Delayed development induced by toxicity to the host can be inherited by a bacterial-dependent, transgenerational effect.
ABSTRACT: Commensal gut bacteria in many species including flies are integral part of their host, and are known to influence its development and homeostasis within generation. Here we report an unexpected impact of host-microbe interactions, which mediates multi-generational, non-Mendelian inheritance of a stress-induced phenotype. We have previously shown that exposure of fly larvae to G418 antibiotic induces transgenerationally heritable phenotypes, including a delay in larval development, gene induction in the gut and morphological changes. We now show that G418 selectively depletes commensal Acetobacter species and that this depletion explains the heritable delay, but not the inheritance of the other phenotypes. Notably, the inheritance of the delay was mediated by a surprising trans-generational effect. Specifically, bacterial removal from F1 embryos did not induce significant delay in F1 larvae, but nonetheless led to a considerable delay in F2. This effect maintains a delay induced by bacterial-independent G418 toxicity to the host. In line with these findings, reintroduction of isolated Acetobacter species prevented the inheritance of the delay. We further show that this prevention is partly mediated by vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) produced by these bacteria; exogenous Riboflavin led to partial prevention and inhibition of Riboflavin synthesis compromised the ability of the bacteria to prevent the inheritance. These results identify host-microbe interactions as a hitherto unrecognized factor capable of mediating non-Mendelian inheritance of a stress-induced phenotype.
Project description:Acetobacter tropicalis Oregon-R-modENCODE strain BDGP1 was isolated from Drosophila melanogaster for functional host-microbe interaction studies. The complete genome comprises a single chromosomal circle of 3,988,649 bp with a G+C content of 56% and a conjugative plasmid of 151,013 bp.
Project description:Escherichia coli is both a harmless commensal in the intestines of many mammals, as well as a dangerous pathogen. The evolutionary paths taken by strains of this species in the commensal-to-pathogen transition are complex and can involve changes both in the core genome, as well in the pan-genome. One way to understand the likely paths that a commensal strain of E. coli takes when evolving pathogenicity is through experimentally evolving the strain under the selective pressures that it will have to withstand as a pathogen. Here, we report that a commensal strain, under continuous pressure from macrophages, recurrently acquired a transposable element insertion, which resulted in two key phenotypic changes: increased intracellular survival, through the delay of phagosome maturation and increased ability to escape macrophages. We further show that the acquisition of the pathoadaptive traits was accompanied by small but significant changes in the transcriptome of macrophages upon infection. These results show that under constant pressures from a key component of the host immune system, namely macrophage phagocytosis, commensal E. coli rapidly acquires pathoadaptive mutations that cause transcriptome changes associated to the host-microbe duet.
Project description:Animals host multi-species microbial communities (microbiomes) whose properties may result from inter-species interactions; however, current understanding of host-microbiome interactions derives mostly from studies in which elucidation of microbe-microbe interactions is difficult. In exploring how <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> acquires its microbiome, we found that a microbial community influences <i>Drosophila</i> olfactory and egg-laying behaviors differently than individual members. <i>Drosophila</i> prefers a <i>Saccharomyces</i>-<i>Acetobacter</i> co-culture to the same microorganisms grown individually and then mixed, a response mainly due to the conserved olfactory receptor, <i>Or42b. Acetobacter</i> metabolism of <i>Saccharomyces-</i>derived ethanol was necessary, and acetate and its metabolic derivatives were sufficient, for co-culture preference. Preference correlated with three emergent co-culture properties: ethanol catabolism, a distinct volatile profile, and yeast population decline. Egg-laying preference provided a context-dependent fitness benefit to larvae. We describe a molecular mechanism by which a microbial community affects animal behavior. Our results support a model whereby emergent metabolites signal a beneficial multispecies microbiome.
Project description:Acetobacter pomorum Oregon-R-modENCODE strain BDGP5 was isolated from Drosophila melanogaster for functional host-microbe interaction studies. The complete genome is composed of a single chromosomal circle of 2,848,089 bp, with a G+C content of 53% and three plasmids of 131,455 bp, 19,216 bp, and 9,160 bp.
Project description:While the structure and regulatory networks that govern type-six secretion system (T6SS) activity of <i>Vibrio cholerae</i> are becoming increasingly clear, we know less about the role of T6SS in disease. Under laboratory conditions, <i>V. cholerae</i> uses T6SS to outcompete many Gram-negative species, including other <i>V. cholerae</i> strains and human commensal bacteria. However, the role of these interactions has not been resolved in an in vivo setting. We used the <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> model of cholera to define the contribution of T6SS to <i>V. cholerae</i> pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that interactions between T6SS and host commensals impact pathogenesis. Inactivation of T6SS, or removal of commensal bacteria, attenuates disease severity. Reintroduction of the commensal, <i>Acetobacter pasteurianus</i>, into a germ-free host is sufficient to restore T6SS-dependent pathogenesis in which T6SS and host immune responses regulate viability. Together, our data demonstrate that T6SS acts on commensal bacteria to promote the pathogenesis of <i>V. cholerae</i>.
Project description:Gene-drive systems developed in several organisms result in super-Mendelian inheritance of transgenic insertions. Here, we generalize this "active genetic" approach to preferentially transmit allelic variants (allelic-drive) resulting from only a single or a few nucleotide alterations. We test two configurations for allelic-drive: one, copy-cutting, in which a non-preferred allele is selectively targeted for Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) cleavage, and a more general approach, copy-grafting, that permits selective inheritance of a desired allele located in close proximity to the gRNA cut site. We also characterize a phenomenon we refer to as lethal-mosaicism that dominantly eliminates NHEJ-induced mutations and favors inheritance of functional cleavage-resistant alleles. These two efficient allelic-drive methods, enhanced by lethal mosaicism and a trans-generational drive process we refer to as "shadow-drive", have broad practical applications in improving health and agriculture and greatly extend the active genetics toolbox.
Project description:Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria and the gut microbiome have independently been shown to affect several aspects of insect biology, including reproduction, development, life span, stem cell activity, and resistance to human pathogens, in insect vectors. This work shows that Wolbachia bacteria, which reside mainly in the fly germline, affect the microbial species present in the fly gut in a lab-reared strain. Drosophila melanogaster hosts two main genera of commensal bacteria-Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. Wolbachia-infected flies have significantly reduced titers of Acetobacter. Sampling of the microbiome of axenic flies fed with equal proportions of both bacteria shows that the presence of Wolbachia bacteria is a significant determinant of the composition of the microbiome throughout fly development. However, this effect is host genotype dependent. To investigate the mechanism of microbiome modulation, the effect of Wolbachia bacteria on Imd and reactive oxygen species pathways, the main regulators of immune response in the fly gut, was measured. The presence of Wolbachia bacteria does not induce significant changes in the expression of the genes for the effector molecules in either pathway. Furthermore, microbiome modulation is not due to direct interaction between Wolbachia bacteria and gut microbes. Confocal analysis shows that Wolbachia bacteria are absent from the gut lumen. These results indicate that the mechanistic basis of the modulation of composition of the microbiome by Wolbachia bacteria is more complex than a direct bacterial interaction or the effect of Wolbachia bacteria on fly immunity. The findings reported here highlight the importance of considering the composition of the gut microbiome and host genetic background during Wolbachia-induced phenotypic studies and when formulating microbe-based disease vector control strategies. IMPORTANCEWolbachia bacteria are intracellular bacteria present in the microbiome of a large fraction of insects and parasitic nematodes. They can block mosquitos' ability to transmit several infectious disease-causing pathogens, including Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile viruses and malaria parasites. Certain extracellular bacteria present in the gut lumen of these insects can also block pathogen transmission. However, our understanding of interactions between Wolbachia and gut bacteria and how they influence each other is limited. Here we show that the presence of Wolbachia strain wMel changes the composition of gut commensal bacteria in the fruit fly. Our findings implicate interactions between bacterial species as a key factor in determining the overall composition of the microbiome and thus reveal new paradigms to consider in the development of disease control strategies.
Project description:The balance between the host and microbe is pivotal for oral health. A dysbiotic oral microbiome and the subsequent host inflammatory response are causes for the most common dental problems, such as periodontitis and caries. Classically, toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to play important roles in host-microbe interactions by recognizing pathogens and activating innate immunity. However, emerging evidence suggests that commensals may also exploit TLRs to induce tolerance to the benefit of the host, especially in oral mucosa which is heavily colonized by abundant microbes. How TLRs and downstream signaling events are affected by different oral microbial communities to regulate host responses is still unknown. To compare such human host-microbe interactions in vitro, we exposed a reconstructed human gingiva (RHG) to commensal or pathogenic (gingivitis, cariogenic) multi-species oral biofilms cultured from human saliva. These biofilms contain in vivo like phylogenic numbers and typical bacterial genera. After 24 h biofilm exposure, TLR protein and gene expression of 84 TLR pathway related genes were investigated. Commensal and pathogenic biofilms differentially regulated TLR protein expression. Commensal biofilm up-regulated the transcription of a large group of key genes, which are involved in TLR signaling, including TLR7, the MyD88-dependent pathway (CD14, MyD88, TIRAP, TRAF6, IRAKs), MyD88-independent pathway (TAB1, TBK1, IRF3), and their downstream signaling pathways (NF-?B and MAPK pathways). In comparison, gingivitis biofilm activated fewer genes (e.g., TLR4) and cariogenic biofilm suppressed CD14, IRAK4, and IRF3 transcription. Fluorescence in situ hybridization staining showed the rRNA of the topically applied and invaded bacteria, and histology showed that the biofilms had no obvious detrimental effect on RHG morphology. These results show an important role of TLR signaling pathways in regulating host-microbe interactions: when a sterile gingival tissue is exposed to commensals, a strong immune activation occurs which may prime the host against potential challenges in order to maintain oral host-microbe homeostasis. In contrast, pathogenic biofilms stimulate a weaker immune response which might facilitate immune evasion thus enabling pathogens to penetrate undetected into the tissues.
Project description:The commensal microbiome is known to influence a variety of host phenotypes. Microbiome profiling followed by differential abundance analysis has been established as an effective approach to study the mechanisms of host-microbiome interactions. However, it is challenging to interpret the collective functions of the resultant microbe-sets due to the lack of well-organized functional characterization of commensal microbiome. We developed microbe-set enrichment analysis (MSEA) to enable the functional interpretation of microbe-sets by examining the statistical significance of their overlaps with annotated groups of microbes that share common attributes such as biological function or phylogenetic similarity. We then constructed microbe-set libraries by query PubMed to find microbe-mammalian gene associations and disease associations by parsing the Disbiome database. To demonstrate the utility of our novel MSEA methodology, we carried out three case studies using publicly available curated knowledge resource and microbiome profiling datasets focusing on human diseases. We found MSEA not only yields consistent findings with the original studies, but also recovers insights about disease mechanisms that are supported by the literature. Overall, MSEA is a useful knowledge-based computational approach to interpret the functions of microbes, which can be integrated with microbiome profiling pipelines to help reveal the underlying mechanism of host-microbiome interactions.
Project description:Although gut microbiomes are generally symbiotic or commensal, some of microbiomes become pathogenic under certain circumstances, which is one of key processes of pathogenesis. However, the factors involved in these complex gut-microbe interactions are largely unknown. Here we show that bacterial nucleoside catabolism using gut luminal uridine is required to boost inter-bacterial communications and gut pathogenesis in Drosophila. We found that uridine-derived uracil is required for DUOX-dependent ROS generation on the host side, whereas uridine-derived ribose induces quorum sensing and virulence gene expression on the bacterial side. Importantly, genetic ablation of bacterial nucleoside catabolism is sufficient to block the commensal-to-pathogen transition in vivo. Furthermore, we found that major commensal bacteria lack functional nucleoside catabolism, which is required to achieve gut-microbe symbiosis. The discovery of a novel role of bacterial nucleoside catabolism will greatly help to better understand the molecular mechanism of the commensal-to-pathogen transition in different contexts of host-microbe interactions. Overall design: mRNA expression profiles of wild type (Ecc15) and nucleoside hydrolase mutant (Ecc15_delNH) E. carotovora carotovora15 strain were examined by Illumina Hi-seq 2500.