Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of UDP-glucose:tetrahydrobiopterin ?-glucosyltransferase (BGluT) from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942.
ABSTRACT: A UDP-glucose:tetrahydrobiopterin ?-glucosyltransferase (BGluT) enzyme was discovered in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 which transfers a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). BGluT protein was overexpressed with selenomethionine labelling for structure determination by the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion method. The BGluT protein was purified by nickel-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. It was then crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using a well solution consisting of 0.1 M bis-tris pH 5.5, 19%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 with 4%(w/v) D(+)-galactose as an additive. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.99 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 171.35, b = 77.99, c = 53.77 Å, ? = 90.27°.
Project description:Flowers of the butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) accumulate a group of polyacylated anthocyanins, named ternatins, in their petals. The first step in ternatin biosynthesis is the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to anthocyanidins such as delphinidin, a reaction catalyzed in C. ternatea by UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (Ct3GT-A; AB185904). To elucidate the structure-function relationship of Ct3GT-A, recombinant Ct3GT-A was expressed in Escherichia coli and its tertiary structure was determined to 1.85 Å resolution by using X-ray crystallography. The structure of Ct3GT-A shows a common folding topology, the GT-B fold, comprised of two Rossmann-like β/α/β domains and a cleft located between the N- and C-domains containing two cavities that are used as binding sites for the donor (UDP-Glc) and acceptor substrates. By comparing the structure of Ct3GT-A with that of the flavonoid glycosyltransferase VvGT1 from red grape (Vitis vinifera) in complex with UDP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro glucose and kaempferol, locations of the catalytic His-Asp dyad and the residues involved in recognizing UDP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro glucose were essentially identical in Ct3GT-A, but certain residues of VvGT1 involved in binding kaempferol were found to be substituted in Ct3GT-A. These findings are important for understanding the differentiation of acceptor-substrate recognition in these two enzymes.
Project description:Here, we report cloning of cyanobacterial genes encoding pteridine glycosyltransferases that catalyze glucosyl or xylosyl transfer from UDP-sugars to tetrahydrobiopterin. The genes were cloned by PCR amplification from genomic DNA which was isolated from culture and environmental samples and overexpressed in Escherichia coli for an in vitro activity assay.
Project description:UDP-glucose: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UGT78K6) from Clitoria ternatea catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to anthocyanidins such as delphinidin. After the acylation of the 3-O-glucosyl residue, the 3'- and 5'-hydroxyl groups of the product are further glucosylated by a glucosyltransferase in the biosynthesis of ternatins, which are anthocyanin pigments. To understand the acceptor-recognition scheme of UGT78K6, the crystal structure of UGT78K6 and its complex forms with anthocyanidin delphinidin and petunidin, and flavonol kaempferol were determined to resolutions of 1.85 Å, 2.55 Å, 2.70 Å, and 1.75 Å, respectively. The enzyme recognition of unstable anthocyanidin aglycones was initially observed in this structural determination. The anthocyanidin- and flavonol-acceptor binding details are almost identical in each complex structure, although the glucosylation activities against each acceptor were significantly different. The 3-hydroxyl groups of the acceptor substrates were located at hydrogen-bonding distances to the N?2 atom of the His17 catalytic residue, supporting a role for glucosyl transfer to the 3-hydroxyl groups of anthocyanidins and flavonols. However, the molecular orientations of these three acceptors are different from those of the known flavonoid glycosyltransferases, VvGT1 and UGT78G1. The acceptor substrates in UGT78K6 are reversely bound to its binding site by a 180° rotation about the O1-O3 axis of the flavonoid backbones observed in VvGT1 and UGT78G1; consequently, the 5- and 7-hydroxyl groups are protected from glucosylation. These substrate recognition schemes are useful to understand the unique reaction mechanism of UGT78K6 for the ternatin biosynthesis, and suggest the potential for controlled synthesis of natural pigments.
Project description:Cell membranes from etiolated Pisum sativum (pea) tissues were separated by ultracentrifugation on linear sucrose density gradients and assayed for membrane marker and glycosyltransferase activity. Membrane fractions were shown to incorporate glucose from UDP-D-[14C]glucose into polysaccharides with glycosyl linkages consistent with synthesis of xyloglucan. A combined assay using g.c., radiogas proportional counting and m.s. was employed to determine the identities of 14C-labelled glycosyl residues and the glycosyl linkages between them. In glucan synthase I assays, membrane fractions enriched for Golgi membranes showed 14C incorporation into 4- and 4,6-glucose residues, with minor incorporation into 3-glucose residues. In glucan synthase II assays, all 14C incorporation was into 3- and 3,4-glucose. There was a shift in glycosyl linkage of 14C incorporation from predominantly 4-glucose at low UDP-glucose concentration to predominantly 3- and 3,4-glucose at high UDP-glucose concentrations. Mn2+ stimulated incorporation of radioactivity into 4,6-glucose residues characteristic of xyloglucan polysaccharides. Addition of exogenous UDP-xylose to assay mixtures stimulated incorporation into 4,6-glucose, with a maximum at 15 microM UDP-xylose.
Project description:Housefly UDP-glucosyltransferase activity towards p-nitrophenol was demonstrated in a system in vitro. The activity is localized in the microsomal fraction, requires UDP-glucose, is slightly stimulated by Mg2+ and is activated optimally over a wide range of detergent concentration. Phenobarbital increases the enzyme(s) activity about 3-fold, with p-nitrophenol as substrate, which differs from the corresponding mammalian glucuronyltransferase.
Project description:The baculovirus ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (EGT) disrupts the hormonal balance of the insect host by catalysing the conjugation of ecdysteroids, the moulting hormones, with the sugar moiety from UDP-glucose or UDP-galactose. In this study, Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus EGT has been overproduced and purified, and its kinetic properties determined. The enzyme was purified 1100-fold to near-homogeneity using only two major steps, ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. EGT activity was eluted from the gel-filtration column as a single peak corresponding to a 260+/-50 kDa protein, suggesting that the enzyme is an oligomer of three to five subunits, as the subunit molecular mass is approximately 56 kDa. Kinetic analysis showed that EGT has broadly similar specificities for UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose (kcat/Km=1790.8 and 902.1 respectively) when ecdysone is used as the other substrate. On the other hand, it shows marked differences in specificity for the various ecdysteroids tested. Ecdysone seems to be the optimal substrate (kcat/Km=7101.1), whereas 3-dehydroecdysone, an ecdysone precursor in Lepidoptera, is seven times less favourable (kcat/Km=1085.7). Notably, 20-hydroxyecdysone, the active form of the hormone, is conjugated very poorly (kcat/Km=31.6). Analysis of the data revealed that the enzyme mechanism involves the formation of an ecdysteroid-UDP-sugar-enzyme ternary complex. This work represents the most detailed biochemical characterization of an EGT to date.
Project description:We synthesized [3'-3H]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin from [8,5'-3H]guanosine 5'-triphosphate ([8,5'-3H]GTP) using GTP cyclohydrolase (EC 126.96.36.199), 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase and sepiapterin reductase (EC 188.8.131.52). After purification by cation-exchange h.p.l.c. a solution of radiochemically pure (> 95%) [3'-3H]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin with a specific activity of 9.2 Ci/mmol was obtained. The product proved well suited for studying the binding of tetrahydrobiopterin to nitric-oxide synthase.
Project description:Secretory and membrane N-linked glycoproteins undergo folding and oligomeric assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum with the aid of a folding mechanism known as the calnexin cycle. UDP-glucose glycoprotein:glucosyltransferase (UGGT) is the sensor component of the calnexin cycle, which recognizes these glycoproteins when they are incompletely folded, and transfers a glucose residue from UDP-glucose to N-linked Man9-GlcNAc2 glycans. To determine how UGGT recognizes incompletely folded glycoproteins, we used purified enzyme to glucosylate a set of Man9-GlcNAc2 glycopeptide substrates in vitro, and determined quantitatively the glucose incorporation into each glycan by mass spectrometry. A ranked order of glycopeptide specificity was found that provides the criteria for the recognition of substrates by UGGT. The preference for amino-acid residues close to N-linked glycans provides criteria for the recognition of glycopeptide substrates by UGGT.
Project description:Mutations in rumi result in a temperature-sensitive loss of Notch signaling in Drosophila. Drosophila Rumi is a soluble, endoplasmic reticulum-retained protein with a CAP10 domain that functions as a protein O-glucosyltransferase. In human and mouse genomes, three potential Rumi homologues exist: one with a high degree of identity to Drosophila Rumi (52%), and two others with lower degrees of identity but including a CAP10 domain (KDELC1 and KDELC2). Here we show that both mouse and human Rumi, but not KDELC1 or KDELC2, catalyze transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to an EGF repeat from human factor VII. Similarly, human Rumi, but not KDELC1 or KDELC2, rescues the Notch phenotypes in Drosophila rumi clones. During characterization of the Rumi enzymes, we noted that, in addition to protein O-glucosyltransferase activity, both mammalian and Drosophila Rumi also showed significant protein O-xylosyltransferase activity. Rumi transfers Xyl or glucose to serine 52 in the O-glucose consensus sequence ( ) of factor VII EGF repeat. Surprisingly, the second serine (S53) facilitates transfer of Xyl, but not glucose, to the EGF repeat by Rumi. EGF16 of mouse Notch2, which has a diserine motif in the consensus sequence ( ), is also modified with either O-Xyl or O-glucose glycans in cells. Mutation of the second serine (S590A) causes a loss of O-Xyl but not O-glucose at this site. Altogether, our data establish dual substrate specificity for the glycosyltransferase Rumi and provide evidence that amino acid sequences of the recipient EGF repeat significantly influence which donor substrate (UDP-glucose or UDP-Xyl) is used.