Mitoneet mediates TNF?-induced necroptosis promoted by exposure to fructose and ethanol.
ABSTRACT: Fructose and ethanol are metabolized principally in the liver and are both known to contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis that can progress to hepatic steatohepatitis. The present study indentifies a synergistic interaction between fructose and ethanol in promoting hepatocyte sensitivity to TNF?-induced necroptosis. Concurrent exposure to fructose and ethanol induces the overexpression of the CDGSH iron-sulfur domain-containing protein 1 (CISD1 or mitoneet), which is localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane. The increased expression of mitoneet primes the hepatocyte for TNF?-induced cytotoxicity. Treatment with TNF? induces the translocation of a Stat3-Grim-19 complex to the mitochondria, which binds to mitoneet and promotes the rapid release of its 2Fe-2S cluster, causing an accumulation of mitochondrial iron. The dramatic increase of mitochondrial iron provokes a surge in formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in mitochondrial injury and cell death. Additionally, mitoneet is constitutively expressed at high levels in L929 fibrosarcoma cells and is required for L929 cells to undergo TNF?-induced necroptosis in the presence of caspase inhibition, indicating the importance of mitoneet to the necroptotic form of cell death.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) occurs frequently among older individuals, and dysfunction of cardiac mitochondria is often observed. We here show the cardiac-specific downregulation of a certain mitochondrial component during the chronological aging of mice, which is detrimental to the heart. MitoNEET is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, encoded by CDGSH iron sulfur domain 1 (CISD1). Expression of mitoNEET was specifically downregulated in the heart and kidney of chronologically aged mice. Mice with a constitutive cardiac-specific deletion of CISD1 on the C57BL/6J background showed cardiac dysfunction only after 12 months of age and developed HF after 16 months; whereas irregular morphology and higher levels of reactive oxygen species in their cardiac mitochondria were observed at earlier time points. Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which cardiac mitochondria may gradually lose their integrity during natural aging, and shed light on an uncharted molecular basis closely related to age-associated HF.
Project description:The NEET family is a relatively new class of three related [2Fe-2S] proteins (CISD1-3), important in human health and disease. While there has been growing interest in the homodimeric gene products of CISD1 (mitoNEET) and CISD2 (NAF-1), the importance of the inner mitochondrial CISD3 protein has only recently been recognized in cancer. The CISD3 gene encodes for a monomeric protein that contains two [2Fe-2S] CDGSH motifs, which we term mitochondrial inner NEET protein (MiNT). It folds with a pseudosymmetrical fold that provides a hydrophobic motif on one side and a relatively hydrophilic surface on the diametrically opposed surface. Interestingly, as shown by molecular dynamics simulation, the protein displays distinct asymmetrical backbone motions, unlike its homodimeric counterparts that face the cytosolic side of the outer mitochondrial membrane/endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, like its counterparts, our biological studies indicate that knockdown of MiNT leads to increased accumulation of mitochondrial labile iron, as well as increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen production. Taken together, our study suggests that the MiNT protein functions in the same pathway as its homodimeric counterparts (mitoNEET and NAF-1), and could be a key player in this pathway within the mitochondria. As such, it represents a target for anticancer or antidiabetic drug development.
Project description:Although it has been recognized that energy metabolism and mitochondrial structure and functional activity in the immature brain differs from that of the adult, few studies have examined mitochondria specifically at the neuronal synapse during postnatal brain development. In this study, we examined the presynaptic mitochondrial proteome in mice at postnatal day 7 and 42, a period that involves the formation and maturation of synapses. Application of two independent quantitative proteomics approaches - SWATH-MS and super-SILAC - revealed a total of 40 proteins as significantly differentially expressed in the presynaptic mitochondria. In addition to elevated levels of proteins known to be involved in ATP metabolic processes, our results identified increased levels of mitoNEET (Cisd1), an iron-sulfur containing protein that regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics. We found that mitoNEET overexpression plays a cell-type specific role in ATP synthesis and in neuronal cells promotes ATP generation. The elevated ATP levels in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were associated with increased mitochondrial membrane potential and a fragmented mitochondrial network, further supporting a role for mitoNEET as a key regulator of mitochondrial function.
Project description:In human cells, the RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL-PGAM5-Drp1 axis drives tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis through mitochondrial fission, but whether this pathway is conserved among mammals is not known. To answer this question, we analyzed the presence and functionality of the reported necroptotic axis in mice. As in humans, knockdown of receptor-interacting kinase-3 (RIPK3) or mixed lineage kinase domain like (MLKL) blocks TNF-induced necroptosis in L929 fibrosarcoma cells. However, repression of either of these proteins did not protect the cells from death, but instead induced a switch from TNF-induced necroptosis to receptor-interacting kinase-1 (RIPK1) kinase-dependent apoptosis. In addition, although mitochondrial fission also occurs during TNF-induced necroptosis in L929 cells, we found that knockdown of phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5) and dynamin 1 like protein (Drp1) did not markedly protect the cells from TNF-induced necroptosis. Depletion of Pink1, a reported interactor of both PGAM5 and Drp1, did not affect TNF-induced necroptosis. These results indicate that in these murine cells mitochondrial fission and Pink1 dependent processes, including Pink-Parkin dependent mitophagy, apparently do not promote necroptosis. Our data demonstrate that the core components of the necrosome (RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL) are crucial to induce TNF-dependent necroptosis both in human and in mouse cells, but the associated mechanisms may differ between the two species or cell types.
Project description:MitoNEET (gene cisd1) is a mitochondrial outer membrane [2Fe-2S] protein and is a potential drug target in several metabolic diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitoNEET functions as a redox-active and pH-sensing protein that regulates mitochondrial metabolism, although the structural basis of the potential drug binding site(s) remains elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the soluble domain of human mitoNEET with a sulfonamide ligand, furosemide. Exploration of the high-resolution crystal structure is used to design mitoNEET binding molecules in a pilot study of molecular probes for use in future development of mitochondrial targeted therapies for a wide variety of metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
Project description:NEET proteins belong to a unique family of iron-sulfur proteins in which the 2Fe-2S cluster is coordinated by a CDGSH domain that is followed by the "NEET" motif. They are involved in the regulation of iron and reactive oxygen metabolism, and have been associated with the progression of diabetes, cancer, aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite their important biological functions, the evolution and diversification of eukaryotic NEET proteins are largely unknown. Here we used the three members of the human NEET protein family (CISD1, mitoNEET; CISD2, NAF-1 or Miner 1; and CISD3, Miner2) as our guides to conduct a phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic NEET proteins and their evolution. Our findings identified the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum's CISD proteins as the closest to the ancient archetype of eukaryotic NEET proteins. We further identified CISD3 homologs in fungi that were previously reported not to contain any NEET proteins, and revealed that plants lack homolog(s) of CISD3. Furthermore, our study suggests that the mammalian NEET proteins, mitoNEET (CISD1) and NAF-1 (CISD2), emerged via gene duplication around the origin of vertebrates. Our findings provide new insights into the classification and expansion of the NEET protein family, as well as offer clues to the diverged functions of the human mitoNEET and NAF-1 proteins.
Project description:Necroptosis is a physiologically relevant mode of cell death with some well-described initiating events, but largely unknown executioners. Here we investigated necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) sensitive death elicited by different necroptosis stimuli in L929 mouse fibrosarcoma cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and bone marrow-derived macrophages. We found that TNF?- or zVAD-induced necroptosis occurs independently of the recently implicated executioners Bmf or PARP-2, but can involve the Bcl-2 family proteins Bid and Bak. Furthermore, this type of necroptosis is associated with mitochondrial cytochrome c release and partly sensitive to cyclosporine A inhibition, suggesting a cross talk with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Necroptosis triggered by cadmium (Cd) exposure caused fully Nec-1-sensitive and caspase-independent death in L929 cells that was associated with autocrine TNF?-mediated feed-forward signalling. In MEF Cd-exposure elicited a mixed mode of cell death that was to some extent Nec-1-sensitive but also displayed features of apoptosis. It was partly dependent on Bmf and Bax/Bak, proteins typically considered to act pro-apoptotic, but ultimately insensitive to caspase inhibition. Overall, our study indicates that inducers of "extrinsic" and "intrinsic" necroptosis can both trigger TNF-receptor signalling. Further, necroptosis may depend on mitochondrial changes engaging proteins considered critical for MOMP during apoptosis that ultimately contribute to caspase-independent necrotic cell death.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) is a critical initiator in mediating necroptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) in L929 cells, so knockdown of RIP3 inhibits TNF?-induced L929 cell necroptosis. However, RIP3 knockdown was shown to switch TNF?-induced necroptosis to apoptosis in L929 cells in other studies. Therefore, whether RIP3 knockdown blocks the TNF?-induced death of L929 cells is controversial. In this study, TNF? activated caspase pathway and induced cell death in RIP3 knockdown L929 cells, and the RIP3-independent cell death had been blocked by Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) or caspase 8 knockdown, demonstrating that RIP3 knockdown switched TNF?-induced necroptosis to caspase-dependent apoptosis. Although both TNF receptor type 1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) and RIP1 have been reported to mediate TNF?-induced apoptosis, the knockdown of TRADD, but not RIP1, suppressed TNF?-induced activation of the caspase pathway and subsequent apoptosis in RIP3 knockdown L929 cells. In addition, TRADD bound and activated caspase 8 during the RIP3-independent apoptosis process, indicating that TRADD initiates RIP3-independent apoptosis by activating the caspase pathway. Collectively, we identified the target and mechanism underlying RIP3-independent apoptosis and elucidated the coordinated roles of RIP3 and TRADD in mediating the programmed cell death of L929 cells following TNF? stimulation.
Project description:Mitochondria are emerging as important players in the transformation process of cells, maintaining the biosynthetic and energetic capacities of cancer cells and serving as one of the primary sites of apoptosis and autophagy regulation. Although several avenues of cancer therapy have focused on mitochondria, progress in developing mitochondria-targeting anticancer drugs nonetheless has been slow, owing to the limited number of known mitochondrial target proteins that link metabolism with autophagy or cell death. Recent studies have demonstrated that two members of the newly discovered family of NEET proteins, NAF-1 (CISD2) and mitoNEET (mNT; CISD1), could play such a role in cancer cells. NAF-1 was shown to be a key player in regulating autophagy, and mNT was proposed to mediate iron and reactive oxygen homeostasis in mitochondria. Here we show that the protein levels of NAF-1 and mNT are elevated in human epithelial breast cancer cells, and that suppressing the level of these proteins using shRNA results in significantly reduced cell proliferation and tumor growth, decreased mitochondrial performance, uncontrolled accumulation of iron and reactive oxygen in mitochondria, and activation of autophagy. Our findings highlight NEET proteins as promising mitochondrial targets for cancer therapy.
Project description:TNF receptor 1 signaling induces NF-?B activation and necroptosis in L929 cells. We previously reported that cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-mediated receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) ubiquitination acts as a cytoprotective mechanism, whereas knockdown of cylindromatosis, a RIP1-deubiquitinating enzyme, protects against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis. We report here that RIP1 is a crucial mediator of canonical NF-?B activation in L929 cells, therefore questioning the relative cytoprotective contribution of RIP1 ubiquitination versus canonical NF-?B activation. We found that attenuated NF-?B activation has no impact on TNF-induced necroptosis. However, we identified A20 and linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex as negative regulators of necroptosis. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to RIP3, we also found that knockdown of RIP1 did not block TNF cytotoxicity. Cell death typing revealed that RIP1-depleted cells switch from necroptotic to apoptotic death, indicating that RIP1 can also suppress apoptosis in L929 cells. Inversely, we observed that Fas-associated protein via a death domain, cellular FLICE inhibitory protein and caspase-8, which are all involved in the initiation of apoptosis, counteract necroptosis induction. Finally, we also report RIP1-independent but RIP3-mediated necroptosis in the context of TNF signaling in particular conditions.