Optimization of ELISA conditions to quantify colorectal cancer antigen-antibody complex protein (GA733-FcK) expressed in transgenic plant.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to optimize ELISA conditions to quantify the colorectal cancer antigen GA733 linked to the Fc antibody fragment fused to KDEL, an ER retention motif (GA733-FcK) expressed in transgenic plant. Variable conditions of capture antibody, blocking buffer, and detection antibody for ELISA were optimized with application of leaf extracts from transgenic plant expressing GA733-FcK. In detection antibody, anti-EpCAM/CD362 IgG recognizing the GA733 did not detect any GA733-FcK whereas anti-human Fc IgG recognizing the human Fc existed in plant leaf extracts. For blocking buffer conditions, 3% BSA buffer clearly blocked the plate, compared to the 5% skim-milk buffer. For capture antibody, monoclonal antibody (MAb) CO17-1A was applied to coat the plate with different amounts (1, 0.5, and 0.25 ?g/well). Among the amounts of the capture antibody, 1 and 0.5 ?g/well (capture antibody) showed similar absorbance, whereas 0.25 ?g/well of the capture antibody showed significantly less absorbance. Taken together, the optimized conditions to quantify plant-derived GA733-FcK were 0.5 ?g/well of MAb CO17-1A per well for the capture antibody, 3% BSA for blocking buffer, and anti-human Fc conjugated HRP. To confirm the optimized ELISA conditions, correlation analysis was conducted between the quantified amount of GA733-FcK in ELISA and its protein density values of different leaf samples in Western blot. The co-efficient value R(2) between the ELISA quantified value and protein density was 0.85 (p<0.01), which indicates that the optimized ELISA conditions feasibly provides quantitative information of GA733-FcK expression in transgenic plant.
Project description:The tumor-associated antigen GA733 is a cell-surface glycoprotein highly expressed in colorectal carcinomas. In this study, 3 recombinant genes were constructed as follows: GA733 tagged to the ER retention sequence KDEL (GA733K), GA733 fused to the immunoglobulin Fc fragment (GA733-Fc), and GA733-Fc fused to the ER retention sequence (GA733-FcK). Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was used to generate transgenic plants expressing recombinant genes. The presence of transgenes was confirmed by genomic PCR. Western blot, confocal immunofluorescence, and sandwich ELISA showed the expression of recombinant proteins. The stability, flexibility, and bioactivity of recombinant proteins were analyzed and demonstrated through N-glycosylation analysis, animal trials, and sera ELISA. Our results suggest that the KDEL retained proteins in ER with oligomannose glycan structure and enhanced protein accumulation level. The sera of mice immunized with GA733-FcK purified from plants contained immunoglobulins which were at least as efficient as the mammalian-derived GA733-Fc at recognizing human colorectal cancer cell lines. Thus, a plant system can be used to express the KDEL fusion protein with oligomannose glycosylation, and this protein induces an immune response which is comparable to non-KDEL-tagged, mammalian-derived proteins.
Project description:Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is considered as a prognostic factor of breast cancer, which is positively associated with recurrence when cancer metastasizes to the lymph nodes. Here, we expressed the single variable domain on a heavy chain (VHH) form of anti-HER2 camelid single domain antibody in tobacco plants and compared its in vitro anticancer activities with the anti-HER2 full size antibody. The gene expression cassette containing anti-HER2 camelid single domain antibody VHH fused to human IgG Fc region with KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (VHH-FcK) was transferred into the tobacco plant via the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformants were screened with polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the binding of the purified anti-HER2 VHH-FcK to the HER2-positive breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. Migration assay results confirmed anticancer activity of the plant-derived anticancer camelid single chain antibody. Taken together, we confirmed the possibility of using anti-HER2 VHH-FcK as a therapeutic anticancer agent, which can be expressed and assembled and purified from a plant expression system as an alternative antibody production system.
Project description:Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is an important infectious disease in fish worldwide caused by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). VHSV is the causative agent of serious systemic diseases in fish, affecting a number of teleost fish species. In this study, VHSV glycoprotein (G), including its epitope, as a subunit vaccine candidate, was expressed in tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum). The recombinant gene, VHSVG, was fused to the immunoglobulin Fc fragment and extended with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL) to generate VHSVG-FcK. The recombinant expression vector for VHSVG-FcK was transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404), and plant transformation was conducted N. tabacum. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to confirm gene insertion and VHSVG-FcK protein expression was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. VHSVG-FcK protein was successfully purified from tobacco plant leaves. Furthermore, ELISA analysis showed that mice serum immunized with the plant-derived VHSVG-FcK (VHSVGP-FcK) had a high absorbance against VHSVG-FcK, indicating that the plant-derived recombinant subunit vaccine protein VHSVG-FcK can induce immune response. Taken together, this recombinant vaccine protein can be expressed in plant expression systems and can be appropriately assembled to be functional in immunogenicity.
Project description:The influence of developmental stage and position (top, middle, and base) of leaves and stem tissues on the expression and glycosylation pattern of a recombinant therapeutic protein -GA733-FcK- was observed in transgenic seedlings during a 16-week growth period. RNA expression gradually increased with age in the middle and basal leaves and decreased in top leaves after 14 weeks. The protein expression level at all leaf positions increased until 14 weeks and slightly decreased at 16 weeks; it was lower in yellow leaves than in green leaves. In stem, protein expression gradually decreased from the top to the base. The glycosylation patterns of GA733-FcK were analyzed from 10 to 16 weeks. The plant-specific glycans increased in the top leaves at 14 weeks, but only slightly changed in the middle and basal leaves. The structure of glycans varied with tissue position. The glycosylation level in the top and middle leaves increased until 12 and 14 weeks, respectively, and decreased thereafter, whereas it decreased in basal leaves until 14 weeks and increased at 16 weeks. In stem, all three sections showed high-mannose type glycan structures. The area size of the glycans was significantly higher in the top stem than in both the middle and basal stems, and it was smaller in yellow leaves than in green leaves. The glycan profiles were similar between green and yellow leaves until 16 weeks. Thus, biomass-harvesting time should be optimized to obtain recombinant therapeutic proteins with ideal glycan structure profiles.
Project description:Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.
Project description:Abrin, one of the most highly potent toxins in the world, is derived from the plant, Abrus precatorius. Because of its high toxicity, it poses potential bioterror risks. Therefore, a need exists for new reagents and technologies that would be able to rapidly detect abrin contamination as well as lead to new therapeutics. We report here a group of abrin-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize abrin A-chain, intact A-B chain toxin, and agglutinin by Western blot. Additionally, these mAbs were evaluated for their ability to serve as capture antibodies for a sandwich (capture) ELISA. All possible capture-detector pairs were evaluated and the best antibody pair identified and optimized for a capture ELISA. The capture ELISA based on this capture-detector mAb pair had a limit of detection (L.O.D) of ?1 ng/mL measured using three independent experiments. The assay did not reveal any false positives with extracts containing other potential ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs). Thus, this new capture ELISA uses mAbs for both capture and detection; has no cross-reactivity against other plant RIPs; and has a sensitivity comparable to other reported capture ELISAs using polyclonal antibodies as either capture or detector.
Project description:Background:Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), commonly used in glaucoma treatment, is an eye drop preservative with dose-dependent toxicity. Previous studies have observed the multi-functional benefits of angiogenin (ANG) against glaucoma. In our study, we evaluated ANG's cytoprotective effect on the trabecular meshwork (TM) damage induced by BAK. Additionally, we developed a plant-derived ANG fusion protein and evaluated its effect on TM structure and function. Methods:We synthesized plant-derived ANG (ANG-FcK) by fuzing immunoglobulin G's Fc region and KDEL to conventional recombinant human ANG (Rh-ANG) purified from transgenic tobacco plants. We established a mouse model using BAK to look for degenerative changes in the TM, and to evaluate the protective effects of ANG-FcK and Rh-ANG. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured for 4 weeks and ultrastructural changes, deposition of fluorescent microbeads, type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin and ?-SMA expression were analyzed after the mice were euthanized. Results:TM structural and functional degeneration were induced by 0.1% BAK instillation in mice. ANG co-treatment preserved TM outflow function, which we measured using IOP and a microbead tracer. ANG prevented phenotypic and ultrastructure changes, and that protective effect might be related to the anti-fibrosis mechanism. We observed a similar cytoprotective effect in the BAK-induced degenerative TM mouse model, suggesting that plant-derived ANG-FcK could be a promising glaucoma treatment.
Project description:The antigen-antibody complex (AAC) has novel functions for immunomodulation, encouraging the application of diverse quaternary protein structures for vaccination. In this study, GA733 antigen and anti-GA733 antibody proteins were both co-expressed to obtain the AAC protein structures in a F1 plant obtained by crossing the plants expressing each protein. In F1 plant, the antigen and antibody assembled to form a large quaternary circular ACC structure (~30 nm). The large quaternary protein structures induced immune response to produce anticancer immunoglobulins G (IgGs) that are specific to the corresponding antigens in mouse. The serum containing the anticancer IgGs inhibited the human colorectal cancer cell growth in the xenograft nude mouse. Taken together, antigens and antibodies can be assembled to form AAC protein structures in plants. Plant crossing represents an alternative strategy for the formation of AAC vaccines that efficiently increases anticancer antibody production.
Project description:Defined by monoclonal antibody GA733, the GA733-2 antigen is a cell surface 40-kDa glycoprotein associated with human carcinomas of various origins. Molecular clones for the GA733-2 antigen were isolated from a colorectal carcinoma cell line cDNA library using the high-efficiency COS cell expression system. A 1.4-kilobase cDNA species was enriched by immunoselection with monoclonal antibody. The authenticity of individual clones was established by immunologic and sequence criteria. At the amino acid sequence level, GA733-2 was found to be greater than 99% identical to the previously described KSA antigen defined by monoclonal antibody KS1/4. The amino acid sequence derived from the previously described GA733-related gene, GA733-1, was found to be 49% identical to GA733-2. The positions of 12 cysteine residues in the extracellular domains of the two GA733 antigens are conserved, as is the overall distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues. A 1.45-kilobase transcript of the GA733-2/KSA gene was found to be expressed in cell lines derived from colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma.
Project description:The gene encoding the carcinoma-associated antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody GA733 is a member of a family of at least two type I membrane proteins. This study describes the mechanism of evolution of the GA733-1 and GA733-2 genes. A full-length cDNA clone for GA733-1 was obtained by screening a human placental library with a genomic DNA probe. Comparative analysis of the cDNA sequence with the previously determined genomic sequence confirmed that GA733-1 is an intronless gene. The GA733-2 gene encoding the monoclonal antibody-defined antigen was molecularly cloned with a cDNA probe and partially sequenced. Comparison of GA733-2 gene sequences with the previously established cDNA sequence revealed that this gene consists of nine exons. The putative promoter regions of the GA733-1 and GA733-2 genes are unrelated. These findings suggest that the GA733-1 gene was formed by the retroposition of the GA733-2 gene via an mRNA intermediate. Prior to retroposition, the GA733-2 gene had been affected by exon shuffling. Analysis of GA733-2 exons revealed that many delineate structural motifs. The GA733-1 retroposon was localized either to chromosome region 1p32-1p31 or to 1p13-1q12, and the GA733-2 founder gene was localized to chromosome 4q.