in the requirements for MEK/ERK in the control of mTORC1 between different cell types, pointing to additional signaling connections between phorbol esters and mTORC1, which do not involve MEK/ERK. This study provides important information for the design of efficient strategies to combat the hyperactivation of mTORC1 signaling by oncogenic pathways.
Project description:p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (RSKs) integrate upstream signals through two catalytic domains. Autophosphorylation of Ser386 by the regulatory C-terminal kinase domain (CTD) is thought to be essential for activation of the N-terminal kinase domain (NTD), which phosphorylates multiple downstream targets. We recently reported fmk, an irreversible inhibitor of the CTD of RSK1 and RSK2. Here we describe fmk-pa, a propargylamine variant that has improved cellular potency and a 'clickable' tag for assessing the extent and selectivity of covalent RSK modification. Copper-catalyzed conjugation of an azidoalkyl reporter (the click reaction) revealed that fmk-pa achieves selective and saturable modification of endogenous RSK1 and RSK2 in mammalian cells. Saturating concentrations of fmk-pa inhibited Ser386 phosphorylation and downstream signaling in response to phorbol ester stimulation, but had no effect on RSK activation by lipopolysaccharide. RSK autoactivation by the CTD is therefore context dependent, which suggests that NTD and CTD inhibitors should have distinct physiological effects.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are notoriously difficult to treat because they lack hormone receptors and have limited targeted therapies. Recently, we demonstrated that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is essential for TNBC growth and survival indicating it as a target for therapeutic development. RSK phosphorylates Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), an oncogenic transcription/translation factor, highly expressed in TNBC (~70% of cases) and associated with poor prognosis, drug resistance and tumor initiation. YB-1 regulates the tumor-initiating cell markers, CD44 and CD49f however its role in Notch signaling has not been explored. We sought to identify novel chemical entities with RSK inhibitory activity. The Prestwick Chemical Library of 1120 off-patent drugs was screened for RSK inhibitors using both in vitro kinase assays and molecular docking. The lead candidate, luteolin, inhibited RSK1 and RSK2 kinase activity and suppressed growth in TNBC, including TIC-enriched populations. Combining luteolin with paclitaxel increased cell death and unlike chemotherapy alone, did not enrich for CD44(+) cells. Luteolin's efficacy against drug-resistant cells was further indicated in the primary x43 cell line, where it suppressed monolayer growth and mammosphere formation. We next endeavored to understand how the inhibition of RSK/YB-1 signaling by luteolin elicited an effect on TIC-enriched populations. ChIP-on-ChIP experiments in SUM149 cells revealed a 12-fold enrichment of YB-1 binding to the Notch4 promoter. We chose to pursue this because there are several reports indicating that Notch4 maintains cells in an undifferentiated, TIC state. Herein we report that silencing YB-1 with siRNA decreased Notch4 mRNA. Conversely, transient expression of Flag:YB-1(WT) or the constitutively active mutant Flag:YB-1(D102) increased Notch4 mRNA. The levels of Notch4 transcript and the abundance of the Notch4 intracellular domain (N4ICD) correlated with activation of P-RSK(S221/7) and P-YB-1(S102) in a panel of TNBC cell lines. Silencing YB-1 or RSK reduced Notch4 mRNA and this corresponded with loss of N4ICD. Likewise, the RSK inhibitors, luteolin and BI-D1870, suppressed P-YB-1(S102) and thereby reduced Notch4. In conclusion, inhibiting the RSK/YB-1 pathway with luteolin is a novel approach to blocking Notch4 signaling and as such provides a means of inhibiting TICs.
Project description:Despite improvements in survival in metastatic melanoma with combined BRAF and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor treatment, the overwhelming majority of patients eventually acquire resistance to both agents. Consequently, new targets for therapy in resistant tumors are currently being evaluated. Previous studies have identified p90 subfamily of ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) family kinases as key factors for growth and proliferation, as well as protein synthesis via assembly of the 7-methyl-guanosine triphosphate cap-dependent translation complex. We sought to evaluate inhibitors of p90RSK family members: BI-D1870 and BRD7389, for their ability to inhibit both proliferation and protein synthesis in patient-derived melanoma cell lines with acquired resistance to combined treatment with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor selumetinib. We found that the RSK inhibitors blocked cell proliferation and protein synthesis in multiple dual-resistant melanoma lines. In addition, single agent RSK inhibitor treatment was effective in drug-naïve lines, two of which are innately vemurafenib resistant. We also used Reverse Phase Protein Array screening to identify differential protein expression that correlates with BI-D1870 sensitivity, and identified prognostic biomarkers for survival in human melanoma patients. These findings establish p90RSK inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in treatment-resistant melanoma and provide insight into the mechanism of action.
Project description:The human genome encodes two active Vaccinia-related protein kinases (VRK), VRK1 and VRK2. These proteins have been implicated in a number of cellular processes and linked to a variety of tumors. However, understanding the cellular role of VRKs and establishing their potential use as targets for therapeutic intervention has been limited by the lack of tool compounds that can specifically modulate the activity of these kinases in cells. Here we identified BI-D1870, a dihydropteridine inhibitor of RSK kinases, as a promising starting point for the development of chemical probes targeting the active VRKs. We solved co-crystal structures of both VRK1 and VRK2 bound to BI-D1870 and of VRK1 bound to two broad-spectrum inhibitors. These structures revealed that both VRKs can adopt a P-loop folded conformation, which is stabilized by different mechanisms on each protein. Based on these structures, we suggest modifications to the dihydropteridine scaffold that can be explored to produce potent and specific inhibitors towards VRK1 and VRK2.