IL-21 promotes CD4 T cell responses by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent upregulation of CD86 on B cells.
ABSTRACT: The cytokine IL-21 is a potent immune modulator with diverse mechanisms of action on multiple cell types. IL-21 is in clinical use to promote tumor rejection and is an emerging target for neutralization in the setting of autoimmunity. Despite its clinical potential, the biological actions of IL-21 are not yet fully understood and the full range of effects of this pleiotropic cytokine are still being uncovered. In this study, we identify a novel role for IL-21 as an inducer of the costimulatory ligand CD86 on B lymphocytes. CD86 provides critical signals through T cell-expressed CD28 that promote T cell activation in response to Ag engagement. Expression levels of CD86 are tightly regulated in vivo, being actively decreased by regulatory T cells and increased in response to pathogen-derived signals. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-21 can trigger potent and sustained CD86 upregulation through a STAT3 and PI3K-dependent mechanism. We show that elevated CD86 expression has functional consequences for the magnitude of CD4 T cell responses both in vitro and in vivo. These data pinpoint CD86 upregulation as an additional mechanism by which IL-21 can elicit immunomodulatory effects.
Project description:CD86 engagement on a CD40L/IL-4-primed murine B cell activates signaling intermediates that promote NF-?B activation to increase Oct-2 and mature IgG1 mRNA and protein expression, as well as the rate of IgG1 transcription, without affecting class switch recombination. One of the most proximal signaling intermediates identified is phospholipase C?2, a protein reported to bind tyrosine residues, which are absent in the cytoplasmic domain of CD86. Using a proteomics-based identification approach, we show that the tyrosine-containing transmembrane adaptor proteins prohibitin (Phb)1 and Phb2 bind to CD86. The basal expression of Phb1/2 and association with CD86 was low in resting B cells, whereas the level of expression and association increased primarily after priming with CD40. The CD86-induced increase in Oct-2 and IgG1 was less when either Phb1/2 expression was reduced by short hairpin RNA or the cytoplasmic domain of CD86 was truncated or mutated at serine/threonine protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, which did not affect Phb1/2 binding to CD86. Using this approach, we also show that Phb1/2 and the CD86 cytoplasmic domain are required for the CD86-induced phosphorylation of I?B?, which we previously reported leads to NF-?B p50/p65 activation, whereas only Phb1/2 was required for the CD86-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C?2 and protein kinase C?/?(II), which we have previously reported leads to NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation. Taken together, these findings suggest that Phb1/2 and the CD86 cytoplasmic domain cooperate to mediate CD86 signaling in a B cell through differential phosphorylation of distal signaling intermediates required to increase IgG1.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) require costimulatory molecules such as CD86 to efficiently activate T cells for the induction of adaptive immunity. DCs maintain minimal levels of CD86 expression at rest, but upregulate levels upon LPS stimulation. LPS-stimulated DCs produce the immune suppressive cytokine IL-10 that acts in an autocrine manner to regulate CD86 levels. Interestingly, the underlying molecular mechanism behind the tight control of CD86 is not completely understood. In this study, we report that CD86 is ubiquitinated in DCs via MARCH1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and that this ubiquitination plays a key role in CD86 regulation. Ubiquitination at lysine 267 played the most critical role for this regulation. CD86 is ubiquitinated in MARCH1-deficient DCs to a much lesser degree than in wild-type DCs, which also correlated with a significant increase in CD86 expression. Importantly, CD86 is continuously ubiquitinated in DCs following activation by LPS, and this was due to the autocrine IL-10 inhibition of MARCH1 downregulation. Accordingly, DCs lacking MARCH1 and DCs expressing ubiquitination-resistant mutant CD86 both failed to regulate CD86 in response to autocrine IL-10. DCs expressing ubiquitination-resistant mutant CD86 failed to control their T cell-activating abilities at rest as well as in response to autocrine IL-10. These studies suggest that ubiquitination serves as an important mechanism by which DCs control CD86 expression and regulate their Ag-presenting functions.
Project description:IL-10 is a potent immunosuppressive cytokine that promotes the differentiation of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC-10), and the subsequent induction of antigen-specific T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells, which suppress immune responses. However, IL-10 acts on multiple cell types and its effects are not solely inhibitory, therefore, limiting its use as immunomodulant. APVO210 is a bispecific fusion protein composed of an anti-CD86 antibody fused with monomeric IL-10 (ADAPTIR™ from Aptevo Therapeutics). APVO210 specifically induces IL-10R signaling in CD86+ antigen-presenting cells, but not in T and B cells. In this study, we tested whether APVO210 promotes the differentiation of tolerogenic DC-10 and the differentiation of antigen-specific CD4+ Tr1 cells in vitro. We compared the effect of APVO210 with that of recombinant human (rh) IL-10 on the in vitro differentiation of DC-10, induction of alloantigen-specific anergic CD4+ T cells, enrichment in CD49b+LAG3+ Tr1 cells mediating antigen-specific suppression, and stability upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines. APVO210 induced the differentiation of tolerogenic DC (DC-A210) that produced high levels of IL-10, expressed CD86, HLA-G, and intermediate levels of CD14 and CD16. These DC-A210 induced alloantigen-specific anergic T-cell cultures (T-alloA210) that were enriched in CD49b+ LAG3+ Tr1 cells, produced high levels of IL-10, and had suppressive properties. The phenotype and high IL-10 production by DC-A210, and the alloantigen-specific anergy of T-alloA210 were preserved upon exposure to the inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?. The effects of APVO210 were comparable to that of dimeric rh IL-10. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that APVO210 drives the differentiation of tolerogenic DC and functional alloantigen-specific Tr1 cells in vitro. Since APVO210 specifically targets CD86+ cells, we hypothesize that it will specifically target CD86+ DC to induce Tr1 cells in vivo, and mediate antigen-specific immunological tolerance by induction of tolerogenic DC and Tr1 cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) determine the activation and polarization of T cells via expression of costimulatory molecules and secretion of cytokines. The function of DCs derived from monocytes ex vivo strongly depends on the composition of the maturation cocktail used. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the effect of costimulatory molecule expression and cytokine secretion by DCs on T and natural killer (NK) cell activation by conducting a head-to-head comparison of a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist-based cocktail with the standard combination of proinflammatory cytokines or IL-10 alone. We could show that TLR-induced DCs are characterized by a predominance of costimulatory over coinhibitory molecules and by high secretion of IL-12p70, but not IL-10. Functionally, these signals translated into an increase in IFN-? secreting Th1 cells and a decrease in regulatory T cells. T cell activation and polarization were dependent on IL-12p70 and CD86, but remarkably not on CD80 signaling. By means of IL-12p70 secretion, only TLR-induced DCs activated NK cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TLR-matured DCs are highly suitable for application in immunotherapeutic strategies that rely on strong type 1 polarization and NK cell activation. Their effects particularly depend on high CD86 expression and IL-12p70 secretion.
Project description:A novel subset of human regulatory B-cells has recently been described. They arise from within the transitional B-cell subpopulation and are characterised by the production of IL-10. They appear to be of significant importance in regulating T-cell immunity in vivo. Despite this important function, the molecular mechanisms by which they control T-cell activation are incompletely defined. Here we show that transitional B-cells produced more IL-10 and expressed higher levels of IL-10 receptor after CD40 engagement compared to other B-cell subsets. Furthermore, under this stimulatory condition, CD86 expressed by transitional B-cells was down regulated and T-cell proliferation was reduced. We provide evidence to demonstrate that the down-regulation of CD86 expression by transitional B-cells was due to the autocrine effect of IL-10, which in turn leads to decreased T-cell proliferation and TNF-? production. This analysis was further extended to peripheral B-cells in kidney transplant recipients. We observed that B-cells from patients tolerant to the graft maintained higher IL-10 production after CD40 ligation, which correlates with lower CD86 expression compared to patients with chronic rejection. Hence, the results obtained in this study shed light on a new alternative mechanism by which transitional B-cells inhibit T-cell proliferation and cytokine production.
Project description:Conjunctival goblet cell loss in ocular surface diseases is accompanied by increased number of interleukin-12 (IL-12)-producing antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and increased interferon-? (IFN-?) expression. This study tested the hypothesis that mouse conjunctival goblet cells produce biologically active retinoic acid (RA) that suppresses CD86 expression and IL-12 production by myeloid cells. We found that conditioned media from cultured conjunctival goblet cells (CjCM) suppressed stimulated CD86 expression, NF-?B p65 activation and IL-12 and IFN-? production in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cultured bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) containing a mixed population of APCs. Goblet cell-conditioned, ovalbumin-loaded APCs suppressed IFN-? production and increased IL-13 production in co-cultured OTII cells. The goblet cell suppressive activity is due in part to their ability to synthesize RA from retinol. Conjunctival goblet cells had greater expression of aldehyde dehydrogenases Aldh1a1 and a3 and ALDEFLUOR activity than cornea epithelium lacking goblet cells. The conditioning activity was lost in goblet cells treated with an ALDH inhibitor, and a retinoid receptor alpha antagonist blocked the suppressive effects of CjCM on IL-12 production. Similar to RA, CjCM increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in BMDCs. SOCS3 silencing reversed the IL-12-suppressive effects of CjCM. Our findings indicate that conjunctival goblet cells are capable of synthesizing RA from retinol secreted by the lacrimal gland into tears that can condition APCs. Evidence suggests goblet cell RA may function in maintaining conjunctival immune tolerance and loss of conjunctival goblet cells may contribute to increased Th1 priming in dry eye.
Project description:To date, IL-21 stands out as the most influential cytokine for human B cell activation and differentiation. Indeed, when compared to other important B cell tropic cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10, IL-21 is clearly the most potent in terms of its ability to influence humoral immune responses in humans. IL-21 has wide reaching actions in determining how B cells will respond to co-stimulation ranging from induction of cell death upon BCR crosslinking to potent induction of class switch recombination and plasma cell differentiation when CD40 molecules are co-engaged. Another crucial B cell factor, exemplified in recent clinical trials, is BAFF/BLys. BAFF plays a critical role in the survival of human B cells and plasma blasts and influences B cell expansion and migration. Recent evidence has shown that IL-21 and BAFF can work in concert to promote and perhaps maintain humoral immunity in humans. Notably, BAFF has the unique ability to substitute for CD40L activities in regard to IL-21-co-stimulation and differentiation of a specific B cell subpopulation located in the human splenic marginal zone. However, and perhaps surprisingly, BAFF signals do not have the capability to override IL-21-driven cell death events when BCR is engaged. In stark contrast, anti-CD40 ligation of B cells co-activated with IL-21 and anti-IgM not only reverses this aforementioned activation-induced cell death, but transforms this death signal into one that drives plasma cell differentiation. Here we will discuss these two critical B cell factors, IL-21 and BAFF, and their distinct and complimentary effects on human B cell responses.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the immune system that uniquely prime naive cells and initiate adaptive immune responses. CD1c (BDCA-1) myeloid DCs (CD1c(+) mDCs) highly express HLA-DR, have a broad Toll-like receptor (TLR) repertoire, and secrete immune modulatory cytokines. To better understand immune responses to malaria, CD1c(+) mDC maturation and cytokine production were examined in healthy volunteers before and after experimental intravenous Plasmodium falciparum infection with 150- or 1,800-parasite-infected red blood cells (pRBCs). After either dose, CD1c(+) mDCs significantly reduced HLA-DR expression in prepatent infections. Circulating CD1c(+) mDCs did not upregulate HLA-DR after pRBC or TLR ligand stimulation and exhibited reduced CD86 expression. At peak parasitemia, CD1c(+) mDCs produced significantly more tumor necrosis factor (TNF), whereas interleukin-12 (IL-12) production was unchanged. Interestingly, only the 1,800-pRBC dose caused a reduction in the circulating CD1c(+) mDC count with evidence of apoptosis. The 1,800-pRBC dose produced no change in T cell IFN-? or IL-2 production at peak parasitemia or at 3 weeks posttreatment. Overall, CD1c(+) mDCs are compromised by P. falciparum exposure, with impaired HLA-DR and CD86 expression, and have an increased capacity for TNF but not IL-12 production. A first prepatent P. falciparum infection is sufficient to modulate CD1c(+) mDC responsiveness, likely contributing to hampered effector T cell cytokine responses and assisting parasite immune evasion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During the last decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained much attention in the field of regenerative medicine due to their capacity to differentiate into different cell types and to promote immunosuppressive effects. However, the underlying mechanism of MSC-mediated immunoregulation is not fully understood so far. Macrophages are distinguished in classical activated, pro-inflammatory M1 and alternatively activated M2 cells, which possess different functions and transcriptional profiles with respect to inflammatory responses. As polarization is not fixed, macrophage functional plasticity might be modulated by the microenvironment allowing them to rapidly react to danger signals and maintaining tissue homeostasis. METHODS:Murine MSCs were preconditioned with IL-1ß and IFN-? to enhance their immunosuppressive capacity regarding macrophage polarization under M1- and M2a-polarizing conditions. Macrophage polarization was analyzed by real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and cytokine detection in culture supernatants. The role of MSC-derived nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and IL-6 in this process has been evaluated using siRNA transfection and IL-6 receptor-deficient macrophages, respectively. RESULTS:Preconditioned, but not unprimed, MSCs secreted high levels of NO, IL-6, and PGE2. Co-culture with macrophages (M0) in the presence of M1 inducers (LPS?+?IFN-?) led to significant reduction of CD86 and iNOS protein in macrophages and diminished TNF-? secretion. Additionally, CD86 and iNOS protein expression as well as NO and IL-10 secretion were markedly increased under M2a-polarizing culture conditions (IL-4). MSC-dependent macrophage polarization did not depend on direct cell-cell contact. Co-culturing in the presence of LPS and IFN-? resulted in the upregulation of M2a, M2b, and M2c marker genes, whereas in the presence of IL-4 only M2b markers were significantly increased. In turn, IL-10-producing regulatory M2b cells significantly inhibited IFN-? expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Finally, we show that MSC-mediated macrophage polarization strongly depends on IL-6, whereas a minor role for NO and PGE2 was found. CONCLUSIONS:Preconditioning of MSCs highly strengthens their capacity to regulate macrophage features and to promote immunosuppression. Repression of M1 polarization during inflammation and M2b polarization under anti-inflammatory conditions strongly depend on functional IL-6 signaling in macrophages. The potential benefit of preconditioned MSCs and IL-6 should be considered for future clinical treatment.
Project description:Humoral alloreactivity has been recognized as a common cause of kidney transplant dysfunction. B-cell activation, differentiation, and antibody production are dependent on IL-21+CXCR5+follicular T-helper (Tfh) cells. Here, we studied whether belatacept, an inhibitor of the costimulatory CD28-CD80/86-pathway, interrupts the crosstalk between Tfh- and B-cells more efficiently than the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus. The suppressive effects of belatacept and tacrolimus on donor antigen-driven Tfh-B-cell interaction were functionally studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 kidney transplant patients randomized to a belatacept- or tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen. No significant differences in uncultured cells or donor antigen-stimulated cells were found between belatacept- and tacrolimus-treated patients in the CXCR5+Tfh cell generation and activation (upregulation of PD-1). Belatacept and tacrolimus in vitro minimally inhibited Tfh-cell generation (by ~6-7%) and partially prevented Tfh-cell activation (by ~30-50%). The proportion of IL-21+-activated Tfh-cells was partially decreased by in vitro addition of belatacept or tacrolimus (by ~60%). Baseline expressions and proportions of activated CD86+ B-cells, plasmablasts, and transitional B-cells after donor antigen stimulation did not differ between belatacept- and tacrolimus-treated patients. Donor antigen-driven CD86 upregulation on memory B-cells was not fully prevented by adding belatacept in vitro (~35%), even in supratherapeutic doses. In contrast to tacrolimus, belatacept failed to inhibit donor antigen-driven plasmablast formation (~50% inhibition vs. no inhibition, respectively, p?<?0.0001). In summary, donor antigen-driven Tfh-B-cell crosstalk is similar in cells obtained from belatacept- and tacrolimus-treated patients. Belatacept is, however, less potent in vitro than tacrolimus in inhibiting Tfh-cell-dependent plasmablast formation.