AvrBsT acetylates Arabidopsis ACIP1, a protein that associates with microtubules and is required for immunity.
ABSTRACT: Bacterial pathogens of plant and animals share a homologous group of virulence factors, referred to as the YopJ effector family, which are translocated by the type III secretion (T3S) system into host cells during infection. Recent work indicates that some of these effectors encode acetyltransferases that suppress host immunity. The YopJ-like protein AvrBsT is known to activate effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in Arabidopsis thaliana Pi-0 plants; however, the nature of its enzymatic activity and host target(s) has remained elusive. Here we report that AvrBsT possesses acetyltransferase activity and acetylates ACIP1 (for ACETYLATED INTERACTING PROTEIN1), an unknown protein from Arabidopsis. Genetic studies revealed that Arabidopsis ACIP family members are required for both pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and AvrBsT-triggered ETI during Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) infection. Microscopy studies revealed that ACIP1 is associated with punctae on the cell cortex and some of these punctae co-localize with microtubules. These structures were dramatically altered during infection. Pst DC3000 or Pst DC3000 AvrRpt2 infection triggered the formation of numerous, small ACIP1 punctae and rods. By contrast, Pst DC3000 AvrBsT infection primarily triggered the formation of large GFP-ACIP1 aggregates, in an acetyltransferase-dependent manner. Our data reveal that members of the ACIP family are new components of the defense machinery required for anti-bacterial immunity. They also suggest that AvrBsT-dependent acetylation in planta alters ACIP1's defense function, which is linked to the activation of ETI.
Project description:Innate immunity in plants can be triggered by microbe- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is often suppressed by pathogen effectors delivered into the host cell. Plants can overcome pathogen suppression of PTI and reestablish pathogen resistance through effector-triggered immunity (ETI). An unanswered question is how plants might overcome pathogen-suppression of PTI during ETI. Findings described in this paper suggest a possible mechanism. During Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection of Arabidopsis, a host ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor, AtMIN7, is destabilized by the pathogen effector HopM1 through the host 26S proteasome. In this study, we discovered that AtMIN7 is required for not only PTI, consistent with the notion that Pst DC3000 degrades AtMIN7 to suppress PTI, but also ETI. The AtMIN7 level in healthy plants is low, but increases posttranscriptionally in response to activation of PTI. Whereas DC3000 infection led to degradation of AtMIN7, activation of ETI by three different effectors, AvrRpt2, AvrPphB, and HopA1, in Col-0 plants blocks the ability of Pst DC3000 to destabilize AtMIN7. Further analyses of bacterial translocation of HopM1 and AtMIN7 stability in HopM1 transgenic plants show that ETI prevents HopM1-mediated degradation of AtMIN7 inside the plant cell. Both AtMIN7 and HopM1 are localized to the trans-Golgi network/early endosome, a subcellular compartment that is not previously known to be associated with bacterial pathogenesis in plants. Thus, blocking pathogen degradation of trans-Golgi network/early endosome-associated AtMIN7 is a critical part of the ETI mechanism to counter bacterial suppression of PTI.
Project description:Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Pi-0 is resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the T3S effector protein AvrBsT. Resistance is due to a loss of function mutation (sober1-1) in a conserved alpha/beta hydrolase, SOBER1 (Suppressor of AvrBsT Elicited Resistance1). Members of this superfamily possess phospholipase and carboxylesterase activity with diverse substrate specificity. The nature of SOBER1 enzymatic activity and substrate specificity was not known. SOBER1-dependent suppression of the hypersensitive response (HR) in Pi-0 suggested that it might hydrolyze a plant lipid or precursor required for HR induction. Here, we show that Pi-0 leaves infected with Pst DC3000 expressing AvrBsT accumulated higher levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) compared to leaves infected with Pst DC3000. Phospholipase D (PLD) activity was required for high PA levels and AvrBsT-dependent HR in Pi-0. Overexpression of SOBER1 in Pi-0 reduced PA levels and inhibited HR. These data implicated PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) as potential SOBER1 substrates. Recombinant His(6)-SOBER1 hydrolyzed PC but not PA or LysoPC in vitro indicating that the enzyme has phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity. Chemical inhibition of PLA(2) activity in leaves expressing SOBER1 resulted in HR in response to Pst DC3000 AvrBsT. These data are consistent with the model that SOBER1 PLA(2) activity suppresses PLD-dependent production of PA in response to AvrBsT elicitation. This work highlights an important role for SOBER1 in the regulation of PA levels generated in plants in response to biotic stress.
Project description:Ferredoxins, the major distributors for electrons to various acceptor systems in plastids, contribute to redox regulation and antioxidant defence in plants. However, their function in plant immunity is not fully understood. In this study, we show that the expression of the major leaf ferredoxin gene Fd2 is suppressed by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection, and that knockout of Fd2 (Fd2-KO) in Arabidopsis increases the plant's susceptibility to both Pst DC3000 and Golovinomyces cichoracearum. On Pst DC3000 infection, the Fd2-KO mutant accumulates increased levels of jasmonic acid and displays compromised salicylic acid-related immune responses. Fd2-KO also shows defects in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species induced by pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity. However, Fd2-KO shows enhanced R-protein-mediated resistance to Pst DC3000/AvrRpt2 infection, suggesting that Fd2 plays a negative role in effector-triggered immunity. Furthermore, Fd2 interacts with FIBRILLIN4 (FIB4), a harpin-binding protein localized in chloroplasts. Interestingly, Fd2, but not FIB4, localizes to stromules that extend from chloroplasts. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Fd2 plays an important role in plant immunity.
Project description:Suppression of host innate immunity appears to be required for the establishment of symbiosis between rhizobia and host plants. In this study, we established a system that included a host plant, a bacterial pathogen and a symbiotic rhizobium to study the role of innate immunity during symbiotic interactions. A pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000), was shown to cause chlorosis in Medicago truncatula A17. Sinorhizobium meliloti strain Sm2011 (Sm2011) and Pst DC3000 strain alone induced similar defense responses in M. truncatula. However, when co-inoculated, Sm2011 specifically suppressed the defense responses induced by Pst DC3000, such as MAPK activation and ROS production. Inoculation with Sm2011 suppressed the transcription of defense-related genes triggered by Pst DC3000 infection, including the receptor of bacterial flagellin (FLS2), pathogenesis-related protein 10 (PR10), and the transcription factor WRKY33. Interestingly, inoculation with Pst DC3000 specifically inhibited the expression of the symbiosis marker genes nodule inception and nodulation pectate lyase and reduced the numbers of infection threads and nodules on M. truncatula A17 roots, indicating that Pst DC3000 inhibits the establishment of symbiosis in M. truncatula. In addition, defense-related genes, such as MAPK3/6, RbohC, and WRKY33, exhibited a transient increase in their expression in the early stage of symbiosis with Sm2011, but the expression dropped down to normal levels at later symbiotic stages. Our results suggest that plant innate immunity plays an antagonistic role in symbiosis by directly reducing the numbers of infection threads and nodules.
Project description:Plants have evolved a two-layered immune system consisting of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). PTI and ETI are functionally linked, but also have distinct characteristics. Unraveling how these immune systems coordinate plant responses against pathogens is crucial for understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying plant defense. Here we report integrative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of the tomato-<i>Pseudomonas syringae (Pst)</i> pathosystem with different <i>Pst</i> mutants that allow the dissection of PTI and ETI. A total of 225 proteins and 79 phosphopeptides differentially accumulated in tomato leaves during <i>Pst</i> infection. The abundances of many proteins and phosphoproteins changed during PTI or ETI, and some responses were triggered by both PTI and ETI. For most proteins, the ETI response was more robust than the PTI response. The patterns of protein abundance and phosphorylation changes revealed key regulators involved in Ca<sup>2+</sup> signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, reversible protein phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis, transcription and protein turnover, transport and trafficking, cell wall remodeling, hormone biosynthesis and signaling, suggesting their common or specific roles in PTI and/or ETI. A NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC family) domain protein and lipid particle serine esterase, two PTI-specific genes identified from previous transcriptomic work, were not detected as differentially regulated at the protein level and were not induced by PTI. Based on integrative transcriptomics and proteomics data, as well as qRT-PCR analysis, several potential PTI and ETI-specific markers are proposed. These results provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying PTI and ETI in the tomato-<i>Pst</i> pathosystem, and will promote future validation and application of the disease biomarkers in plant defense.
Project description:Non-host resistance (NHR) is a broad-spectrum plant defense. Upon colonizing on the surface on the root or leaves of non-host species, pathogens initial encounter preform and induce defense response in plant, such as induced hypersensitive response, PAMPs triggered immunity (PTI), and effector triggered immunity (ETI). The ability of plants to develop an induced systemic response (ISR) in reaction to the colonization by non-pathogenic rhizobacterium depends on interactions between host plants and the colonizing rhizobacterium, and the ISR also can be defined as a NHR. However, how the colonization signal is and how systemic resistance to pathogens is developed is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) of Bacillus cereus AR156 could act as novel microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and function in the early perception status of the ISR of B. cereus AR156. The results revealed that B. cereus AR156 EPS could induce systemic resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis. Cellular defense response markers such as hydrogen peroxide accumulation, callose deposition, and defense-associated enzyme were induced upon challenge inoculation in the leaves primed by EPS. Moreover, the defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR5 and mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK) cascade marker gene MPK6 were concurrently expressed in the leaves of EPS-treated plants and induced higher resistance to Pst DC3000 in Col-0 than that in the jar1 or etr1 mutants. The protection was absent in the NahG transgenic plants and npr1 mutant, suggesting an activation of the salicylic acid (SA)- and the MAPK-dependent signaling pathways with NPR1-dependent by B. cereus AR156 EPS. In conclusion, B. cereus AR156 EPS play an important role in MAMP perception during the process of rhizobacteria-triggered NHR. This study is the first to illustrate how AR156 induces systemic resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis. It also provides the first explanation of how plants perceive colonization of non-pathogenic bacteria and how rhizobacteria trigger ISR to plant pathogens.
Project description:Tomato stress-associated proteins (SAPs) belong to A20/AN1 zinc finger protein family, some of which have been shown to play important roles in plant stress responses. However, little is known about the functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of SAPs in plant immune responses. In the present study, we reported the function of tomato SlSAP3 in immunity to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Silencing of SlSAP3 attenuated while overexpression of SlSAP3 in transgenic tomato increased immunity to Pst DC3000, accompanied with reduced and increased Pst DC3000-induced expression of SA signalling and defence genes, respectively. Flg22-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and expression of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) marker genes SlPTI5 and SlLRR22 were strengthened in SlSAP3-OE plants but were weakened in SlSAP3-silenced plants. SlSAP3 interacted with two SlBOBs and the A20 domain in SlSAP3 is critical for the SlSAP3-SlBOB1 interaction. Silencing of SlBOB1 and co-silencing of all three SlBOB genes conferred increased resistance to Pst DC3000, accompanied with increased Pst DC3000-induced expression of SA signalling and defence genes. These data demonstrate that SlSAP3 acts as a positive regulator of immunity against Pst DC3000 in tomato through the SA signalling and that SlSAP3 may exert its function in immunity by interacting with other proteins such as SlBOBs, which act as negative regulators of immunity against Pst DC3000 in tomato.
Project description:Pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity are two primary forms of innate immunity in land plants. The molecular components and connecting nodes of pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity are not fully understood. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK3 is a key regulator of both pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity. In vitro and in vivo phosphorylation assays, coupled with genetic and cell biology-based analyses, show that actin-depolymerization factor 4 (ADF4) is a physiological substrate of CPK3, and that phosphorylation of ADF4 by CPK3 governs actin cytoskeletal organization associated with pattern-triggered immunity. CPK3 regulates stomatal closure induced by flg22 and is required for resistance to Pst DC3000. Our data further demonstrates that CPK3 is required for resistance to Pst DC3000 carrying the effector AvrPphB. These results suggest that CPK3 is a missing link between cytoskeleton organization, pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity.
Project description:In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The Arabidopsis TIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal "WRKY" transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4(Ws) /RRS1(Ws) allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4(Col) /RRS1(Col) effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4(Col) (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers temperature-conditioned EDS1-dependent auto-immunity. Here we show that a high (28°C, non-permissive) to moderate (19°C, permissive) temperature shift of 35S:RPS4-HS plants can be used to follow defense-related transcriptional dynamics without a pathogen effector trigger. By comparing responses of 35S:RPS4-HS with 35S:RPS4-HS rrs1-11 and 35S:RPS4-HS eds1-2 mutants, we establish that RPS4(Col) auto-immunity depends entirely on EDS1 and partially on RRS1(Col) . Examination of gene expression microarray data over 24 h after temperature shift reveals a mainly quantitative RRS1(Col) contribution to up- or down-regulation of a small subset of RPS4(Col) -reprogramed, EDS1-dependent genes. We find significant over-representation of WRKY transcription factor binding W-box cis-elements within the promoters of these genes. Our data show that RRS1(Col) contributes to temperature-conditioned RPS4(Col) auto-immunity and are consistent with activated RPS4(Col) engaging RRS1(Col) for resistance signaling.
Project description:A whole-genome sequencing technique developed to identify fast neutron-induced deletion mutations revealed that iap1-1 is a new allele of EDS5 (eds5-5). RPS2-AvrRpt2-initiated effector-triggered immunity (ETI) was compromised in iap1-1/eds5-5 with respect to in planta bacterial levels and the hypersensitive response, while intra- and intercellular free salicylic acid (SA) accumulation was greatly reduced, suggesting that SA contributes as both an intracellular signaling molecule and an antimicrobial agent in the intercellular space during ETI. During the compatible interaction between wild-type Col-0 and virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), little intercellular free SA accumulated, which led to the hypothesis that Pst suppresses intercellular SA accumulation. When Col-0 was inoculated with a coronatine-deficient strain of Pst, high levels of intercellular SA accumulation were observed, suggesting that Pst suppresses intercellular SA accumulation using its phytotoxin coronatine. This work suggests that accumulation of SA in the intercellular space is an important component of basal/PAMP-triggered immunity as well as ETI to pathogens that colonize the intercellular space.