Recent developments on dry eye disease treatment compounds.
ABSTRACT: Dry eye syndrome is a common tears and ocular surface multifactorial disease, described by changes in the ocular surface epithelia related to reduced tears quantity and ocular surface sensitivity, leading to inflammatory reaction. Managing the eye inflammation proved helpful to patients with dry eye disease and current treatment is based on the use of topically applied artificial tear products/lubricants, tear retention management, stimulation of tear secretion and using anti-inflammatory drugs. In this article we revise the corresponding literature and patents assembling the new treatment approaches of novel and future pharmaceutical compounds destined for the dry eye disease treatment. The most frequent categories of compounds presented are secretagogues and anti-inflammatory drugs. These compounds are the research outcome of novel therapeutic strategies designed to reduce key inflammatory pathways and restore healthy tear film.
Project description:To investigate the expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 in the tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye syndrome.Thirty-three patients with dry eye (16 with and 17 without Sjögren's syndrome) and 15 control subjects were recruited. The concentrations of CXCL9, -10, and -11 in tears were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The correlation between chemokine levels and tear film and ocular surface parameters was analyzed. The expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 in the conjunctiva was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry was performed to count CXCR3(+) cells and CXCR3(+)CD4(+) cells in the conjunctiva.The concentrations of CXCL9, -10, and -11 were 1,148 +/- 1,088, 24,338 +/- 8,706, and 853 +/- 334 pg/mL, in the patients with dry eye, and 272 +/- 269 (P = 0.01), 18,149 +/- 5,266 (P = 0.02), and 486 +/- 175 (P < 0.01) pg/mL in the control subjects, respectively. The concentrations significantly increased in tears of the patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared with those of the patients with non-Sjögren's dry eye (P < 0.05). CXCL10 levels correlated significantly with basal tear secretion, and CXCL11 levels correlated significantly with basal tear secretion, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy score, and goblet cell density (P < 0.05). Staining for CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 increased in patients with dry eye, especially in the patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Flow cytometry demonstrated an increased number of CXCR3(+) and CXCR3(+)CD4(+) cells in all the patients with dry eye.Expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 increased in the tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye syndrome, especially in those with Sjögren's syndrome. CXCL11 levels correlated significantly with various tear film and ocular surface parameters. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00991679.).
Project description:Corneal architecture is essential for vision and is greatly perturbed by the absence of tears due to the highly prevalent disorder dry eye. With no regenerative therapies available, pathological alterations of the ocular surface in response to dryness, including persistent epithelial defects and poor wound healing, result in lifelong morbidity. Here, using a mouse model of aqueous-deficient dry eye, we reveal that topical application of the synthetic tear protein lacripep reverses the pathological outcomes of dry eye through restoring the extensive network of corneal nerves that are essential for tear secretion, barrier function, epithelial homeostasis and wound healing. Intriguingly, the restorative effects of lacripep occur despite extensive immune cell infiltration, suggesting tissue reinnervation and regeneration can be achieved under chronic inflammatory conditions. In summary, our data highlight lacripep as a first-in-class regenerative therapy for returning the cornea to a near homeostatic state in individuals who suffer from dry eye. Overall design: Comparative analysis of gene expression between wild type, untreated Aire KO (dry eye disease) , Aire KO treated with PBS, and Aire KO treated with 4uM lacripep whole corneas at day 7 of treatment (6 wk of age).
Project description:Tear proteins are potential biomarkers, drug targets, and even biotherapeutics. As a biotherapeutic, a recombinant tear protein might physiologically rescue the ocular surface when a deficiency is detected. Such a strategy pays more attention to the natural prosecretory and protective properties of the tear film and seeks to alleviate symptoms by addressing cause, rather than the current palliative, non-specific and temporary approaches. Only a handful of tear proteins appear to be selectively downregulated in dry eye, the most common eye disease. Lacritin and lipocalin-1 are two tear proteins selectively deficient in dry eye. Both proteins influence ocular surface health. Lacritin is a prosecretory mitogen that promotes basal tearing when applied topically. Levels of active monomeric lacritin are negatively regulated by tear tissue transglutaminase, whose expression is elevated in dry eye with ocular surface inflammation. Lipocalin-1 is the master lipid sponge of the ocular surface, without which residual lipids could interfere with epithelial wetting. It also is a carrier for vitamins and steroid hormones, and is a key endonuclease. Accumulation of DNA in tears is thought to be proinflammatory. Functions of these and other tear proteins may be influenced by protein-protein interactions. Here we discuss new advances in lacritin biology and provide an overview on lipocalin-1, and newly identified members of the tear proteome.
Project description:Dry eye syndrome (DES), a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface, is one of the most common ocular disorders. Tear film contains ocular mucins and is essential for maintaining the homeostasis of the wet ocular surface. Since there are a limited number of clinical options for the treatment of DES, additional novel treatments are needed to improve the clinical results. In this study, we found that placental extract-derived dipeptide (JBP485) clearly promoted the expression and secretion of gel-forming mucin 5ac (Muc5ac) in rabbit conjunctival epithelium. JBP485 also elevated the expression level of cell surface-associated mucins (Muc1/4/16) in rabbit corneal epithelium. The Schirmer tear test results indicated that JBP485 induced tear secretion in the rabbit model. Moreover, JBP485 clinically improved corneal epithelial damage in a mouse dry eye model. Thus, our data indicate that JBP485 efficiently promoted mucin and aqueous tear secretion in rabbit ocular surface epithelium and has the potential to be used as a novel treatment for DES.
Project description:Components of the ocular surface synergistically contribute to maintaining and protecting a smooth refractive layer to facilitate the optimal transmission of light. At the air-water interface, the tear film lipid layer (TFLL), a mixture of lipids and proteins, plays a key role in tear surface tension and is important for the physiological hydration of the ocular surface and for ocular homeostasis. Alterations in tear fluid rheology, differences in lipid composition, or downregulation of specific tear proteins are found in most types of ocular surface disease, including dry eye disease (DED). Artificial tears have long been a first line of treatment in DED and aim to replace or supplement tears. More recently, lipid-containing eye drops have been developed to more closely mimic the combination of aqueous and lipid layers of the TFLL. Over the last 2 decades, our understanding of the nature and importance of lipids in the tear film in health and disease has increased substantially. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of our current understanding of tear film properties and review the effectiveness of lipid-based products in the treatment of DED. Liposome lid sprays, emulsion eye drops, and other lipid-containing formulations are discussed.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To provide standard operating procedures (SOPs) for measuring tear inflammatory cytokine concentrations and to validate the resulting profile as a minimally invasive objective metric and biomarker of ocular surface inflammation for use in multicenter clinical trials on dry eye disease (DED).<h4>Methods</h4>Standard operating procedures were established and then validated with cytokine standards, quality controls, and masked tear samples collected from local and distant clinical sites. The concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines in tears were quantified using a high-sensitivity human cytokine multiplex kit.<h4>Results</h4>A panel of inflammatory cytokines was initially investigated, from which four key inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, INF-?, and TNF-?) were chosen. Results with cytokine standards statistically satisfied the manufacturer's quality control criteria. Results with pooled tear samples were highly reproducible and reliable with tear volumes ranging from 4 to 10 ?L. Incorporation of the SOPs into clinical trials was subsequently validated. Tear samples were collected at a distant clinical site, stored, and shipped to our Biomarker Laboratory, where a masked analysis of the four tear cytokines was successfully performed. Tear samples were also collected from a feasibility study on DED. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations were decreased in tears of subjects who received anti-inflammatory treatment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Standard operating procedures for human tear cytokine assessment suitable for multicenter clinical trials were established. Tear cytokine profiling using these SOPs may provide objective metrics useful for diagnosing, classifying, and analyzing treatment efficacy in inflammatory conditions of the ocular surface, which may further elucidate the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ocular surface disease.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease that results in pathological dryness of mouth and eye. The diagnosis of SS depends on both clinical evaluation and specific antibodies. The goal of this study was to use quantitative proteomics to investigate changes in tear proteins in a rabbit model of SS-associated dry eye, induced autoimmune dacryoadenitis (IAD). Proteomic analysis was performed by iTRAQ and nano LC-MS/MS on tears collected from the ocular surface, and specific proteins were verified by high resolution MRM. It was found that in the tears of IAD rabbits at 2 and 4 weeks after induction, S100 A6, S100 A9, and serum albumin were upregulated, whereas serotransferrin (TF), prolactin-inducible protein (PIP), polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), and Ig gamma chain C region were downregulated. High resolution MRM with mTRAQ labeling verified the changes in S100 A6, TF, PIP, and pIgR. Our results indicated significant changes of tear proteins in IAD rabbits, suggesting these proteins could potentially be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of dry eye. Several of these proteins were also found in the tears of non-SS dry eye patients indicating a common basis of ocular surface pathology, however, pIgR appears to be unique to SS.
Project description:Lipocalins are a family of diverse low molecular weight proteins that act extracellularly. They use multiple recognition properties that include 1) ligand binding to small hydrophobic molecules, 2) macromolecular complexation with other soluble macromolecules, and 3) binding to specific cell surface receptors to deliver cargo. Tear lipocalin (TLC) is a major protein in tears and has a large ligand-binding cavity that allows the lipocalin to bind an extensive and diverse set of lipophilic molecules. TLC can also bind to macromolecules, including the tear proteins lactoferin and lysozyme. The receptor to which TLC binds is termed tear lipocalin-interacting membrane receptor (LIMR). LIMR appears to work by endocytosis. TLC has a variety of suggested functions in tears, including regulation of tear viscosity, binding and release of lipids, endonuclease inactivation of viral DNA, binding of microbial siderophores (iron chelators used to deliver essential iron to bacteria), serving as a biomarker for dry eye, and possessing anti-inflammatory activity. Additional research is warranted to determine the actual functions of TLC in tears and the presence of its receptor on the ocular surface.
Project description:Tears are a biological fluid that has diagnostic potential for ocular diseases. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), wildly detected in various biofluids including tears, are nanoparticles released by living cells and considered as promising detection sources for non-invasive liquid biopsy. Understanding the roles of tears and tear-EVs in ocular diseases such as dry eye can facilitate the studies of clinical diagnosis, which usually entails detecting such liquid objects with a rapid and effective method. In this study, we utilized a mass spectrometry based strategy to analyze peptidome/proteome profiles of tear and EVs for rapid dry eye diagnosis. Nano-sized EVs were isolated from tears of either healthy control (HC) individuals or dry eye syndrome (DES) patients, and the tear compositions were further analyzed by tracking their fingerprints with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The fingerprints of tear-EVs could be observed in a dose-dependent manner as well as tears, allowing comparing their discriminant peaks between tears and EVs. By analyzing these peaks, the fingerprints of both tear and tear-EVs were showed to have a capability of distinguishing DES patients from HC donors, and providing an efficient way for screening potential DES biomarkers. The proposed tear and EV fingerprinting approach is expected to be a potential tool in rapid diagnosis of ocular disease and in-depth researches of pathogenesis.
Project description:Dry eye disease (DED) is multifactorial, affecting 5-34 % of the global adult population and reducing quality of life. The artificial tears or lubricants are the therapy most used for the treatment of DED, due to their low side effect profile, which attempt to modify the properties of the tear film. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a fixed combination of xanthan gum and chondroitin sulfate preservative free on the ocular surface of patients with dry eye disease during 60 days of intervention.A phase III, double-blind, masked, controlled, multicenter, clinical trial of 148 subjects, randomized to either a fixed combination of xanthan gum 0.09 % and chondroitin sulfate 0.1 % (XG/CS) ophthalmic solution (n?=?76) or a fixed combination of polyethylene glycol 400 0.4 % and propylene glycol 0.3 % (PEG/PG) (n?=?72). Subjects self-dosed four times daily during 60 days. Follow-up was set on days 2, 7, 15, 30 and 60. Assessments of anterior/posterior segment ocular signs were performed. The outcome measures included Schirmer test, tear film break-up time and OSDI score. Security variables included intraocular pressure, lisamine green and fluorescein ocular surface stains.The primary efficacy endpoints were similar between groups at baseline. After intervention time Schirmer test increased in both groups compared to baseline, XG/CS (6.4?±?2.2 vs 11.0?±?6.6; p?=?0.002) and PEG/PG (6.5?±?2.5 vs 10.5?±?5.6; p?=?0.019) respectively. Similar results were reported in the tear film break-up time in XG/CS (5.5?±?2.1 vs 7.4?±?2.9; p?=?0.027) and PEG/PG (5.2?±?2.0 vs 7.4?±?2.7; p?=?0.046) respectively. The OSDI score decreased to normal values in both groups, XG/CS (19.3?±?7.4 vs 7.3?±?5.9; p?=?0.001) and PEG/PG (19.3?±?7.5 vs 7.9?±?8.2; p?=?0.001) respectively. There was no significant difference between treatments for any parameter. Moreover, both groups decreased the presence of burning sensation, tearing, foreign body sensation, conjunctival hyperemia and photophobia. The adverse events were not related to the interventions.Xanthan gum/chondroitin sulfate preservative free showed similar clinical efficacy, evaluated with OSDI score, TBUT and Schirmer test compared to polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol in the treatment of dry eye disease.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01657253 . Date of registration May 19, 2014.