Altered interhemispheric and temporal lobe white matter microstructural organization in severe chronic schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT: Diffusion MRI investigations in schizophrenia provide evidence of abnormal white matter (WM) microstructural organization as indicated by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) primarily in interhemispheric, left frontal and temporal WM. Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), we examined diffusion parameters in a sample of patients with severe chronic schizophrenia. Diffusion MRI data were acquired on 19 patients with chronic severe schizophrenia and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using a 64 gradient direction sequence, (b=1300 s/mm(2)) collected on a Siemens 1.5T MRI scanner. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was determined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorder (SCID). Patients were treatment resistance, having failed to respond to at least two antipsychotic medications, and had prolonged periods of moderate to severe positive or negative symptoms. Analysis of diffusion parameters was carried out using TBSS. Individuals with chronic severe schizophrenia had significantly reduced FA with corresponding increased radial diffusivity in the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum, the right posterior limb of the internal capsule, right external capsule, and the right temporal inferior longitudinal fasciculus. There were no voxels of significantly increased FA in patients compared with controls. A decrease in splenium FA was shown to be related to a longer illness duration. We detected widespread abnormal diffusivity properties in the callosal and temporal lobe WM regions in individuals with severe chronic schizophrenia who have not previously been exposed to clozapine. These deficits can be driven by a number of factors that are indistinguishable using in vivo diffusion-weighted imaging, but may be related to reduced axonal number or packing density, abnormal glial cell arrangement or function, and reduced myelin.
Project description:Sports-related concussion (SRC) is sustained by millions of people per year, yet the spatiotemporal patterns of white matter (WM) injury remain poorly understood. Several SRC studies have implemented the standardised approach Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). The aim of this image-based meta-analysis was to identify consensus patterns of SRC-related WM injury across TBSS studies. We included studies comparing the diffusion MRI measurement fractional anisotropy (FA) in SRC or subconcussive injury vs. controls using TBSS, as FA is the most frequently examined diffusion tensor imaging metric. Authors of eligible studies were contacted to request unthresholded statistical map outputs from TBSS, and image-based meta-analyses were performed using Seed-Based d-Mapping. Eight studies contributed to our meta-analyses, comprising 174 SRC or subconcussive injury participants and 160 controls. Our primary meta-analysis (n = 8), encompassing subjects with acute SRC (n = 2), chronic SRC (n = 4) and subconcussive injuries (n = 2) revealed dominant bilateral increased FA in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and internal capsule. Subconcussive injury was associated with small clusters of increased and decreased FA in the arcuate fasciculus compared to control. In acute SRC, we found diffuse foci of raised FA at WM/grey matter border-zone associated with the bilateral SLF and right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. In contrast, chronic SRC had a pattern of deep WM alteration, asymmetrically located in the right optic radiations and arcuate fasciculus. Our findings represent the most powerful analysis of TBSS data in SRC, supporting the use of this approach to analyse diffusion data. TBSS is sensitive to WM abnormalities resulting from SRC or subconcussive injury over a range of temporal and clinical scenarios. Our data show spatially concordant patterns of WM injury unique to subconcussive, acute and chronic phases, highlighting the future utility of diffusion MRI for concussion diagnosis.
Project description:Compared to healthy controls, spinal cord injury (SCI) patients demonstrate white matter (WM) abnormalities in the brain. However, little progress has been made in comparing cerebral WM differences between SCI-subgroups. The purpose of this study was to investigate WM microstructure differences between paraplegia and quadriplegia using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and atlas-based analysis methods. Twenty-two SCI patients (11 cervical SCI and 11 thoracic SCI) and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this study. TBSS and atlas-based analyses were performed between SCI and control groups and between SCI-subgroups using multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). Compared to controls, SCI patients had decreased FA and increased MD and RD in the corpus callosum (CC; genu and splenium), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), corona radiata (CR), posterior thalamic radiation (PTR), right cingulum (cingulate gyrus; CCG) and right superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF). Cervical SCI patients had lower FA and higher RD in the left PTR than thoracic SCI patients. Time since injury had a negative correlation with FA within the right SFOF (r = -0.452, p = 0.046) and a positive association between the FA of left PTR and the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) sensory score (r = 0.428, p = 0.047). In conclusion, our study suggests that multiple cerebral WM tracts are damaged in SCI patients, and WM disruption in cervical SCI is worse than thoracic injury level, especially in the PTR region.
Project description:Widespread white matter (WM) abnormalities have been found in patients with schizophrenia. Corpus callosum (CC) is the key area that connects the left and right brain hemispheres. However, the results of studies considering different subregions of the CC as regions of interest in patients with schizophrenia have been inconsistent. To obtain a more consistent evaluation of the diffusion characteristics change of the corpus callosum (CC) related to schizophrenia. A meta-analysis involving fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the CC of 729 schizophrenic subjects and 682 healthy controls from 22 studies was conducted. Overall FA values in the CC of the schizophrenic group were less than that of the healthy control group [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.021,P< 0.001]. So were the FA values in the genus region (WMD = -0.019, P< 0.001) and the splenium region (WMD = -0.020, P< 0.001) of the CC respectively. The FA reduction was also significant in subjects with chronic schizophrenia (WMD = -0.032, P< 0.001) and first-episode schizophrenia (WMD = -0.014, P = 0.001). In present study, we demonstrated an overall FA decrease in the CC of schizophrenic patients. In the two subgroup analyses of the genu vs splenium region and chronic vs first-episode schizophrenia, the decrease of all groups was significant. Further studies with more homogenous populations and standardized DTI protocols are needed to confirm and extend these findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:White matter (WM) fibers connect different brain regions and are critical for proper brain function. However, little is known about the cerebral blood flow in WM and its relation to WM microstructure. Recent improvements in measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) by means of arterial spin labeling (ASL) suggest that the signal in white matter may be detected. Its implications for physiology needs to be extensively explored. For this purpose, CBF and its relation to anisotropic diffusion was analyzed across subjects on a voxel-wise basis with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and also across white matter tracts within subjects. METHODS:Diffusion tensor imaging and ASL were acquired in 43 healthy subjects (mean age = 26.3 years). RESULTS:CBF in WM was observed to correlate positively with fractional anisotropy across subjects in parts of the splenium of corpus callosum, the right posterior thalamic radiation (including the optic radiation), the forceps major, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. Furthermore, radial diffusivity correlated negatively with CBF across subjects in similar regions. Moreover, CBF and FA correlated positively across white matter tracts within subjects. CONCLUSION:The currently observed findings on a macroscopic level might reflect the metabolic demand of white matter on a microscopic level involving myelination processes or axonal function. However, the exact underlying physiological mechanism of this relationship needs further evaluation.
Project description:Diffusion tensor imaging is a neuroimaging method that quantifies white matter (WM) integrity and brain connectivity based on the diffusion of water in the brain. White matter has been hypothesized to be of great importance in the development of schizophrenia as part of the dysconnectivity model. Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), is a rare, severe form of the illness that resembles poor outcome adult-onset schizophrenia. We hypothesized that COS would be associated with WM abnormalities relative to a sample of controls.To evaluate WM integrity in this population 39 patients diagnosed with COS, 39 of their healthy (nonpsychotic) siblings, and 50 unrelated healthy volunteers were scanned using a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence during a 1.5 T MRI acquisition. Each DTI scan was processed via atlas-based analysis using a WM parcellation map, and diffeomorphic mapping that shapes a template atlas to each individual subject space. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of WM integrity was averaged over each of the 46 regions of the atlas. Eleven WM regions were examined based on previous reports of WM growth abnormalities in COS.Of those regions, patients with COS, and their healthy siblings had significantly lower mean FA in the left and right cuneus as compared to the healthy volunteers (P < .005). Together, these findings represent the largest DTI study in COS to date, and provide evidence that WM integrity is significantly impaired in COS. Shared deficits in their healthy siblings might result from increased genetic risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To explore patterns of brain structural alteration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with different levels of lung function impairment and the associations of those patterns with cognitive functional deficits using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses based on high-resolution structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS:A total of 115 right-handed participants (26 severe, 29 moderate, and 29 mild COPD patients and a comparison group of 31 individuals without COPD) completed tests of cognitive (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]) and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1?s [FEV1]) and underwent MRI scanning. VBM and TBSS analyses were used to identify changes in grey matter density (GMD) and white matter (WM) integrity in COPD patients. In addition, correlation analyses between these imaging parameter changes and cognitive and pulmonary functional impairments were performed. RESULTS:There was no significant difference in brain structure between the comparison groups and the mild COPD patients. Patients with moderate COPD had atrophy of the left middle frontal gyrus and right opercular part/triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus, and WM changes were present mainly in the superior and posterior corona radiata, corpus callosum and cingulum. Patients with severe COPD exhibited the most extensive changes in GMD and WM. Some grey matter (GM) and WM changes were correlated with MoCA scores and FEV1. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that patients with COPD exhibit progressive structural impairments in both the GM and the WM, along with impaired levels of lung function, highlighting the importance of early clinical interventions.
Project description:Methamphetamine use is a common problem among women of childbearing age, leading to an increasing number of children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure. Whether microstructural brain changes associated with prenatal methamphetamine exposure can be detected with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is unknown.Twelve-direction DTI was performed in 29 methamphetamine-exposed and 37 unexposed children ages 3-4 years on a 3-T MRI scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were determined in the corpus callosum (genu and splenium) and bilaterally in the frontal and parietal white matter (WM), basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus), and thalamus.Children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure had lower ADC in the frontal (right: -2.1%, p = 0.04; left: -2.0%, p = 0.09) and parietal WM (right: -3.9%, p = 0.002; left: -3.3%, p = 0.02) compared to unexposed children. The methamphetamine-exposed children also showed a trend for higher FA in the left frontal WM (+4.9%, p = 0.06) compared to the unexposed children.Since less myelination and higher dendritic or spine density have been reported in animals exposed to methamphetamine, lower diffusion in our children may reflect more compact axons or greater dendritic or spine density associated with prenatal methamphetamine exposure. These findings suggest alterations in white matter maturation in these children exposed to methamphetamine in utero.
Project description:Elevated expression of human hyperphosphorylated tau is associated with neuronal loss and white matter (WM) pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative disorders. Using in vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) at 11.1 Tesla we measured age-related alterations in WM diffusion anisotropy indices in a mouse model of human tauopathy (rTg4510) and nontransgenic (nonTg) control mice at the age of 2.5, 4.5, and 8 months. Similar to previous DT-MRI studies in AD subjects, 8-month-old rTg4510 mice showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in WM structures than nonTg. The low WM FA in rTg4510 mice was observed in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, fimbria, and internal capsule and was associated with a higher radial diffusivity than nonTg. Interestingly, rTg4510 mice showed lower estimates for the mode of anisotropy than controls at 2.5 months suggesting that changes in this diffusivity metric are detectable at an early stage preceding severe tauopathy. Immunogold electron microscopy partly supports our diffusion tensor imaging findings. At the age of 4 months, rTg4510 mice show axonal tau inclusions and unmyelinated processes. At later ages (12 months and 14 months) we observed inclusions in myelin sheath, axons, and unmyelinated processes, and a "disorganized" pattern of myelinated fiber arrangement with enlarged inter-axonal spaces in rTg4510 but not in nonTg mice. Our data support a role for the progression of tau pathology in reduced WM integrity measured by DT-MRI. Further in vivo DT-MRI studies in the rTg4510 mouse should help better discern the detailed mechanisms of reduced FA and anisotropy mode, and the specific role of tau during neurodegeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:White matter (WM) alterations are well documented in schizophrenia. Abnormalities in interhemispheric fibers appear to account for altered WM asymmetry in the illness. However, the regional specificity (e.g., frontal versus occipital) of these alterations and their potential contribution to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia remain unknown. METHODS:Forty one patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls (HC) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 Tesla MRI machine. Tract-based spatial statistic (FSL) was used to assess whole brain differences in WM. Probabilistic tractography was performed in order to separately measure frontal and occipital WM tracts. Participants also completed tests of verbal memory and processing speed. Repeated measures analyses of covariance and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS:A significant group x cerebral hemisphere interaction was found for fractional anisotropy (FA) (F(1,17)?=?7.03; p?=?.017; ?p2 = 0.29) and radial diffusivity (RD) (F(1,17)?=?4.84; p?=?.042; ?p2 = 0.22) in the frontal tract of patients versus HC. Healthy controls showed higher mean FA and lower mean RD in the left frontal tract compared to patients, who showed the opposite pattern. In patients with schizophrenia, mean FA and RD in the right frontal tract correlated with verbal memory (r?=?-0.68, p?=?.046; r?=?0.77, p?=?.015). CONCLUSIONS:Asymmetric WM alterations were found in a frontal tract of patients with schizophrenia. Higher mean FA in the right frontal tract correlated with worse verbal memory performance, suggesting a possible contribution these brain changes to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
Project description:Gray and white matter brain changes have been found in schizophrenia but the anatomical organizing process underlying these changes remains unknown. We aimed to identify gray and white matter volumetric changes in a group of patients with schizophrenia and to quantify the distribution of white matter tract changes using a novel approach which applied three complementary analyses to diffusion imaging data.21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 matched control subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Gray and white matter volume differences were investigated using Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM). White matter diffusion changes were located using Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and quantified within a standard atlas. Tracts where significant regional differences were located were examined using fiber tractography.No significant differences in gray or white matter volumetry were found between the two groups. Using TBSS the schizophrenia group showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) compared to the controls in regions (false discovery rate <0.05) including the genu, body and splenium of the corpus callosum and the left anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC). Using fiber tractography, FA was significantly lower in schizophrenia in the corpus callosum genu (p = 0.003).In schizophrenia, white matter diffusion deficits are prominent in medial frontal regions. These changes are consistent with the results of previous studies which have detected white matter changes in these areas. The pathology of schizophrenia may preferentially affect the prefrontal-thalamic white matter circuits traversing these regions.