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Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis among Orang Asli in Malaysia: application of the triosephosphate isomerase gene.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a flagellate parasite which has been considered the most common protozoa infecting human worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates have revealed the existence of eight groups (Assemblage A to H) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify assemblage's related risk factors of G. duodenalis among Orang Asli in Malaysia. Stool samples were collected from 611 individuals aged between 2 and 74 years old of whom 266 were males and 345 were females. Socioeconomic data were collected through a pre-tested questionnaire. All stool samples were processed with formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining techniques for the primary identification of G. duodenalis. Molecular identification was carried out by the amplification of a triosephosphate isomerase gene using nested-PCR assay. RESULTS: Sixty-two samples (10.2%) were identified as assemblage A and 36 (5.9%) were assemblage B. Risk analysis based on the detected assemblages using univariate and logistic regression analyses identified subjects who have close contact with household pets i.e. dogs and cats (OR?=?2.60; 95% CI?=?1.42, 4.78; P?=?0.002) was found to be significant predictor for assemblage A. On the other hand, there were three significant risk factors caused by assemblage B: (i) children ?15 years old (OR?=?2.33; 95% CI?=?1.11, 4.87; P?=?0.025), (ii) consuming raw vegetables (OR?=?2.82; 95% CI?=?1.27, 6.26; P?=?0.011) and (iii) the presence of other family members infected with giardiasis (OR?=?6.31; 95% CI?=?2.99, 13.31; P?

SUBMITTER: Anuar TS 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3933338 | BioStudies | 2014-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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