Glycaemic control improves perfusion recovery and VEGFR2 protein expression in diabetic mice following experimental PAD.
ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with poor clinical outcomes in humans with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and in pre-clinical models of PAD, but the effects of glycaemic control are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of glycaemic control on experimental PAD in mice with Type 1 DM and explored the effects of hyperglycaemia on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression in ischaemia.Hind limb ischaemia was induced in non-diabetic, untreated Type 1 DM, and treated Type 1 DM mice. We assessed perfusion recovery, capillary density, VEGFR2 levels, and VEGFR2 ubiquitination in ischaemic hind limbs. We found that untreated Type 1 DM mice showed impaired perfusion recovery, lower hind limb capillary density 5 weeks post-ischaemia, and lower VEGFR2 protein in Day 3 post-ischaemic hind limbs when compared with non-DM controls. Treated Type 1 DM mice had perfusion recovery, capillary density, and VEGFR2 protein levels comparable with that of non-diabetic mice at the same time points. Treatment with anti-VEGFR2 antibody negated that the improved perfusion recovery displayed by treated Type 1 DM mice. In ischaemic Type 1 DM hind limbs and endothelial cells exposed to simulated ischaemia, high glucose impaired VEGFR2 expression and was associated with increased VEGFR2 ubiquitination. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome complex restored normal endothelial VEGFR2 expression in simulated ischaemia.Hyperglycaemia in Type 1 DM impairs VEGFR2 protein expression in ischaemic hind limbs, likely due to increased ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome complex. Glycaemic control allows normal levels of VEGFR2 in ischaemia and improved perfusion recovery.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To elucidate the role of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)3 and IRF7 in neovascularization. METHODS:Unilateral hind limb ischaemia was induced in Irf3-/- , Irf7-/- and C57BL/6 mice by ligation of the left common femoral artery. Post-ischaemic blood flow recovery in the paw was measured with laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Soleus, adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were harvested to investigate angiogenesis and arteriogenesis and inflammation. RESULTS:Post-ischaemic blood flow recovery was decreased in Irf3-/- and Irf7-/- mice compared to C57BL/6 mice at all time points up to and including sacrifice, 28 days after surgery (t28). This was supported by a decrease in angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in soleus and adductor muscles of Irf3-/- and Irf7-/- mice at t28. Furthermore, the number of macrophages around arterioles in adductor muscles was decreased in Irf3-/- and Irf7-/- mice at t28. In addition, mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tnfα, il6, ccl2) and growth factor receptor (vegfr2), were decreased in gastrocnemius muscles of Irf3-/- and Irf7-/- mice compared to C57BL/6 mice. CONCLUSION:Deficiency of IRF3 and IRF7 results in impaired post-ischaemic blood flow recovery caused by attenuated angiogenesis and arteriogenesis linked to a lack of inflammatory components in ischaemic tissue. Therefore, IRF3 and IRF7 are essential regulators of neovascularization.
Project description:1. The concept that angiotensin II exerts pro-angiogenic activity is not universally accepted. We evaluated whether inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) would influence reparative angiogenesis in a murine model of limb ischaemia. 2. Perfusion recovery following surgical removal of the left femoral artery was analysed by laser Doppler flowmetry in mice given the ACE inhibitor ramipril (1 mg kg(-1) per day), the AT(1) antagonist losartan (15 mg kg(-1) per day), or vehicle. Muscular capillarity was examined at necroscopy. Ramipril-induced effects were also studied under combined blockade of kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors. Furthermore, the effects of ischaemia on AT(1) gene expression and ACE activity were determined. 3. In untreated mice, muscular AT(1a) gene expression was transiently decreased early after induction of limb ischaemia, whereas AT(1b) mRNA was up-regulated. ACE activity was reduced in ischaemic muscles at 1 and 3 days. Gene expression of AT(1) isoforms as well as ACE activity returned to basal values by day 14. Spontaneous neovascularization allowed for complete perfusion recovery of the ischaemic limb after 21 days. 4. Reparative angiogenesis was negatively influenced by either ramipril (P<0.02) or losartan (P<0.01), leading to delayed and impaired post-ischaemic recovery (50 - 70% less compared with controls). Ramipril-induced effects remained unaltered under kinin receptor blockade. 5. The present study indicates that (a) expression of angiotensin II AT(1) receptors and ACE activity are modulated by ischaemia, (b) ACE-inhibition or AT(1) antagonism impairs reparative angiogenesis, and (c) intact AT(1) receptor signalling is essential for post-ischaemic recovery. These results provide new insights into the role of the RAS in vascular biology and suggest cautionary use of ACE inhibitors and AT(1) antagonists in patients at risk for developing peripheral ischaemia.
Project description:Arterial bypass grafts remain the gold standard for the treatment of end-stage ischaemic disease. Yet patients unable to tolerate the cardiovascular stress of arterial surgery or those with unreconstructable disease would benefit from grafts that are able to induce therapeutic angiogenesis. Here, we introduce an approach whereby implantation of 3D-printed grafts containing endothelial-cell-lined lumens induces spontaneous, geometrically guided generation of collateral circulation in ischaemic settings. In rodent models of hind-limb ischaemia and myocardial infarction, we demonstrate that the vascular patches rescue perfusion of distal tissues, preventing capillary loss, muscle atrophy and loss of function. Inhibiting anastomoses between the construct and the host's local capillary beds, or implanting constructs with unpatterned endothelial cells, abrogates reperfusion. Our 3D-printed grafts constitute an efficient and scalable approach to engineer vascular patches able to guide rapid therapeutic angiogenesis and perfusion for the treatment of ischaemic diseases.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>This study examined the functional role of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET)-mediated cardioprotection in mice with targeted disruption of the sEH or Ephx2 gene (sEH null).<h4>Methods and results</h4>Isolated mouse hearts were perfused in the Langendorff mode and subjected to global no-flow ischaemia followed by reperfusion. Hearts were analysed for recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), mRNA levels, and protein expression. Naïve hearts from sEH null mice had similar expression of preproBNP (Nppb) mRNA compared with wild-type (WT) hearts. However, significant increases in Nppb mRNA and BNP protein expression occurred during post-ischaemic reperfusion and correlated with improved post-ischaemic recovery of LVDP. Perfusion with the putative EET receptor antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid prior to ischaemia reduced the preproBNP mRNA in sEH null hearts. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that perfusion with the natriuretic peptide receptor type-A (NPR-A) antagonist, A71915, limited the improved recovery in recombinant full-length mouse BNP (rBNP)- and 11,12-EET-perfused hearts as well as in sEH null mice. Increased expression of phosphorylated protein kinase C epsilon and Akt were found in WT hearts perfused with either 11,12-EET or rBNP, while mitochondrial glycogen synthase kinase-3beta was significantly lower in the same samples. Furthermore, treatment with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin abolished improved LVDP recovery in 11,12-EET-treated hearts but not did significantly inhibit recovery of rBNP-treated hearts.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Taken together, these data indicate that EET-mediated cardioprotection involves BNP and PI3K signalling events.
Project description:Anti-platelet agents, such as dipyridamole, have several clinical benefits for peripheral artery disease with the speculation of angiogenic potential that could preserve ischaemic tissue viability, yet the effect of dipyridamole on ischaemic arteriogenesis or angiogenesis is unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that dipyridamole therapy augments arteriolar vessel development and function during chronic ischaemia.Mice were treated with 200 mg/kg dipyridamole twice daily to achieve therapeutic plasma levels (0.8-1.2 microg/mL). Chronic hindlimb ischaemia was induced by permanent femoral artery ligation followed by measurement of tissue perfusion using laser Doppler blood flow along with quantification of vascular density, cell proliferation, and activation of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. Dipyridamole treatment quickly restored ischaemic hindlimb blood flow, increased vascular density and cell proliferation, and enhanced collateral artery perfusion compared with control treatments. The beneficial effects of dipyridamole on blood flow and vascular density were dependent on NO production as dipyridamole did not augment ischaemic tissue reperfusion, vascular density, or endothelial cell proliferation in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)-deficient mice. Blood and tissue nitrite levels were significantly higher in dipyridamole-treated mice compared with controls and eNOS(-/-) mice, verifying increased NO production that was regulated in a PKA-dependent manner.Dipyridamole augments nitrite/NO production, leading to enhanced arteriogenesis activity and blood perfusion in ischaemic limbs. Together, these data suggest that dipyridamole can augment ischaemic vessel function and restore blood flow, which may be beneficial in peripheral artery disease.
Project description:We have recently identified endothelial cell-secreted developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) as an endogenous inhibitor of ?2-integrin-dependent leukocyte infiltration. Del-1 was previously also implicated in angiogenesis. Here, we addressed the role of endogenously produced Del-1 in ischaemia-related angiogenesis. Intriguingly, Del-1-deficient mice displayed increased neovascularisation in two independent ischaemic models (retinopathy of prematurity and hind-limb ischaemia), as compared to Del-1-proficient mice. On the contrary, angiogenic sprouting in vitro or ex vivo (aortic ring assay) and physiological developmental retina angiogenesis were not affected by Del-1 deficiency. Mechanistically, the enhanced ischaemic neovascularisation in Del-1-deficiency was linked to higher infiltration of the ischaemic tissue by CD45+ haematopoietic and immune cells. Moreover, Del-1-deficiency promoted ?2-integrin-dependent adhesion of haematopoietic cells to endothelial cells in vitro, and the homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells and of immune cell populations to ischaemic muscles in vivo. Consistently, the increased hind limb ischaemia-related angiogenesis in Del-1 deficiency was completely reversed in mice lacking both Del-1 and the ?2-integrin LFA-1. Additionally, enhanced retinopathy-associated neovascularisation in Del-1-deficient mice was reversed by LFA-1 blockade. Our data reveal a hitherto unrecognised function of endogenous Del-1 as a local inhibitor of ischaemia-induced angiogenesis by restraining LFA-1-dependent homing of pro-angiogenic haematopoietic cells to ischaemic tissues. Our findings are relevant for the optimisation of therapeutic approaches in the context of ischaemic diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To develop a new method for the cardiac MR (CMR) quantification of peri-infarct ischaemia using fused perfusion and delayed-enhanced images and to evaluate this method using quantitative single photon emission CT (SPECT) imaging as a reference. METHODS: 40 patients presenting with peri-infarct ischaemia on a routine stress (99m)Tc-SPECT imaging were recruited. Within 8 days of the SPECT study, myocardial perfusion was evaluated using stress adenosine CMR. Using fused perfusion and delayed-enhanced images, peri-infarct ischaemia was quantified as the percentage of myocardium with stress-induced perfusion defect that was adjacent to and larger than a scar. This parameter was compared with both the percent myocardium ischaemia (SD%) and the ischaemic total perfusion deficit (TPD). The diagnostic performance of CMR in detection of significant coronary artery stenosis (of ≥70%) was also determined. RESULTS: On SPECT imaging, in addition to peri-infarct ischaemia, reversible perfusion abnormalities were detected in a remote zone in seven patients. In the 33 patients presenting with only peri-infarct ischaemia, the agreement between CMR peri-infarct ischaemia and both SD% and ischaemic TPD was excellent [intraclass coefficient of correlation (ICC) = 0.969 and ICC = 0.877, respectively]. CMR-defined peri-infarct ischaemia for the detection of a significant coronary artery stenosis showed an areas under receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.856 (95% confidence interval, 0.680-0.939). The best cut-off value was 8.1% and allowed a 72% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 60% negative predictive value and 97% positive predictive value. CONCLUSION: This proof-of-concept study shows that CMR imaging has the potential as a test for quantification of peri-infarct ischaemia. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study demonstrates the proof of concept of a commonly known intuitive idea, that is, evaluating the peri-infarct ischaemic burden by subtracting delayed enhancement from first-pass perfusion imaging on CMR.
Project description:Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and conveys a significant health burden globally. Critical limb ischaemia encompasses the most severe consequence of PAD. Our previous studies indicate that microRNA let-7g prevents atherosclerosis and improves endothelial functions. This study aimed to investigate whether and how let-7g therapy may improve blood flow to ischaemic limbs. The present study shows that let-7g has multiple pro-angiogenic effects on mouse ischaemic limb model and could be a potential therapeutic agent for PAD. Mice receiving intramuscular injection of let-7g had more neovascularization, better local perfusion and increased recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells after hindlimb ischaemia. The therapeutic effects of let-7g's on angiogenesis are mediated by multiple regulatory machinery. First, let-7g increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) through targeting their upstream regulators HIF-3? and TP53. In addition, let-7g affected the splicing factor SC35 which subsequently enhanced the alternative splicing of VEGF-A from the anti-angiogenic isoform VEGF-A165b towards the pro-angiogenic isoform VEGF-A164a . The pleiotropic effects of let-7g on angiogenesis imply that let-7g may possess a therapeutic potential in ischaemic diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Angiogenesis improves reperfusion to the ischaemic tissue after vascular obstruction. The underlying molecular mechanisms of post-ischaemic angiogenesis are not clear. FAM3A belongs to the family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) genes, but its biological function in endothelial cells in regards to vascular diseases is not well understood. METHODS:Gain- and loss-of-function methods by adenovirus or associated-adenovirus (AAV) in different models were applied to investigate the effects of FAM3A on endothelial angiogenesis. Endothelial angiogenesis was analysed by tube formation, migration and proliferation in vitro, and the blood flow and capillary density in a hind limb ischaemic model in vivo. FINDINGS:Endothelial FAM3A expression is downregulated under hypoxic conditions. Overexpression of FAM3A promotes, but depletion of FAM3A suppresses, endothelial tube formation, proliferation and migration. Utilizing the mouse hind limb ischaemia model, we also observe that FAM3A overexpression can improve blood perfusion and increase capillary density, whereas FAM3A knockdown has the opposite effects. Mechanistically, mitochondrial FAM3A increases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and secretion; ATP binds to P2 receptors and then upregulates cytosolic free Ca2+ levels. Increased intracellular Ca2+ levels enhance phosphorylation of the transcriptional factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and its recruitment to the VEGFA promoter, thus activating VEGFA transcription and the final endothelial angiogenesis. INTERPRETATION:In summary, our data demonstrate that FAM3A positively regulates angiogenesis through activation of VEGFA transcription, suggesting that FAM3A may constitute a novel molecular therapeutic target for ischaemic vascular disease.
Project description:Peripheral artery disease is a severe complication of diabetes. We have reported that the deletion of angiotensin type 2 receptor in diabetic mice promoted vascular angiogenesis in the ischaemic muscle 4 weeks following ischaemia. However, the angiotensin type 2 receptor deletion beneficial effects occurred 2 weeks post surgery suggesting that angiotensin type 2 receptor may regulate other pro-angiogenic signalling pathways during the early phases of ischaemia. Nondiabetic and diabetic angiotensin type 2 receptor-deficient mice (Agtr2-/Y) underwent femoral artery ligation after 2 months of diabetes. Blood perfusion was measured every week up to 2 weeks post surgery. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity were evaluated. Blood flow reperfusion in the ischaemic muscle of diabetic Agtr2+/Y mice was recovered at 35% as compared to a 68% recovery in diabetic Agtr2-/Y mice. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors was diminished in diabetic Agtr2+/Y mice, an observation not seen in diabetic Agtr2-/Y mice. Interestingly, Agtr2-/Y mice were protected from diabetes-induced glutathionylation, nitration and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, which correlated with reduced endothelial cell death and enhanced vascular density in diabetic ischaemic muscle. In conclusion, our results suggest that the deletion of angiotensin type 2 receptor promotes blood flow reperfusion in diabetes by favouring endothelial cell survival and function.