Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis among Orang Asli in Malaysia: application of the triosephosphate isomerase gene.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a flagellate parasite which has been considered the most common protozoa infecting human worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates have revealed the existence of eight groups (Assemblage A to H) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify assemblage's related risk factors of G. duodenalis among Orang Asli in Malaysia. Stool samples were collected from 611 individuals aged between 2 and 74 years old of whom 266 were males and 345 were females. Socioeconomic data were collected through a pre-tested questionnaire. All stool samples were processed with formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining techniques for the primary identification of G. duodenalis. Molecular identification was carried out by the amplification of a triosephosphate isomerase gene using nested-PCR assay. RESULTS: Sixty-two samples (10.2%) were identified as assemblage A and 36 (5.9%) were assemblage B. Risk analysis based on the detected assemblages using univariate and logistic regression analyses identified subjects who have close contact with household pets i.e. dogs and cats (OR?=?2.60; 95% CI?=?1.42, 4.78; P?=?0.002) was found to be significant predictor for assemblage A. On the other hand, there were three significant risk factors caused by assemblage B: (i) children ?15 years old (OR?=?2.33; 95% CI?=?1.11, 4.87; P?=?0.025), (ii) consuming raw vegetables (OR?=?2.82; 95% CI?=?1.27, 6.26; P?=?0.011) and (iii) the presence of other family members infected with giardiasis (OR?=?6.31; 95% CI?=?2.99, 13.31; P?
Project description:The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite causing human giardiasis, a major gastrointestinal disease of global distribution affecting both developing and industrialised countries. In Spain, sporadic cases of giardiasis have been regularly identified, particularly in pediatric and immigrant populations. However, there is limited information on the genetic variability of circulating G. duodenalis isolates in the country.In this longitudinal molecular epidemiological study we report the diversity and frequency of the G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages identified in 199 stool samples collected from 184 individual with symptoms compatible with giardiasis presenting to two major public hospitals in Madrid for the period December 2013-January 2015. G. duodenalis cysts were initially detected by conventional microscopy and/or immunochomatography on stool samples. Confirmation of the infection was performed by direct immunofluorescence and real-time PCR methods. G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multi-locus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and ?-giardin (BG) genes of the parasite. Sociodemographic and clinical features of patients infected with G. duodenalis were also analysed.Of 188 confirmed positive samples from 178 giardiasis cases a total of 124 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully typed at the GDH and/or the BG loci, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages BIV (62.1%), AII (15.3%), BIII (4.0%), AI (0.8%), and AIII (0.8%). Additionally, 6.5% of the isolates were only characterised at the assemblage level, being all of them assigned to assemblage B. Discordant genotype results AII/AIII or BIII/BIV were also observed in 10.5% of DNA isolates. A large number of multi-locus genotypes were identified in G. duodenalis assemblage B, but not assemblage A, isolates at both the GDH and BG loci, confirming the high degree of genetic variability observed in other molecular surveys. BIV was the most prevalent genetic variant of G. duodenalis found in individuals with symptomatic giardiasis in the population under study.Human giardiasis is an ongoing public health problem in Spain affecting primarily young children under four years of age but also individuals of all age groups. Our typing and sub-typing results demonstrate that assemblage B is the most prevalent G. duodenalis assemblage circulating in patients with clinical giardiasis in Central Spain. Our analyses also revealed a large genetic variability in assemblage B (but not assemblage A) isolates of the parasite, corroborating the information obtained in similar studies in other geographical regions. We believe that molecular data presented here provide epidemiological evidence at the population level in support of the existence of genetic exchange within assemblages of G. duodenalis.
Project description:Giardiasis is considered the most common intestinal parasitic disease in humans worldwide. In Cuba, this infection has particularly a strong clinical impact on the child population. Giardia duodenalis is a highly diverse protozoan, which comprises a complex of eight morphologically identical genetic assemblages, further divided into sub-assemblages. The present study used triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes as genetic markers for the identification of G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in correlation with clinical and epidemiological data in children attended at the Paediatric Hospital "William Soler" and at Pedro Kouri Institute, between 2015 and 2016. A prevalence of 8% of G. duodenalis infection was recorded in stool samples after concentration techniques from 68 children out of 847 analysed. A 100% detection of Giardia DNA was achieved by a SSU-rRNA PCR, whereas DNA from 63 of 68 (92.6%) was successfully amplified by tpi-PCR. By this assemblage-specific tpi-PCR 32 (50.8%) assemblage B, 17 (27.0%) assemblage A and 14 (22.2%) mixed infection (A + B) were identified. Assemblage B was significantly (P < 0.02) more frequently found in children with diarrhoea. Sequence analysis of the tpi gene of Giardia isolates from symptomatic children showed that assemblage A belonged to the sub-assemblage AII, and 4 sub assemblages BIV and 1 sub assemblage BIII were also recorded. Only 2 discordant genotyping results were observed by phylogenetic comparison of SSU-rRNA and tpi sequences. Further studies with novel molecular tools for a better discrimination at the sub-assemblage level are needed to identify the dynamics of spread of giardiasis and to verify possible correlations between Giardia genetic diversity and clinical manifestation.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic intestinal protozoan worldwide So far, seven assemblages have recognized for G. duodenalis (A-G) and there are the firm findings which assemblages A and B have zoonotic potential and assemblage E in livestock. In the presented work, the G. duodenalis isolate were determined genetically by the single PCR ssu-rRNA and nested PCR of triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes in asymptomatic and symptomatic sheep and goats from Ahvaz, south west of Iran. The results revealed that only assemblage E, livestock-associated G. duodenalis was present in sheep and goat isolates. The results also presented 19.8 and 15.9 % prevalence of G. duodenalis infection sheep and goats under 12 month age, respectively. There was a significant relationship between formless stool and existence of isolates. We suggest although G. duodenalis is prevalent in sheep and goats but, these animals have no zoonotic risk for giardiasis in Ahvaz, Iran, but this parasite may play a role on enteric disorder of sheep and goats.
Project description:Giardiasis, caused by Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis, Giardia lamblia), is a significant zoonotic parasitic disease of animals and humans worldwide. Accurate genotyping of G. duodenalis is essential for efficient control and management of giardiasis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and assemblages of giardiasis in pigs in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, and for the first time study multilocus genotypes (MLGs) in pigs using multilocus genotyping technology in this region.Of 560 faecal samples collected from five farms in Shaanxi Province, 45 were positive for G. duodenalis and significant differences in prevalence were observed among different locations. Differences in prevalence were also detected in pigs of different age groups, with the highest prevalence in sows and the lowest in boars. Two assemblages, A and E, were identified, and a mixed infection of both A and E was identified in one faecal sample. Assemblage E was predominant and widely distributed in all investigated areas and age groups. Genetic viability was detected for both assemblages, and four different multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) within assemblage E were found, MLGE1-MLGE4.Giardia duodenalis was detected in pigs from Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, and genetic diversity was observed in these infections. Both assemblages A and E were detected, and four distinct MLGs within assemblage E were identified. These findings provide new data for controlling G. duodenalis infection in pigs.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries.We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and ?-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene.The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393) and 4.6% (18/393), respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%), BIII (28.2%), and BIV (32.0%). Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4%) isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A), resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study.Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G. duodenalis genetic variants. Importantly, the elevated degree of genetic diversity observed within assemblage B is consistent with the occurrence of intra-assemblage recombination in G. duodenalis.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal protozoan parasite, causing diarrheal illness in humans worldwide. Yet, the distribution of G. duodenalis genotypes among human patients and their clinical relevance remains controversial. This study aimed to detect G. duodenalis in children in Upper Egypt and identify causative genotypes and elucidate a possible correlation between genotype and clinical presentation. One hundred sixty-five children, regardless of symptoms, were tested for giardiasis. Giardia positive stool samples (40/165) were subjected to PCR amplification targeting the tpi gene with positive PCR results in only 35 cases (87.5%). Assemblage-specific amplification of genotypes (A, B, and the zoonotic E strains) revealed predominantly G. duodenalis Assemblage A (45.7%). Assemblage B and mixed A and B infections were detected in 31.4% and 22.8% of children, respectively. Assemblage E was not detected. G. duodenalis assemblage A was dominant in children who complained of diarrhea and abdominal cramps. In contrast, asymptomatic children with positive stool samples display a higher frequency of assemblage B and mixed infections. The study highlights the predominance of Giardia Assemblage A in our study locality. This study is the first for this endemic area to use the copro-PCR technique for diagnosis and genotyping of giardiasis. Study results show the value of simple species-specific primers for genotyping in communities with little access to laboratory resources. Further genetic studies are needed to clarify the association between parasite genetic diversity and patient symptomatology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Giardia duodenalis is a gastrointestinal protozoan causing 184 million cases of giardiasis worldwide annually. Detection is by microscopy or coproantigen assays, although sensitivity is often compromised by intermittent shedding of cysts or trophozoites, or operator expertise. Therefore, for enhanced surveillance field-applicable, point-of-care (POC), molecular assays are needed. Our aims were to: (i) optimise the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for the isothermal amplification of the G. duodenalis ?-giardin gene from trophozoites and cysts, using published primer and probes; and (ii) perform a pilot field validation of RPA at a field station in a resource-poor setting, on DNA extracted from stool samples from schoolchildren in villages around Lake Albert, Uganda. Results were compared to an established laboratory small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) qPCR assay with additional testing using a qPCR targeting the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) DNA regions that can distinguish G. duodenalis of two different assemblages (A and B), which are human-specific. RESULTS:Initial optimisation resulted in the successful amplification of predicted RPA products from G. duodenalis-purified gDNA, producing a double-labelled amplicon detected using lateral flow strips. In the field setting, of 129 stool samples, 49 (37.9%) were positive using the Giardia/Cryptosporidium QuikChek coproantigen test; however, the RPA assay when conducted in the field was positive for a single stool sample. Subsequent molecular screening in the laboratory on a subset (n?=?73) of the samples demonstrated better results with 21 (28.8%) RPA positive. The SSU rDNA qPCR assay resulted in 30/129 (23.3%) positive samples; 18 out of 73 (24.7%) were assemblage typed (9 assemblage A; 5 assemblage B; and 4 mixed A+B). Compared with the SSU rDNA qPCR, QuikChek was more sensitive than RPA (85.7 vs 61.9%), but with similar specificities (80.8 vs 84.6%). In comparison to QuikChek, RPA had 46.4% sensitivity and 82.2% specificity. CONCLUSIONS:To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in-field and comparative laboratory validation of RPA for giardiasis in low resource settings. Further refinement and technology transfer, specifically in relation to stool sample preparation, will be needed to implement this assay in the field, which could assist better detection of asymptomatic Giardia infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated parasite that causes diarrhea in humans and other animals. Although G. duodenalis is found in companion animals worldwide, information regarding the prevalence and genetic characteristics of G. duodenalis in pet chipmunks in China is limited. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of G. duodenalis in pet chipmunks in Sichuan province, southwestern China, as well as to assess zoonotic potential of revealed assemblages. RESULTS:A total of 279 fecal samples were collected from pet chipmunks in seven pet shops and one breeding facility in Sichuan province, southwestern China. The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 8.6% (24/279), as determined by nested PCR detection of the beta giardin (bg) gene. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were determined using multilocus genotyping of the bg, triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) loci. Two assemblages were identified: potentially zoonotic assemblage A (54.2%, 13/24) and rodent-specific assemblage G (45.8%, 11/24). A total of 24, 17 and 17 sequences of the bg, gdh and tpi loci, respectively, were successfully obtained, which formed four, four and three subtypes, respectively. Moreover, four assemblage A (MLGs A1-A4) and three assemblage G (MLGs G1-G3) multilocus genotypes were identified. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigated G. duodenalis in pet chipmunks in China. Detection of assemblage A in pet chipmunks and in previous studies in humans suggests a possible role of chipmunks as a reservoir for human giardiasis in Sichuan Province, China.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a widespread intestinal protozoan of both humans and mammals. To date, few epidemiological studies have assessed the potential and importance of zoonotic transmission; and the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin is unclear. No information about occurrence and genotyping data of sheep and goat giardiasis is available in China. The aim of the present study was to determine prevalence and distribution of G. duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province, China, and to characterize G. duodenalis isolates and assess the possibility of zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 678 fecal specimens were collected from sheep and goats on six farms ranging in age from one month to four years in Heilongjiang Province, China. The average prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 5.0% (34/678) by microscopy after Lugol's iodine staining, with 5.6% (30/539) for the sheep versus 2.9% (4/139) for the goats. Molecular analysis was conducted on 34 G. duodenalis isolates based on the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. 29 tpi gene sequences were successfully obtained and identified as assemblages A (n = 4), B (n = 2) and E (n = 23). High heterogeneity was observed within assemblage E at the tpi locus, with five novel subtypes found out of seven subtypes. Two subtypes of assemblage A were detected, including subtype AI (n = 3) and a novel subtype (designated as subtype AIV) (n = 1). Two assemblage B isolates were identical to each other in the tpi gene sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of G. duodenalis infections in sheep and goats in China. The present data revealed the unique endemicity on prevalence, distribution and genetic characterization of G. duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province. The findings of assemblages A and B in sheep and goats implied the potential of zoonotic transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals, mainly distributing in some areas with poor sanitation. The proportion of the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin differs in different geographical areas. In Mainland China, genetic data of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from animals are only limited in dogs and cats. The aim of the study was to provide information on the genetic characterizations of animal-derived G. duodenalis isolates (from rabbits, sheep and cattle) at both loci in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China, and to assess the potential for zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 61 G. duodenalis isolates from animal feces (dairy and beef cattle, sheep and rabbits) in Heilongjiang Province were characterized at the gdh and bg loci in the present study. The gdh and bg gene sequences of sheep-derived G. duodenalis assemblage AI, and the gdh sequences of rabbit-derived G. duodenalis assemblage B had 100% similarity with those from humans, respectively. Novel subtypes of G. duodenalis were identified, with one and seven subtypes for assemblages A and E at the gdh locus, and two and three subtypes for assemblages B and E at the bg locus, respectively. Three pairs of the same bg sequences of assemblage E were observed in sheep and cattle. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first description of genetic characterizations of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from rabbits, sheep and cattle in Mainland China. Homology analysis of assemblages AI and B implied the possibility of zoonotic transmission. The novel subtypes of assemblages of G. duodenalis may represent the endemic genetic characteristics of G. duodenalis in Heilongjiang Province, China.