Engineered Streptomyces avermitilis host for heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene cluster for secondary metabolites.
ABSTRACT: An industrial microorganism, Streptomyces avermitilis, which is a producer of anthelmintic macrocyclic lactones, avermectins, has been constructed as a versatile model host for heterologous expression of genes encoding secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Twenty of the entire biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites were successively cloned and introduced into a versatile model host S. avermitilis SUKA17 or 22. Almost all S. avermitilis transformants carrying the entire gene cluster produced metabolites as a result of the expression of biosynthetic gene clusters introduced. A few transformants were unable to produce metabolites, but their production was restored by the expression of biosynthetic genes using an alternative promoter or the expression of a regulatory gene in the gene cluster that controls the expression of biosynthetic genes in the cluster using an alternative promoter. Production of metabolites in some transformants of the versatile host was higher than that of the original producers, and cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters in the original producer were also expressed in a versatile host.
Project description:To construct a versatile model host for heterologous expression of genes encoding secondary metabolite biosynthesis, the genome of the industrial microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis was systematically deleted to remove nonessential genes. A region of more than 1.4 Mb was deleted stepwise from the 9.02-Mb S. avermitilis linear chromosome to generate a series of defined deletion mutants, corresponding to 83.12-81.46% of the wild-type chromosome, that did not produce any of the major endogenous secondary metabolites found in the parent strain. The suitability of the mutants as hosts for efficient production of foreign metabolites was shown by heterologous expression of three different exogenous biosynthetic gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of streptomycin (from S. griseus Institute for Fermentation, Osaka [IFO] 13350), cephamycin C (from S. clavuligerus American type culture collection (ATCC) 27064), and pladienolide (from S. platensis Mer-11107). Both streptomycin and cephamycin C were efficiently produced by individual transformants at levels higher than those of the native-producing species. Although pladienolide was not produced by a deletion mutant transformed with the corresponding intact biosynthetic gene cluster, production of the macrolide was enabled by introduction of an extra copy of the regulatory gene pldR expressed under control of an alternative promoter. Another mutant optimized for terpenoid production efficiently produced the plant terpenoid intermediate, amorpha-4,11-diene, by introduction of a synthetic gene optimized for Streptomyces codon usage. These findings highlight the strength and flexibility of engineered S. avermitilis as a model host for heterologous gene expression, resulting in the production of exogenous natural and unnatural metabolites.
Project description:Mycosporines and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), including shinorine (mycosporine-glycine-serine) and porphyra-334 (mycosporine-glycine-threonine), are UV-absorbing compounds produced by cyanobacteria, fungi, and marine micro- and macroalgae. These MAAs have the ability to protect these organisms from damage by environmental UV radiation. Although no reports have described the production of MAAs and the corresponding genes involved in MAA biosynthesis from Gram-positive bacteria to date, genome mining of the Gram-positive bacterial database revealed that two microorganisms belonging to the order Actinomycetales, Actinosynnema mirum DSM 43827 and Pseudonocardia sp. strain P1, possess a gene cluster homologous to the biosynthetic gene clusters identified from cyanobacteria. When the two strains were grown in liquid culture, Pseudonocardia sp. accumulated a very small amount of MAA-like compound in a medium-dependent manner, whereas A. mirum did not produce MAAs under any culture conditions, indicating that the biosynthetic gene cluster of A. mirum was in a cryptic state in this microorganism. In order to characterize these biosynthetic gene clusters, each biosynthetic gene cluster was heterologously expressed in an engineered host, Streptomyces avermitilis SUKA22. Since the resultant transformants carrying the entire biosynthetic gene cluster controlled by an alternative promoter produced mainly shinorine, this is the first confirmation of a biosynthetic gene cluster for MAA from Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, S. avermitilis SUKA22 transformants carrying the biosynthetic gene cluster for MAA of A. mirum accumulated not only shinorine and porphyra-334 but also a novel MAA. Structure elucidation revealed that the novel MAA is mycosporine-glycine-alanine, which substitutes l-alanine for the l-serine of shinorine.
Project description:Streptomyces avermitilis, an industrial organism responsible for the production of the anthelminthic avermectins, harbors a 13.4 kb gene cluster containing 13 unidirectionally transcribed open reading frames corresponding to the apparent biosynthetic operon for the sesquiterpene antibiotic pentalenolactone. The advanced intermediate pentalenolactone F, along with the shunt metabolite pentalenic acid, could be isolated from cultures of S. avermitilis, thereby establishing that the pentalenolactone biosynthetic pathway is functional in S. avermitilis. Deletion of the entire 13.4 kb cluster from S. avermitilis abolished formation of pentalenolactone metabolites, while transfer of the intact cluster to the pentalenolactone nonproducer Streptomyces lividans 1326 resulted in production of pentalenic acid. Direct evidence for the biochemical function of the individual biosynthetic genes came from expression of the ptlA gene (SAV2998) in Escherichia coli. Assay of the resultant protein established that PtlA is a pentalenene synthase, catalyzing the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to pentalenene, the parent hydrocarbon of the pentalenolactone family of metabolites. The most upstream gene in the cluster, gap1 (SAV2990), was shown to correspond to the pentalenolactone resistance gene, based on expression in E. coli and demonstration that the resulting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the normal target of pentalenolactone, was insensitive to the antibiotic. Furthermore, a second GAPDH isozyme (gap2, SAV6296) has been expressed in E. coli and shown to be inactivated by pentalenolactone.
Project description:Streptomyces avermitilis is a soil bacterium that carries out not only a complex morphological differentiation but also the production of secondary metabolites, one of which, avermectin, is commercially important in human and veterinary medicine. The major interest in this genus Streptomyces is the diversity of its production of secondary metabolites as an industrial microorganism. A major factor in its prominence as a producer of the variety of secondary metabolites is its possession of several metabolic pathways for biosynthesis. Here we report sequence analysis of S. avermitilis, covering 99% of its genome. At least 8.7 million base pairs exist in the linear chromosome; this is the largest bacterial genome sequence, and it provides insights into the intrinsic diversity of the production of the secondary metabolites of Streptomyces. Twenty-five kinds of secondary metabolite gene clusters were found in the genome of S. avermitilis. Four of them are concerned with the biosyntheses of melanin pigments, in which two clusters encode tyrosinase and its cofactor, another two encode an ochronotic pigment derived from homogentiginic acid, and another polyketide-derived melanin. The gene clusters for carotenoid and siderophore biosyntheses are composed of seven and five genes, respectively. There are eight kinds of gene clusters for type-I polyketide compound biosyntheses, and two clusters are involved in the biosyntheses of type-II polyketide-derived compounds. Furthermore, a polyketide synthase that resembles phloroglucinol synthase was detected. Eight clusters are involved in the biosyntheses of peptide compounds that are synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. These secondary metabolite clusters are widely located in the genome but half of them are near both ends of the genome. The total length of these clusters occupies about 6.4% of the genome.
Project description:We report the draft genome sequence of Actinokineospora bangkokensis 44EHWT, the producer of the antifungal polyene compounds, thailandins A and B. The sequence contains 7.45 Mb, 74.1% GC content and 35 putative gene clusters for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There are three gene clusters encoding large polyketide synthases of type I. Annotation of the ORF functions and targeted gene disruption enabled us to identify the cluster for thailandin biosynthesis. We propose a plausible biosynthetic pathway for thailandin, where the unusual butylmalonyl-CoA extender unit is incorporated and results in an untypical side chain.
Project description:Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are a superfamily of essential enzymes required for the synthetic processes of many compounds including fatty acid, polyketide, and nonribosomal peptide metabolites. These enzymes activate carrier proteins in specific biosynthetic pathways via the transfer of a phosphopantetheinyl moiety to a serine residue in the conserved motif of carrier proteins. Since many Actinomycetales microorganisms produce a number of polyketide and nonribosomal peptide metabolites, the distribution of PPTase genes was investigated in these microorganisms. PPTases were found in bacterial protein databases using a hidden Markov model search with the PF01648 (4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase superfamily) model. Actinomycetales microorganisms harbor several genes encoding AcpS-type and Sfp-type PPTases in individual genomes, many of which were associated with the biosynthetic gene cluster for polyketide or nonribosomal peptide metabolites. The properties of these PPTases were evaluated in the heterologous expression system using the biosynthetic gene clusters and genes encoding PPTases found in the present study. Sfp-type PPTases were classified into two subgroups, and although the substrate specificities of the enzymes in one subgroup were wide, the catalytic activities of enzymes in the other subgroup were low. SAV_1784 of Streptomyces avermitilis possessed the most characteristic broad-range activity against several type I polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases.
Project description:We recently described 13-deoxytetrodecamycin, a new member of the tetrodecamycin family of antibiotics. A defining feature of these molecules is the presence of a five-membered lactone called a tetronate ring. By sequencing the genome of a producer strain, Streptomyces sp. strain WAC04657, and searching for a gene previously implicated in tetronate ring formation, we identified the biosynthetic genes responsible for producing 13-deoxytetrodecamycin (the ted genes). Using the ted cluster in WAC04657 as a reference, we found related clusters in three other organisms: Streptomyces atroolivaceus ATCC 19725, Streptomyces globisporus NRRL B-2293, and Streptomyces sp. strain LaPpAH-202. Comparing the four clusters allowed us to identify the cluster boundaries. Genetic manipulation of the cluster confirmed the involvement of the ted genes in 13-deoxytetrodecamycin biosynthesis and revealed several additional molecules produced through the ted biosynthetic pathway, including tetrodecamycin, dihydrotetrodecamycin, and another, W5.9, a novel molecule. Comparison of the bioactivities of these four molecules suggests that they may act through the covalent modification of their target(s).The tetrodecamycins are a distinct subgroup of the tetronate family of secondary metabolites. Little is known about their biosynthesis or mechanisms of action, making them an attractive subject for investigation. In this paper we present the biosynthetic gene cluster for 13-deoxytetrodecamycin in Streptomyces sp. strain WAC04657. We identify related clusters in several other organisms and show that they produce related molecules.
Project description:The genome-sequenced, Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis harbours an orthologue (SAV_3032) of the previously identified epi-isozizaene synthase (SCO5222) in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The sav3032 is translationally coupled with the downstream sav3031 gene encoding the cytochrome P450 CYP170A2 analogous to SCO5223 (CYP170A1) of S. coelicolor A3(2), which exhibits a similar translation coupling. Streptomyces avermitilis did not produce epi-isozizaene or any of its oxidized derivatives, albaflavenols and albaflavenone, under in any culture conditions examined. Nonetheless, recombinant SAV_3032 protein expressed in Escherichia coli catalysed the Mg²+-dependent cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to epi-isozizaene. To effect the production of epi-isozizaene in S. avermitilis, the sav3032 gene was cloned and placed under control of a copy of the native S. avermitilis promoter rpsJp (sav4925). The derived expression construct was introduced by transformation into a large-deletion mutant of S. avermitilis SUKA16 and the resulting transformants accumulated epi-isozizaene. The previously characterized oxidized epi-isozizaene metabolites (4R)- and (4S)-albaflavenols and albaflavenone, as well as a previously undescribed doubly oxidized epi-isozizaene derivative were isolated from cultures of S. avermitilis SUKA16 transformants in which sav3032 was coexpressed with the P450-encoding sav3031. This new metabolite was identified as 4?,5?-epoxy-2-epi-zizaan-6?-ol which is most likely formed by oxidation of (4S)-albaflavenol.
Project description:Plant specialized metabolites are chemically highly diverse, play key roles in host-microbe interactions, have important nutritional value in crops and are frequently applied as medicines. It has recently become clear that plant biosynthetic pathway-encoding genes are sometimes densely clustered in specific genomic loci: biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Here, we introduce plantiSMASH, a versatile online analysis platform that automates the identification of candidate plant BGCs. Moreover, it allows integration of transcriptomic data to prioritize candidate BGCs based on the coexpression patterns of predicted biosynthetic enzyme-coding genes, and facilitates comparative genomic analysis to study the evolutionary conservation of each cluster. Applied on 48 high-quality plant genomes, plantiSMASH identifies a rich diversity of candidate plant BGCs. These results will guide further experimental exploration of the nature and dynamics of gene clustering in plant metabolism. Moreover, spurred by the continuing decrease in costs of plant genome sequencing, they will allow genome mining technologies to be applied to plant natural product discovery. The plantiSMASH web server, precalculated results and source code are freely available from http://plantismash.secondarymetabolites.org.
Project description:Avermectin and milbemycin are important 16-membered macrolides that have been widely used as pesticides in agriculture. However, the wide use of these pesticides inevitably causes serious drug resistance, it is therefore imperative to develop new avermectin and milbemycin analogs. The biosynthetic gene clusters of avermectin and milbemycin have been identified and the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Combinatorial biosynthesis by domain swap provides an efficient strategy to generate chemical diversity according to the module polyketide synthase (PKS) assembly line.The substitution of aveDH2-KR2 located in avermectin biosynthetic gene cluster in the industrial avermectin-producing strain Streptomyces avermitilis NA-108 with the DNA regions milDH2-ER2-KR2 located in milbemycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces bingchenggensis led to S. avermitilis AVE-T27, which produced ivermectin B1a with high yield of 3450 ± 65 ?g/ml. The subsequent replacement of aveLAT-ACP encoding the loading module of avermectin PKS with milLAT-ACP encoding the loading module of milbemycin PKS led to strain S. avermitilis AVE-H39, which produced two new avermectin derivatives 25-ethyl and 25-methyl ivermectin (1 and 2) with yields of 951 ± 46 and 2093 ± 61 ?g/ml, respectively. Compared to commercial insecticide ivermectin, the mixture of 25-methyl and 25-ethyl ivermectin (2:1 = 3:7) exhibited 4.6-fold increase in insecticidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans. Moreover, the insecticidal activity of the mixture of 25-methyl and 25-ethyl ivermectin was 2.5-fold and 5.7-fold higher than that of milbemycin A3/A4 against C. elegans and the second-instar larva of Mythimna separate, respectively.Two new avermectin derivatives 25-methyl and 25-ethyl ivermectin were generated by the domain swap of avermectin PKS. The enhanced insecticidal activity of 25-methyl and 25-ethyl ivermectin implied the potential use as insecticide in agriculture. Furthermore, the high yield and genetic stability of the engineered strains S. avermitilis AVE-T27 and AVE-H39 suggested the enormous potential in industrial production of the commercial insecticide ivermectin and 25-methyl/25-ethyl ivermectins, respectively.