High incidence of oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus (OS-MRSA) associated with bovine mastitis in China.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a main cause of bovine mastitis and a major pathogen affecting human health. The emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a significant concern for both animal health and public health. This study investigated the incidence of MRSA in milk samples collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis and characterized the MRSA isolates using antimicrobial susceptibility tests and genetic typing methods. In total, 103 S. aureus isolates were obtained from dairy farms in 4 different provinces in China, including Gansu, Shanghai, Sichuan, and Guizhou. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these isolates revealed that the resistance rates to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole were high, while the resistance rates to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin were low. Among the 103 isolates, 49 (47.6%) were found to be mecA-positive, indicating the high incidence of MRSA. However, 37 of the 49 mecA-positive isolates were susceptible to oxacillin as determined by antimicrobial susceptibility assays and were thus classified as oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive S. aureus (OS-MRSA). These isolates could be misclassified as methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) if genetic detection of mecA was not performed. Molecular characterization of selected mecA-positive isolates showed that they were all negative with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), but belonged to different spa types and SCCmec types. These results indicate that OS-MRSA is common in bovine mastitis in China and underscore the need for genetic methods (in addition to phenotypic tests) to accurately identify MRSA.
Project description:The MRSA screen test (Denka Seiken Co., Ltd.), a commercially available, rapid (20-min) slide latex agglutination test for the determination of methicillin resistance by detection of PBP 2a in Staphylococcus aureus, was compared with the oxacillin agar screen test and PCR detection of the mecA gene. A total of 563 S. aureus isolates were tested. Two hundred ninety-six of the isolates were methicillin-susceptible isolates from cultures of blood from consecutive patients. Also, 267 methicillin-resistant isolates that comprised 248 different phage types were tested. Methicillin resistance was defined as the presence of the mecA gene. Of the 267 mecA gene-positive isolates, 263 were positive by the MRSA screen test (sensitivity, 98.5%), and all the mecA-gene negative strains were negative by the MRSA screen test (specificity, 100%). The oxacillin agar screen test detected methicillin resistance in 250 of the mecA gene-positive isolates (sensitivity, 93.6%). The sensitivity of the MRSA screen test was statistically significantly higher than the sensitivity of the oxacillin agar screen test (P < 0. 05). The MRSA screen test is a highly sensitive and specific test for the detection of methicillin resistance. Also, it offers results within half an hour and is easy to perform, which makes this test a valuable tool in the ongoing battle against methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
Project description:Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) in bovine milk is a major public health concern. The primary purpose of this research was to determine molecular genetic characteristics and antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates recovered from milk of mastitic cows in the Shaanxi Province in Northwestern China. One hundred and thirteen methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), one mecA-positive and phenotype-positive MRSA, seven mecA- and mecC- negative but phenotype-positive MRSA and two MR-CoNS including one oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus (OS-MRSH) and one mecA-positive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates were recovered from 214 quarter milk samples on 4 dairy farms. All above 123 isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance profiling. S. aureus isolates were also genotyped using the spa typing and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Eight MRSA and 2 MR-CoNS isolates were additionally tested for SCCmec types. Resistance was common among isolates against ampicillin or penicillin (80.5%), kanamycin (68.3%), gentamicin (67.5%), tetracycline (43.9%) and chloramphenicol (30.1%). However, no isolate was resistant to vancomycin or teicoplanin. Twenty, 29 and 58 isolates showed resistance to 1, 2 or more than 2 antibiotics, respectively. The predominant multidrug resistance profile was penicillin/ampicillin/kanamycin/gentamicin/tetracycline (46 isolates). Most S. aureus isolates belonged to spa types t524 (n = 63), t11772 (a new type, n = 31) and t4207 (n = 15). At the same time, MLST types ST71 (n = 67) and ST2738 (a new type, n = 45) were identified as dominant sequence types. The mecA-positive and phenotype-positive MRSA isolate had a composite genotype t524-ST71-SCCmecIVa, while 7 mecA-negative but phenotype-positive MRSA isolates were all t524-ST71. The OS-MRSH isolate contained a type V SCCmec cassette, while the MRSE isolate possessed a non-typeable SCCmec. The spa-MLST types t11772-ST2738 (n = 27), t11807-ST2683 (n = 4) and t11771-ST2738 (n = 3) were newly identified genotypes of S. aureus. These new genotypes and multidrug-resistant staphylococci could pose additional threat to animal and human health.
Project description:Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis has been very well investigated worldwide. However, there are only limited reports on the characterization of methicillin resistant and sensitive coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) across the globe. Hence, in the present study, we aim to determine the phenotypic traits based on antimicrobial susceptibility profile and genotypic characterization by verifying the presence of resistance determinants, virulence and toxin genes present in the CoNS causing clinical mastitis. We obtained 62 CoNS isolates from 167 mastitic milk samples collected from three different states of India. The 62 isolates comprises of 10 different CoNS species S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. chromogenes, S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus, S. simulans, S. agnetis, S. epidermidis, S. gallinarum, and S. cohinii. Susceptibility screening against 11 antibiotics determined 45.16% isolates as multidrug resistant (resistant to more than two class of antibiotic), 46.74% resistant (one or two antibiotic class) and 8.06% isolates were pan-sensitive (sensitive to all drugs). High resistance was observed against oxacillin and cefoxitin, whereas all isolates were susceptible toward vancomycin and linezolid. Fifty three isolates were methicillin resistant and 9 isolates were sensitive as determined by oxacillin susceptibility assay. The methicillin resistance gene, mecA was found in 95.16% isolates and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing predominantly revealed Type III (n = 34) and Type V (n = 18). Interestingly, 11.9% of mecA positive isolates were oxacillin susceptible and referred as oxacillin susceptible mecA positive staphylococci (OS-MRS). Additionally, genes encoding for enterotoxin, (sea, seb, seh, see) toxic shock syndrome (tsst), exfoliatin (eta, etb, etd) and virulence (pvl, Y-hlg) were also screened. Of all the genes examined, 67.74% of isolate were positive for the Y-hlg gene, followed by the sea gene in 25.8% whereas in none of the isolates the eta and the etb gene was amplified. The study also highlights the incidence of clinical isolates of CoNS, which are harboring the toxin and the virulence genes rendering them as a more potential threat. This is the first report of animal origin OS-MRS from India, which emphasizes on the inclusion of both the genetic and phenotypic test for proper characterization of CoNS and preventing resistant strain misidentification.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA) from dairy animals could pose a public health concern in the population. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of <i>S. aureus</i> and MRSA associated with mastitis among water buffaloes in the central part of Luzon island, the Philippines, and to investigate its associated factors. Three hundred and eighty-four water buffaloes were examined for mastitis using California mastitis test (CMT). Composite milk samples (n = 93) were collected from buffaloes showing positive reaction with CMT. <i>S. aureus</i> was identified from milk samples using biochemical tests. Cefoxitin disk diffusion assay and PCR detecting <i>mecA</i> gene were performed to identify MRSA isolates. Disk diffusion assay was used to investigate the antimicrobial resistance against 9 antibiotics. The prevalence of <i>S. aureus</i> was 41.94% (39/93)<i>.</i> MRSA isolates resistant to cefoxitin were at 25.81% (24/93) but only 37.5% (9/24) harbored the <i>mecA</i> gene. All 24 MRSA isolates were resistant to penicillin while the majority were susceptible to clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamycin, tetracycline, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol with intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin. Furthermore, 37.5% of the isolates were found resistant to two or more antibiotics. Animal-level factor associated with MRSA infection was the history of mastitis (OR = 3.18, CI = 1.03-9.79, p = 0.040). Herd-level factors associated with the detection of MRSA in milk included herd size (OR = 4.24, CI = 1.05-17.07, p = 0.042) and the presence of other animals (OR = 0.15, CI = 0.04-0.58, p = 0.006). High prevalence of intramammary infection with <i>S. aureus</i> and MRSA in dairy buffaloes was observed in the region. This finding raises the concern of preventing zoonotic spread of MRSA.
Project description:Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant threat to human health. Additionally, biofilm forming bacteria becomes more tolerant to antibiotics and act as bacterial reservoir leading to chronic infection. In this study, we characterised the antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm production and sequence types (ST) of 74 randomly selected clinical isolates of S. aureus causing ocular infections. Antibiotic susceptibility revealed 74% of the isolates as resistant against one or two antibiotics, followed by 16% multidrug-resistant isolates (MDR), and 10% sensitive. The isolates were characterized as MRSA (n?=?15), Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA, n?=?48) and oxacillin susceptible mecA positive S. aureus (OS-MRSA, n?=?11) based on oxacillin susceptibility, mecA gene PCR and PBP2a agglutination test. All OS-MRSA would have been misclassified as MSSA on the basis of susceptibility test. Therefore, both phenotypic and genotypic tests should be included to prevent strain misrepresentation. In addition, in-depth studies for understanding the emerging OS-MRSA phenotype is required. The role of fem XAB gene family has been earlier reported in OS-MRSA phenotype. Sequence analysis of the fem XAB genes revealed mutations in fem?×?(K3R, H11N, N18H and I51V) and fem B (L410F) genes. The fem XAB genes were also found down-regulated in OS-MRSA isolates in comparison to MRSA. In OS-MRSA isolates, biofilm formation is regulated by fibronectin binding proteins A & B. Molecular typing of the isolates revealed genetic diversity. All the isolates produced biofilm, however, MRSA isolates with strong biofilm phenotype represent a worrisome situation and may even result in treatment failure.
Project description:Objective:Mastitis is considered as an economically important disease of dairy buffaloes in Asia. This study examined the mastitis milk and nasal swab samples for the detection and genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in water buffaloes. Materials and Methods:Staphylococcus aureus was identified based on biochemical tests and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection of nuc gene, whereas MRSA on mecA gene. The disc diffusion test was used to determine the antibiotic resistance and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), spa, and multilocus sequence typing for the genotyping of isolates. Results:Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 39/93 milk (41.94%) and 27/384 nasal swab (7.03%) samples. However, only nine isolates (23.08%) harbored the mecA gene from milk samples and three isolates (11.11%) from the nasal carriage. All MRSA isolates exhibited resistance to cefoxitin and penicillin, whereas 50% were found resistant to clindamycin. All these isolates were found susceptible to sulfa-trimethoprim and chloramphenicol, whereas the majority of the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and rifampicin. The SCCmec types of the MRSA isolates were type IVc (50.00%), type II (8.33%), type I (8.33%), and non-typeable (33.33%). The spa types and sequence type (ST) identified were t019 (ST30), t701 (ST1649), t311 (ST5), t657 (ST1148), t015 (ST508), t1939 (ST12), t800 (ST9), t091 (ST2454), t138 (ST5991), and t1642 (ST5992). Conclusion:Milk and nasal swab samples from dairy water buffaloes were found positive for MRSA. The MRSA isolates were still susceptible to most antibiotics tested. Moreover, the genotypes of some MRSA isolates were found similar to some human MRSA strains, suggesting a possible human to animal transmission.
Project description:A mecC (mecALGA251)-adapted multiplex PCR-based methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection assay was evaluated using an international, spa-typed Staphylococcus aureus collection comprising 51 mecC-positive MRSA, 240 mecA-positive MRSA, and 50 mecA- and mecC-negative methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. The assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for S. aureus species identification as well as for mecA and mecC detection.
Project description:Diagnostic PCR assays were developed to track common genetic determinants of oxacillin resistance as well as resistance to classical tetracyclines in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the recently completed worldwide phase 3 clinical trials of tigecycline. A total of 503 unique S. aureus strains isolated from complicated skin and skin structure infections were analyzed. The mecA gene was amplified from 120 strains (23.9%) determined to be resistant to oxacillin (MICs > or = 4 microg/ml). The prevalence of the mecA gene was found to vary regionally from 6.5% to 50.9% among isolates originating in Eastern Europe and North America, respectively. The presence of a tetracycline resistance determinant, tet(M) or tet(K), among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates also varied regionally, with a range of 11.9% to 46.2% among isolates tested from North America and Eastern Europe, respectively. The occurrence of a tetracycline resistance marker in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains varied from 2.5 to 16.1% among the isolates tested across the regions of study. The presence of tet(M) or tet(K) had no discernible effect on the tigecycline MICs for either MRSA or MSSA strains, which is consistent with the ability of the glycylcyclines to retain activity in the presence of both the ribosomal protection and efflux mechanisms of resistance to the tetracyclines.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus strains that possess a mecA gene but are phenotypically susceptible to oxacillin and cefoxitin (OS-MRSA) have been recognized for over a decade and are a challenge for diagnostic laboratories. The mechanisms underlying the discrepancy vary from isolate to isolate. We characterized seven OS-MRSA clinical isolates of six different spa types from six different states by whole-genome sequencing to identify the nucleotide sequence changes leading to the OS-MRSA phenotype. The results demonstrated that oxacillin susceptibility was associated with mutations in regions of nucleotide repeats within mecA Subinhibitory antibiotic exposure selected for secondary mecA mutations that restored oxacillin resistance. Thus, strains of S. aureus that contain mecA but are phenotypically susceptible can become resistant after antibiotic exposure, which may result in treatment failure. OS-MRSA warrant follow-up susceptibility testing to ensure detection of resistant revertants.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important causes of hospital infections worldwide. High-level resistance to methicillin is caused by the mecA gene, which encodes an alternative penicillin-binding protein, PBP 2a. To determine the clonal relationships between methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA, we typed 1,069 S. aureus isolates (493 MSSA isolates and 576 MRSA isolates), collected mainly in North American and European hospitals between the 1960s and the year 2000, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping. Of 10 widespread S. aureus lineages recognized, 8 had corresponding mecA-positive strains. Multiresistant MRSA strains are found in hospitals worldwide, while unrelated and more susceptible strains represent less than 1% of the MRSA population. This supports the hypothesis that horizontal transfer plays an important role in the dissemination of the mecA gene in the S. aureus population.