Prominent accumulation in hemodialysis patients of solutes normally cleared by tubular secretion.
ABSTRACT: Dialytic clearance of urea is efficient, but other small solutes normally secreted by the kidney may be cleared less efficiently. This study tested whether the high concentrations of these solutes in hemodialysis patients reflect a failure of passive diffusion methods to duplicate the efficacy of clearance by tubular secretion. We compared the plasma concentrations and clearance rates of four solutes normally cleared by tubular secretion with the plasma concentrations and clearance rates of urea and creatinine in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis and normal subjects. The predialysis concentrations (relative to normal subjects) of unbound phenylacetylglutamine (122-fold), hippurate (108-fold), indoxyl sulfate (116-fold), and p-cresol sulfate (41-fold) were much greater than the concentrations of urea (5-fold) and creatinine (13-fold). The dialytic clearance rates (relative to normal subjects) of unbound phenylacetylglutamine (0.37-fold), hippurate (0.16-fold), indoxyl sulfate (0.21-fold), and p-cresol sulfate (0.39-fold) were much lower than the rates of urea (4.2-fold) and creatinine (1.3-fold). Mathematical modeling showed that prominent accumulation of the normally secreted solutes in hemodialysis patients could be accounted for by lower dialytic clearance relative to physiologic clearance combined with the intermittency of treatment. Whether or not more efficient removal of normally secreted solutes improves outcomes in dialysis patients remains to be tested.
Project description:Background Most patients on hemodialysis are treated thrice weekly even if they have residual kidney function, in part because uncertainty remains as to how residual function should be valued and incorporated into the dialysis prescription. Recent guidelines, however, have increased the weight assigned to residual function and thus reduced the treatment time required when it is present. Increasing the weight assigned to residual function may be justified by knowledge that the native kidney performs functions not replicated by dialysis, including solute removal by secretion. This study tested whether plasma concentrations of secreted solutes are as well controlled in patients with residual function on twice weekly hemodialysis as in anuric patients on thrice weekly hemodialysis.Methods We measured the plasma concentration and residual clearance, dialytic clearance, and removal rates for urea and the secreted solutes hippurate, phenylacetylglutamine, indoxyl sulfate, and p-cresol sulfate in nine patients on twice weekly hemodialysis and nine patients on thrice weekly hemodialysis.Results Compared with anuric patients on thrice weekly dialysis with the same standard Kt/Vurea, patients on twice weekly hemodialysis had lower hippurate and phenylacetylglutamine concentrations and similar indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate concentrations. Mathematical modeling revealed that residual secretory function accounted for the observed pattern of solute concentrations.Conclusions Plasma concentrations of secreted solutes can be well controlled by twice weekly hemodialysis in patients with residual kidney function. This result supports further study of residual kidney function value and the inclusion of this function in dialysis adequacy measures.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in hemodialysis patients, is not fully explained by traditional risk factors. To help define non-traditional risk factors, we determined the association of predialysis total p-cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, phenylacetylglutamine, and hippurate with cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, and first cardiovascular event in the 1,273 participants of the HEMO Study. The results were adjusted for potential demographic, clinical, and laboratory confounders. The mean age of the patients was 58 years, 63% were Black and 42% were male. Overall, there was no association between the solutes and outcomes. However, in sub-group analyses, among patients with lower serum albumin (under 3.6 g/dl), a twofold higher p-cresol sulfate was significantly associated with a 12% higher risk of cardiac death (hazard ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.27) and 22% higher risk of sudden cardiac death (1.22, 1.06-1.41). Similar trends were also noted with indoxyl sulfate. Trial interventions did not modify the association between these solutes and outcomes. Routine clinical and lab data explained less than 22% of the variability in solute levels. Thus, in prevalent hemodialysis patients participating in a large U.S. hemodialysis trial, uremic solutes p-cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, hippurate, and phenylacetylglutamine were not associated with cardiovascular outcomes. However, there were trends of toxicity among patients with lower serum albumin.
Project description:Many solutes have been reported to remain at higher plasma levels relative to normal than the standard index solute urea in hemodialysis patients. Untargeted mass spectrometry was employed to compare solute levels in plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate of hemodialysis patients and normal subjects. Quantitative assays were employed to check the accuracy of untargeted results for selected solutes and additional measurements were made in dialysate and urine to estimate solute clearances and production. Comparison of peak areas indicated that many solutes accumulated to high levels in hemodialysis patients, with average peak areas in plasma ultrafiltrate of dialysis patients being more than 100 times greater than those in normals for 123 features. Most of these mass spectrometric features were identified only by their mass values. Untargeted analysis correctly ranked the accumulation of 5 solutes which were quantitatively assayed but tended to overestimate its extent. Mathematical modeling showed that the elevation of plasma levels for these solutes could be accounted for by a low dialytic to native kidney clearance ratio and a high dialytic clearance relative to the volume of the accessible compartment. Numerous solutes accumulate to high levels in hemodialysis patients because dialysis does not replicate the clearance provided by the native kidney. Many of these solutes remain to be chemically identified and their pathogenic potential elucidated.
Project description:Numerous substances accumulate in the body in uremia but those contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients are still undefined. We examined the association of baseline free levels of four organic solutes that are secreted in the native kidney - p-cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, hippurate and phenylacetylglutamine - with outcomes in hemodialysis patients.We measured these solutes in stored specimens from 394 participants of a US national prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients. We examined the relation of each solute and a combined solute index to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity (first cardiovascular event) using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, clinical factors and laboratory tests including Kt/VUREA.Mean age of the patients was 57 years, 65% were white and 55% were male. In fully adjusted models, a higher p-cresol sulfate level was associated with a greater risk (HR per SD increase; 95% CI) of cardiovascular mortality (1.62; 1.17-2.25; p=0.004) and first cardiovascular event (1.60; 1.23-2.08; p<0.001). A higher phenylacetylglutamine level was associated with a greater risk of first cardiovascular event (1.37; 1.18-1.58; p<0.001). Patients in the highest quintile of the combined solute index had a 96% greater risk of cardiovascular mortality (1.96; 1.05-3.68; p=0.04) and 62% greater risk of first cardiovascular event (1.62; 1.12-2.35; p=0.01) compared with patients in the lowest quintile. Results were robust in sensitivity analyses.Free levels of uremic solutes that are secreted by the native kidney are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in incident hemodialysis patients.
Project description:Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are important representatives of the protein-bound uremic retention solutes. Serum levels of p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are linked to cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression, respectively. They share important features such as the albumin-binding site, low dialytic clearance, and both originate from protein fermentation. Whether serum concentrations are related is, however, not known.In an observational study in 75 maintenance hemodialysis patients, we studied agreement between indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum concentrations, dialytic reduction rates, and dialytic clearances. Concentrations were determined by HPLC. Dialytic clearances were determined from total spent dialysate collections. In vitro spiking experiments were performed to explore protein binding characteristics.Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate total serum concentrations were not related (r = 0.02, P = 0.9), whereas free serum concentrations were only moderately related (r = 0.53, P < 0.001). Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate share the same albumin binding site, for which they are competitive binding inhibitors. Intriguingly, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate reduction rates (r = 0.91, P < 0.001) and dialytic clearances (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) correlated tightly.Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum concentrations are not associated, suggesting different metabolic pathways. Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are both valid markers to monitor behavior of protein-bound solutes during dialysis. Finally, they are competitive binding inhibitors for the same albumin binding site.
Project description:Colonic microbial metabolism substantially contributes to uremic solute production. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are the main representatives of solutes of microbial origin and also, protein-bound solutes, exhibiting high protein-binding affinity and dependence on tubular secretion. Phenylacetylglutamine is another microbial metabolite with high dependence on tubular secretion but low protein-binding affinity. The relevance of such solutes is unknown. Therefore, we prospectively followed 488 patients with CKD stages 1-5 and a measurement of serum phenylacetylglutamine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In a subgroup, we determined 24-hour urinary excretion as a surrogate of intestinal uptake as well as renal clearance of phenylacetylglutamine. We performed outcome analysis for mortality (51 events) and cardiovascular disease (75 events). Serum phenylacetylglutamine level correlated with 24-hour urinary excretion (rho=0.55; P<0.001) and clearance of phenylacetylglutamine (rho=-0.76; P<0.001). Phenylacetylglutamine clearance also correlated with eGFR (rho=0.84; P<0.001). Furthermore, serum phenylacetylglutamine level associated with mortality (hazard ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 2.57; P=0.003) and cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.32 to 2.41; P<0.001) after adjustment for age, sex, presence of diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular disease, and eGFR. Thus, serum phenylacetylglutamine level is elevated in patients with more advanced CKD and determined by intestinal uptake and renal clearance, and it is not fully accounted for by differences in eGFR. High serum phenylacetylglutamine level is a strong and independent risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular disease, suggesting the relevance of microbial metabolism and/or tubular dysfunction in CKD, irrespective of protein binding.
Project description:Large size, protein binding and intracellular sequestration are well known to limit dialytic removal of compounds. In studying the normal renal and dialytic handling of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), a molecule associated with cardiovascular disease in the general population, we discovered two largely unrecognized additional limitations to sustained reduction of a solute by chronic hemodialysis. We measured solute levels and handling in subjects on chronic hemodialysis (ESRD, n = 7) and compared these with levels and clearance in normal controls (NLS, n = 6). The ESRD patients had much higher peak predialysis plasma levels of TMAO than NLS (77 ± 26 vs 2±1 ?M, mean ± SD, p<0.05). For comparison, predialysis BUN levels in ESRD subjects were 45±11 mg/dl and 15±3 mg/dl in NLS. Thus TMAO levels in ESRD average about 40 fold those in NLS while BUN is 3 fold NLS. However, the fractional reduction of TMAO concentration during dialysis, was in fact greater than that of urea (86±3 vs 74±6%, TMAO vs urea, p < 0.05) and its dialytic clearance while somewhat lower than that of urea was comparable to creatinine's. Also production rates were similar (533±272 vs 606 ± 220 ? moles/day, ESRD vs NLS, p>0.05). However, TMAO has a volume of distribution about one half that of urea. Also in NLS the urinary clearance of TMAO was high (219±78 ml/min) compared to the urinary urea and creatinine clearances (55±14 and 119±21 ml/min, respectively). Thus, TMAO levels achieve multiples of normal much greater than those of urea due mainly to 1) TMAO's high clearance by the normal kidney relative to urea and 2) its smaller volume of distribution. Modelling suggests that only much more frequent dialysis would be required to lower levels Thus, additional strategies such as reducing production should be explored. Furthermore, using urea as the sole marker of dialysis adequacy may be misleading since a molecule, TMAO, that is dialyzed readily accumulates to much higher multiples of normal with urea based dialysis prescriptions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Residual kidney function (RKF) is thought to exert beneficial effects through clearance of uremic toxins. However, the level of native kidney function where clearance becomes negligible is not known. METHODS:We aimed to assess whether levels of nonurea solutes differed among patients with 'clinically negligible' RKF compared with those with no RKF. The hemodialysis study excluded patients with urinary urea clearance >1.5?mL/min, below which RKF was considered to be 'clinically negligible'. We measured eight nonurea solutes from 1280 patients participating in this study and calculated the relative difference in solute levels among patients with and without RKF based on measured urinary urea clearance. RESULTS:The mean age of the participants was 57?years and 57% were female. At baseline, 34% of the included participants had clinically negligible RKF (mean 0.7?±?0.4?mL/min) and 66% had no RKF. Seven of the eight nonurea solute levels measured were significantly lower in patients with RKF than in those without RKF, ranging from -24% [95% confidence interval (CI) -31 to -16] for hippurate, -7% (-14 to -1) for trimethylamine-N-oxide and -4% (-6 to -1) for asymmetric dimethylarginine. The effect of RKF on plasma levels was comparable or more pronounced than that achieved with a 31% higher dialysis dose (spKt/Vurea 1.7 versus 1.3). Preserved RKF at 1-year follow-up was associated with a lower risk of cardiac death and first cardiovascular event. CONCLUSIONS:Even at very low levels, RKF is not 'negligible', as it continues to provide nonurea solute clearance. Management of patients with RKF should consider these differences.
Project description:Renal function generally is assessed by measurement of GFR and urinary albumin excretion. Other intrinsic kidney functions, such as proximal tubular secretion, typically are not quantified. Tubular secretion of solutes is more efficient than glomerular filtration and a major mechanism for renal drug elimination, suggesting important clinical consequences of secretion dysfunction. Measuring tubular secretion as an independent marker of kidney function may provide insight into kidney disease etiology and improve prediction of adverse outcomes. We estimated secretion function by measuring secreted solute (hippurate, cinnamoylglycine, p-cresol sulfate, and indoxyl sulfate) clearance using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assays of serum and timed urine samples in a prospective cohort study of 298 patients with kidney disease. We estimated GFR by mean clearance of creatinine and urea from the same samples and evaluated associations of renal secretion with participant characteristics, mortality, and CKD progression to dialysis. Tubular secretion rate modestly correlated with eGFR and associated with some participant characteristics, notably fractional excretion of electrolytes. Low clearance of hippurate or p-cresol sulfate associated with greater risk of death independent of eGFR (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 4.7; hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1, respectively). Hazards models also suggested an association between low cinnamoylglycine clearance and risk of dialysis, but statistical analyses did not exclude the null hypothesis. Therefore, estimates of proximal tubular secretion function correlate with glomerular filtration, but substantial variability in net secretion remains. The observed associations of net secretion with mortality and progression of CKD require confirmation.
Project description:The Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study showed that high-dose hemodialysis providing a single-pool Kt/Vurea of 1.71 provided no benefit over a standard treatment providing a single-pool Kt/Vurea of 1.32. Here, we assessed whether the high-dose treatment used lowered plasma levels of small uremic solutes other than urea. Measurements made ?3 months after randomization in 1281 patients in the HEMO Study showed a range in the effect of high-dose treatment compared with that of standard treatment: from no reduction in the level of p-cresol sulfate or asymmetric dimethylarginine to significant reductions in the levels of trimethylamine oxide (-9%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -2% to -15%), indoxyl sulfate (-11%; 95% CI, -6% to -15%), and methylguanidine (-22%; 95% CI, -18% to -27%). Levels of three other small solutes also decreased slightly; the level of urea decreased 9%. All-cause mortality did not significantly relate to the level of any of the solutes measured. Modeling indicated that the intermittency of treatment along with the presence of nondialytic clearance and/or increased solute production accounted for the limited reduction in solute levels with the higher Kt/Vurea In conclusion, failure to achieve greater reductions in solute levels may explain the failure of high Kt/Vurea treatment to improve outcomes in the HEMO Study. Furthermore, levels of the nonurea solutes varied widely among patients in the HEMO Study, and achieved Kt/Vurea accounted for very little of this variation. These results further suggest that an index only on the basis of urea does not provide a sufficient measure of dialysis adequacy.