Expression of the orphan cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT1C3 in human intestine: characterization of the transcript variant and implications for function.
ABSTRACT: The cystolic sulfotransferse 1C3 (SULT1C3) gene was identified by computational analysis of the human genome and suggested to contain duplications of its last two exons (7a/b and 8a/b). Although the SULT1C3 isoform containing the more downstream exons 7b and 8b (SULT1C3d) has been expressed in Escherichia coli, crystallized, and characterized for activity, there is currently no evidence that SULT1C3 is expressed in any human tissue. Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, we detected SULT1C3 mRNA in the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (LS180), colon, and small intestine, but the amplified fragment contained the more upstream exons 7a and 8a. 3'-Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) confirmed that the SULT1C3 transcript expressed in LS180 cells contained exons 7a/8a, whereas 5'-RACE identified a noncoding exon 1. Full-length SULT1C3 transcript containing exons 7a/8a was amplified from LS180 and intestinal RNA, and in vitro transcription-translation of the cloned cDNA indicated that translation primarily began at the first of three in-frame ATG codons. Since SULT1C3 containing exons 7a/8a (SULT1C3a) would differ by 30 amino acids from SULT1C3d containing exons 7b/8b, we considered the functional implications of expressing one or the other isoform by generating structural models based on the reported crystal structure for SULT1C3d. Comparison of the structures indicated that five of the residues forming the substrate-binding pocket differed between the two isoforms, resulting in a change in both electron density and charge distribution along the inner wall of the substrate-binding pocket. These data indicate that SULT1C3 is expressed in human intestine but suggest that the expressed isoform is likely to differ functionally from the isoform that has been previously characterized.
Project description:Go is a specific class ("other") of signal-transducing heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) that is expressed in high levels in mammalian brain. We have cloned two different rat cDNAs encoding the alpha subunit of Go (Go alpha-1 and Go alpha-2) and a human Go alpha chromosomal gene. The human Go alpha gene spans more than 100 kilobases and contains 11 exons, including one noncoding exon in the 3' flanking region. The 5' flanking region is highly G + C-rich and contains five G.C boxes (Sp1 binding sites) but no TATA box. Exons 7 and 8 coding for amino acid residues 242-354 of Go alpha protein are duplicated (referred to as exons 7A, 7B, 8A, and 8B). It was found that exons 7A and 8A code for Go alpha-1, and 7B and 8B code for Go alpha-2. This indicates that two different Go alpha mRNAs may be generated by alternative splicing of a single Go alpha gene. The splice sites of the Go alpha-1 and Go alpha-2 genes are completely identical with those encoding human inhibitory G protein alpha subunits Gi2 alpha and Gi3 alpha [Itoh, H., Toyama, R., Kozasa, T., Tsukamoto, T., Matsuoka, M. & Kaziro, Y. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 6656-6664] and also transducin G protein alpha subunit Gt1 alpha [Raport, C. J., Dere, B. & Hurley, J. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 7122-7128]. Sequence homology and conservation of the exon-intron organization indicate that the genes coding for Go alpha, Gi2 alpha, Gi3 alpha, Gt1 alpha, and probably Gi1 alpha may be evolved from a common progenitor. Like Go alpha-1, Go alpha-2 is expressed mainly in brain.
Project description:The cytosolic sulphotransferase SULT1C3 remained the most poorly understood human SULT. The SULT1C3 gene has been shown to contain alternative exons 7 and 8, raising the question concerning their evolutionary origin and implying the generation of multiple SULT1C3 variants. Two SULT1C3 splice variants, SULT1C3a and SULT1C3d, were investigated to verify the impact of alternative C-terminal sequences on their sulphating activity. Sequence homology and gene location analyses were performed to verify the orthology of the SULT1C3 gene. The SULT1C3 gene appears to be present only in humans and other primates, but alternative exons 7b and 8b share high degrees of homology with corresponding regions of rodent SULT1C1 genes, implying their evolutionary origin being from a defunct human SULT1C1 gene. Purified recombinant SULT1C3a and SULT1C3d were analyzed for sulphating activities toward a variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. While SULT1C3a displayed weaker activities and strict substrate specificity toward hydroxyl-chlorinated biphenyls, SULT1C3d exhibited broader substrate specificity toward bile acids and thyroid hormones as well as hydroxyl-chlorinated biphenyls. Molecular docking simulation suggested that Tyr249 and Met257 may play an important role in substrate recognition by SULT1C3d. Alternative splicing of exons 7 and 8 sequences resulted in differential catalytic properties of SULT1C3 variants.
Project description:Thirty-four (41%) of 83 hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates from commercial blood donors in Vietnam were not classifiable into genotype I/1a, II/1b, III/2a, IV/2b, or V/3a; for 15 of them, the sequence was determined for 1.6 kb in the 5'-terminal region and 1.1 kb in the 3'-terminal region. Comparison of the 15 Vietnamese isolates among themselves and with reported full or partial HCV genomic sequences indicated that they were classifiable into four major groups (groups 6-9) divided into six genotypes (6a, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, and 9a). Vietnamese HCV isolates of genotypes 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, and 9a were significantly different from those classified into groups 4, 5, and 6 based on divergence within partial sequences; those of genotype 6a were homologous to a Hong Kong isolate (HK2) of genotype 6a. Phylogenetic trees based on the envelope 1 (E1) gene (576 bp) of 55 isolates and a part of the nonstructural 5 (NS5) region (1093 bp) of 43 isolates revealed at least nine major groups, three of which (groups 7, 8, and 9) were identified only in Vietnamese blood donors. With a prospect that many more HCV isolates with significant sequence divergence will be reported from all over the world, the domain of the HCV genome to be compared and criteria for grouping/typing and genotyping/subtyping will have to be determined, so that they may be correlated with virological, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics.
Project description:Rigidification of the isobutyl side chain of drug-like AT2 receptor agonists and antagonists that are structurally related to the first reported selective AT2 receptor agonist 1 (C21) delivered bioactive indane derivatives. Four enantiomer pairs were synthesized and the enantiomers were isolated in an optical purity >99%. The enantiomers 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a and 10b bind to the AT2 receptor with moderate (K i = 54-223 nM) to high affinity (K i = 2.2-7.0 nM). The enantiomer with positive optical rotation (+) exhibited the highest affinity at the receptor. The indane derivatives 7b and 10a are among the most potent AT2 receptor antagonists reported so far. As illustrated by the enantiomer pairs 7a/b and 10a/b, an alteration at the stereogenic center has a pronounced impact on the activation process of the AT2 receptor, and can convert agonists to antagonists and vice versa.
Project description:A new series of adamantane-isothiourea hybrid derivatives, namely 4-arylmethyl (Z)-N'-(adamantan-1-yl)-morpholine-4-carbothioimidates 7a-e and 4-arylmethyl (Z)-N'-(adamantan-1-yl)-4-phenylpiperazine-1-carbothioimidates 8a-e were prepared via the reaction of N-(adamantan-1-yl)morpholine-4-carbothioamide 5 and N-(adamantan-1-yl)-4-phenylpiperazine-1-carbothioamide 6 with benzyl or substituted benzyl bromides, in acetone, in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by ¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR, electrospray ionization mass spectral (ESI-MS) data, and X-ray crystallographic data. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the new compounds was determined against certain standard strains of pathogenic bacteria and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Compounds 7b, 7d and 7e displayed potent broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, while compounds 7a, 7c, 8b, 8d and 8e were active against the tested Gram-positive bacteria. The in vivo oral hypoglycemic activity of the new compounds was carried on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Compounds 7a, 8ab, and 8b produced potent dose-independent reduction of serum glucose levels, compared to the potent hypoglycemic drug gliclazide.
Project description:Cytosolic sulfotransferase 1C3 (SULT1C3) is the least characterized of the three human SULT1C subfamily members. Originally identified as an orphan SULT by computational analysis of the human genome, we recently reported that SULT1C3 is expressed in human intestine and LS180 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and is upregulated by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ To determine the mechanism responsible for PPAR-mediated upregulation, we prepared reporter plasmids containing fragments of the SULT1C3 5'-flanking region. During initial attempts to amplify a 2.8-kb fragment from different sources of human genomic DNA, a 1.9-kb fragment was sometimes coamplified with the expected 2.8-kb fragment. Comparison of the 1.9-kb fragment sequence to the published SULT1C3 5'-flanking sequence revealed an 863-nt deletion (nt -146 to -1008 relative to the transcription start site). Transfection analysis in LS180 cells demonstrated that PPARα, δ, and γ agonist treatments induced luciferase expression from a reporter plasmid containing the 2.8-kb but not the 1.9-kb fragment. The PPAR agonists also activated a 1-kb reporter containing the 863-nt deletion region. Computational analysis identified three peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs) within the 863-nt region and serial deletions and site-directed mutations indicated that the most distal PPRE (at nt -769) was essential for obtaining PPAR-mediated transcriptional activation. Although agonists of all three PPARs could activate SULT1C3 transcription, RNA interference analysis indicated the predominance of PPARγ These data demonstrate that the PPARγ regulatory network includes SULT1C3 and imply that this enzyme contributes to the control of such PPARγ-regulated intestinal processes as growth, differentiation, and metabolism.
Project description:Amidinobenzimidazole derivatives connected to 1-aryl-substituted 1,2,3-triazole through phenoxymethylene linkers 7a-7e, 8a-8e, and 9a-9e were designed and synthesised with the aim of evaluating their anti-bacterial and anti-trypanosomal activities and DNA/RNA binding affinity. Results from anti-bacterial evaluations of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria revealed that both o-chlorophenyl-1,2,3-triazole and N-isopropylamidine moieties in 8c led to strong inhibitory activity against resistant Gram-positive bacteria, particularly the MRSA strain. Furthermore, the non-substituted amidine and phenyl ring in 7a induced a marked anti-bacterial effect, with potency against ESBL-producing Gram-negative E. coli better than those of the antibiotics ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin. UV-Vis and CD spectroscopy, as well as thermal denaturation assays, indicated that compounds 7a and 8c showed also binding affinities towards ctDNA. Anti-trypanosomal evaluations showed that the p-methoxyphenyl-1,2,3-triazole moiety in 7b and 9b enhanced inhibitory activity against T. brucei, with 8b being more potent than nifurtimox, and having minimal toxicity towards mammalian cells.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is one of the causative genes for Kallmann syndrome (KS), which is characterized by isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with anosmia/hyposmia. The third immunoglobulin-like domain (D3) of FGFR1 has the isoforms FGFR1-IIIb and FGFR1-IIIc, which are generated by alternative splicing of exons 8A and 8B, respectively. To date, the only mutations to have been identified in D3 of FGFR1 are in exon 8B. We performed mutation analysis of FGFR1 in a 23-year-old female patient with KS and found a missense mutation (c.1072C>T) in exon 8A of FGFR1. The c.1072C>T mutation was not detected in her family members or in 220 normal Japanese and 100 Caucasian female controls. No mutation in other KS genes, KS 1, prokineticin-2, prokineticin receptor-2 and FGF-8 was detected in the affected patient or in her family members. Therefore, this is the first case of KS carrying a de novo missense mutation in FGFR1 exon 8A, suggesting that isoform FGFR1-IIIb, as well as isoform FGFR1-IIIc, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of KS.
Project description:The accessory proteins (3a, 3b, 6, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9b and ORF14), predicted unknown proteins (PUPs) encoded by the genes, are considered to be unique to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome. These proteins play important roles in various biological processes mediated by interactions with their partners. However, very little is known about the interactions among these accessory proteins. Here, a EYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay was used to detect the interactions among accessory proteins. 33 out of 81 interactions were identified by BiFC, much more than that identified by the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. This is the first report describing direct visualization of interactions among accessory proteins of SARS-CoV. These findings attest to the general applicability of the BiFC system for the verification of protein-protein interactions.
Project description:The most striking difference between the subgenomic mRNA8 of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus isolated from human and some animal species is the deletion of 29 nucleotides, resulting in splitting of a single ORF (ORF8) into two ORFs (ORF8a and ORF8b). ORF8a and ORF8b are predicted to encode two small proteins, 8a and 8b, and ORF8 a single protein, 8ab (a fusion form of 8a and 8b). To understand the functions of these proteins, we cloned cDNA fragments covering these ORFs into expression plasmids, and expressed the constructs in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Expression of a construct containing ORF8a and ORF8b generated only a single protein, 8a; no 8b protein expression was obtained. Expression of a construct containing ORF8 generated the 8ab fusion protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and enzymatic treatment revealed that protein 8ab is modified by N-linked glycosylation on the N81 residue and by ubiquitination. In the absence of the 8a region, protein 8b undergoes rapid degradation by proteasomes, and addition of proteasome inhibitors inhibits the degradation of protein 8b as well as the protein 8b-induced rapid degradation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus E protein. Glycosylation could also stabilize protein 8ab. More interestingly, the two proteins could bind to monoubiquitin and polyubiquitin, suggesting the potential involvement of these proteins in the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.