WNK1-OSR1 kinase-mediated phospho-activation of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter facilitates glioma migration.
ABSTRACT: The bumetanide (BMT)-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) maintains cell volume homeostasis by increasing intracellular K+ and Cl- content via regulatory volume increase (RVI). Expression levels of NKCC1 positively correlate with the histological grade and severity of gliomas, the most common primary adult brain tumors, and up-regulated NKCC1 activity facilitates glioma cell migration and apoptotic resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide (TMZ). However, the cellular mechanisms underlying NKCC1 functional up-regulation in glioma and in response to TMZ administration remain unknown.Expression of NKCC1 and its upstream kinases With-No-K (Lysine) kinase 1 (WNK1) and oxidative stress-responsive kinase-1 (OSR1) in different human glioma cell lines and glioma specimens were detected by western blotting and immunostaining. Live cell imaging and microchemotaxis assay were applied to record glioma cell movements under different treatment conditions. Fluorescence indicators were utilized to measure cell volume, intracellular K+ and Cl- content to reflect the activity of NKCC1 on ion transportation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of WNK1 or OSR1 was used to explore their roles in regulation of NKCC1 activity in glioma cells. Results of different treatment groups were compared by one-way ANOVA using the Bonferroni post-hoc test in the case of multiple comparisons.We show that compared to human neural stem cells and astrocytes, human glioma cells exhibit robust increases in the activation and phosphorylation of NKCC1 and its two upstream regulatory kinases, WNK1 and OSR1. siRNA-mediated knockdown of WNK1 or OSR1 reduces intracellular K+ and Cl- content and RVI in glioma cells by abolishing NKCC1 regulatory phospho-activation. Unexpectedly, TMZ activates the WNK1/OSR1/NKCC1 signaling pathway and enhances glioma migration. Pharmacological inhibition of NKCC1 with its potent inhibitor BMT or siRNA knockdown of WNK1 or OSR1 significantly decreases glioma cell migration after TMZ treatment.Together, our data show a novel role for the WNK1/OSR1/NKCC1 pathway in basal and TMZ-induced glioma migration, and suggest that glioma treatment with TMZ might be improved by drugs that inhibit elements of the WNK1/OSR1/NKCC1 signaling pathway.
Project description:<b>Introduction:</b> Na<sup>+</sup>-K<sup>+</sup>-2Cl<sup>-</sup> cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) is important in regulating intracellular K<sup>+</sup> and Cl<sup>-</sup> homeostasis and cell volume. In this study, we investigated a role of NKCC1 in regulating glioma K<sup>+</sup> influx and proliferation in response to apoptosis inducing chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide (TMZ). The efficacy of a new bumetanide (BMT)-derivative NKCC1 inhibitor STS66 [3-(butylamino)-2-phenoxy-5-[(2, 2, 2-trifluoroethylamino) methyl] benzenesulfonamide] in blocking NKCC1 activity was compared with well-established NKCC1 inhibitor BMT. <b>Methods:</b> NKCC1 activity in cultured mouse GL26 and SB28-GFP glioma cells was measured by Rb<sup>+</sup> (K<sup>+</sup>) influx. The WNK1-SPAK/OSR1-NKCC1 signaling and AKT/ERK-mTOR signaling protein expression and activation were assessed by immunoblotting. Cell growth was determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, MTT proliferation assay, and cell cycle analysis. Impact of STS66 and BMT on cell Rb<sup>+</sup> influx and growth was measured in glioma cells treated with or without TMZ. <b>Results:</b> Rb<sup>+</sup> influx assay showed that 10 μM BMT markedly decreased the total Rb<sup>+</sup> influx and no additional inhibition detected at >10 μM BMT. In contrast, the maximum effects of STS66 on Rb<sup>+</sup> influx inhibition were at 40-60 μM. Both BMT and STS66 reduced TMZ-mediated NKCC1 activation and protein upregulation. Glioma cell growth can be reduced by STS66. The most robust inhibition of glioma growth, cell cycle, and AKT/ERK signaling was achieved by the TMZ + STS66 treatment. <b>Conclusion:</b> The new BMT-derivative NKCC1 inhibitor STS66 is more effective than BMT in reducing glioma cell growth in part by inhibiting NKCC1-mediated K<sup>+</sup> influx. TMZ + STS66 combination treatment reduces glioma cell growth <i>via</i> inhibiting cell cycle and AKT-ERK signaling.
Project description:The SPAK (STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase-1) kinases interact and phosphorylate NKCC1 (Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter-1), leading to its activation. Recent studies indicated that SPAK and OSR1 are phosphorylated and activated by the WNK1 [with no K (lysine) protein kinase-1] and WNK4, genes mutated in humans affected by Gordon's hypertension syndrome. In the present study, we have identified three residues in NKCC1 (Thr175/Thr179/Thr184 in shark or Thr203/Thr207/Thr212 in human) that are phosphorylated by SPAK and OSR1, and have developed a peptide substrate, CATCHtide (cation chloride co-transporter peptide substrate), to assess SPAK and OSR1 activity. Exposure of HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells to osmotic stress, which leads to phosphorylation and activation of NKCC1, increased phosphorylation of NKCC1 at the sites targeted by SPAK/OSR1. The residues on NKCC1, phosphorylated by SPAK/OSR1, are conserved in other cation co-transporters, such as the Na+-Cl- co-transporter, the target of thiazide drugs that lower blood pressure in humans with Gordon's syndrome. Furthermore, we characterize the properties of a 92-residue CCT (conserved C-terminal) domain on SPAK and OSR1 that interacts with an RFXV (Arg-Phe-Xaa-Val) motif present in the substrate NKCC1 and its activators WNK1/WNK4. A peptide containing the RFXV motif interacts with nanomolar affinity with the CCT domains of SPAK/OSR1 and can be utilized to affinity-purify SPAK and OSR1 from cell extracts. Mutation of the arginine, phenylalanine or valine residue within this peptide abolishes binding to SPAK/OSR1. We have identified specific residues within the CCT domain that are required for interaction with the RFXV motif and have demonstrated that mutation of these in OSR1 inhibited phosphorylation of NKCC1, but not of CATCHtide which does not possess an RFXV motif. We establish that an intact CCT domain is required for WNK1 to efficiently phosphorylate and activate OSR1. These data establish that the CCT domain functions as a multipurpose docking site, enabling SPAK/OSR1 to interact with substrates (NKCC1) and activators (WNK1/WNK4).
Project description:The oxidative-stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) and the STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) are key enzymes in a signaling cascade regulating the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1-2) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC). Both kinases have a conserved carboxyl-terminal (CCT) domain, which recognizes a unique peptide motif present in OSR1- and SPAK-activating kinases (with-no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1) and WNK4) as well as their substrates (NKCC1, NKCC2, and NCC). Utilizing various modalities of the Rosetta Molecular Modeling Software Suite including flexible peptide docking and protein design, we comprehensively explored the sequence space recognized by the CCT domain. Specifically, we studied single residue mutations as well as complete unbiased designs of a hexapeptide substrate. The computational study started from a crystal structure of the CCT domain of OSR1 in complex with a hexapeptide derived from WNK4. Point mutations predicted to be favorable include Arg to His or Trp substitutions at position 2 and a Phe to Tyr substitution at position 3 of the hexapeptide. In addition, de novo design yielded two peptides predicted to bind to the CCT domain: FRFQVT and TRFDVT. These results, which indicate a little bit more freedom in the composition of the peptide, were confirmed through the use of yeast two-hybrid screening.
Project description:The WNK (with no lysine kinase)-SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase)/OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1) signalling pathway plays an important role in controlling mammalian blood pressure by modulating the activity of ion co-transporters in the kidney. Recent studies have identified Gordon's hypertension syndrome patients with mutations in either CUL3 (Cullin-3) or the BTB protein KLHL3 (Kelch-like 3). CUL3 assembles with BTB proteins to form Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. To explore how a CUL3-KLHL3 complex might operate, we immunoprecipitated KLHL3 and found that it associated strongly with WNK isoforms and CUL3, but not with other components of the pathway [SPAK/OSR1 or NCC (Na(+)/Cl(-) co-transporter)/NKCC1 (Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter 1)]. Strikingly, 13 out of the 15 dominant KLHL3 disease mutations analysed inhibited binding to WNK1 or CUL3. The recombinant wild-type CUL3-KLHL3 E3 ligase complex, but not a disease-causing CUL3-KLHL3[R528H] mutant complex, ubiquitylated WNK1 in vitro. Moreover, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated knockdown of CUL3 increased WNK1 protein levels and kinase activity in HeLa cells. We mapped the KLHL3 interaction site in WNK1 to a non-catalytic region (residues 479-667). Interestingly, the equivalent region in WNK4 encompasses residues that are mutated in Gordon's syndrome patients. Strikingly, we found that the Gordon's disease-causing WNK4[E562K] and WNK4[Q565E] mutations, as well as the equivalent mutation in the WNK1[479-667] fragment, abolished the ability to interact with KLHL3. These results suggest that the CUL3-KLHL3 E3 ligase complex regulates blood pressure via its ability to interact with and ubiquitylate WNK isoforms. The findings of the present study also emphasize that the missense mutations in WNK4 that cause Gordon's syndrome strongly inhibit interaction with KLHL3. This could elevate blood pressure by increasing the expression of WNK4 thereby stimulating inappropriate salt retention in the kidney by promoting activation of the NCC/NKCC2 ion co-transporters. The present study reveals how mutations that disrupt the ability of an E3 ligase to interact with and ubiquitylate a critical cellular substrate such as WNK isoforms can trigger a chronic disease such as hypertension.
Project description:Wnk kinase maintains cell volume, regulating various transporters such as sodium-chloride cotransporter, potassium-chloride cotransporter, and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) through the phosphorylation of oxidative stress responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) and STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). However, the activating mechanism of Wnk kinase in specific tissues and specific conditions is broadly unclear. In the present study, we used a human salivary gland (HSG) cell line as a model and showed that Ca(2+) may have a role in regulating Wnk kinase in the HSG cell line. Through this study, we found that the HSG cell line expressed molecules participating in the WNK-OSR1-NKCC pathway, such as Wnk1, Wnk4, OSR1, SPAK, and NKCC1. The HSG cell line showed an intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) increase in response to hypotonic stimulation, and the response was synchronized with the phosphorylation of OSR1. Interestingly, when we inhibited the hypotonically induced [Ca(2+)]i increase with nonspecific Ca(2+) channel blockers such as 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, gadolinium, and lanthanum, the phosphorylated OSR1 level was also diminished. Moreover, a cyclopiazonic acid-induced passive [Ca(2+)]i elevation was evoked by the phosphorylation of OSR1, and the amount of phosphorylated OSR1 decreased when the cells were treated with BAPTA, a Ca(2+) chelator. Finally, through that process, NKCC1 activity also decreased to maintain the cell volume in the HSG cell line. These results indicate that Ca(2+) may regulate the WNK-OSR1 pathway and NKCC1 activity in the HSG cell line. This is the first demonstration that indicates upstream Ca(2+) regulation of the WNK-OSR1 pathway in intact cells.
Project description:The oxidative-stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) and the STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) are key enzymes in a signalling cascade regulating the activity of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporters (NKCCs) in response to osmotic stress. Both kinases have a conserved carboxy-terminal (CCT) domain, which recognizes a unique peptide (Arg-Phe-Xaa-Val) motif present in OSR1- and SPAK-activating kinases (with-no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1) and WNK4) as well as its substrates (NKCC1 and NKCC2). Here, we describe the structural basis of this recognition event as shown by the crystal structure of the CCT domain of OSR1 in complex with a peptide containing this motif, derived from WNK4. The CCT domain forms a novel protein fold that interacts with the Arg-Phe-Xaa-Val motif through a surface-exposed groove. An intricate web of interactions is observed between the CCT domain and an Arg-Phe-Xaa-Val motif-containing peptide derived from WNK4. Mutational analysis shows that these interactions are required for the CCT domain to bind to WNK1 and NKCC1. The CCT domain structure also shows how phosphorylation of a Ser/Thr residue preceding the Arg-Phe-Xaa-Val motif results in a steric clash, promoting its dissociation from the CCT domain. These results provide the first molecular insight into the mechanism by which the SPAK and OSR1 kinases specifically recognize their upstream activators and downstream substrates.
Project description:NKCC1 and KCC2, related cation-chloride cotransporters (CCC), regulate cell volume and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurotranmission by modulating the intracellular concentration of chloride [Cl(-)]. These CCCs are oppositely regulated by serine-threonine phosphorylation, which activates NKCC1 but inhibits KCC2. The kinase(s) that performs this function in the nervous system are not known with certainty. WNK1 and WNK4, members of the WNK (with no lysine [K]) kinase family, either directly or via the downstream SPAK/OSR1 Ste20-type kinases, regulate the furosemide-sensitive NKCC2 and the thiazide-sensitive NCC, kidney-specific CCCs. What role the novel WNK2 kinase plays in this regulatory cascade, if any, is unknown. Here, we show that WNK2, unlike other WNKs, is not expressed in kidney; rather, it is a neuron-enriched kinase primarily expressed in neocortical pyramidal cells, thalamic relay cells, and cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells in both the developing and adult brain. Bumetanide-sensitive and Cl(-)-dependent (86)Rb(+) uptake assays in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that WNK2 promotes Cl(-) accumulation by reciprocally activating NKCC1 and inhibiting KCC2 in a kinase-dependent manner, effectively bypassing normal tonicity requirements for cotransporter regulation. TiO(2) enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry studies demonstrate WNK2 forms a protein complex in the mammalian brain with SPAK, a known phosphoregulator of NKCC1. In this complex, SPAK is phosphorylated at Ser-383, a consensus WNK recognition site. These findings suggest a role for WNK2 in the regulation of CCCs in the mammalian brain, with implications for both cell volume regulation and/or GABAergic signaling.
Project description:In immature neurons the amino acid neurotransmitter, GABA provides the dominant mode for neuronal excitation by inducing membrane depolarization due to Cl(-) efflux through GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs). The driving force for Cl(-) is outward because the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) elevates the Cl(-) concentration in these cells. GABA-induced membrane depolarization and the resulting activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels is fundamental to normal brain development, yet the mechanisms that regulate depolarizing GABA are not well understood. The neurosteroid estradiol potently augments depolarizing GABA action in the immature hypothalamus by enhancing the activity of the NKCC1 cotransporter. Understanding how estradiol controls NKCC1 activity will be essential for a complete understanding of brain development. We now report that estradiol treatment of newborn rat pups significantly increases protein levels of two kinases upstream of the NKCC1 cotransporter, SPAK (STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress response kinase). The estradiol-induced increase is transcription dependent, and its time course parallels that of estradiol-enhanced phosphorylation of NKCC1. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of SPAK, and to a lesser degree of OSR1, precludes estradiol-mediated enhancement of NKCC1 phosphorylation. Functionally, knockdown of SPAK or OSR1 in embryonic hypothalamic cultures diminishes estradiol-enhanced Ca(2+) influx induced by GABA(A)R activation. Our data suggest that SPAK and OSR1 may be critical factors in the regulation of depolarizing GABA-mediated processes in the developing brain. It will be important to examine these kinases with respect to sex differences and developmental brain anomalies in future studies.
Project description:Polymorphisms in the gene encoding sterile 20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) associate with hypertension susceptibility in humans. SPAK interacts with WNK kinases to regulate the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) and Na(+)-Cl(-) co-transporters [collectively, N(K)CC]. Mutations in WNK1/4 and N(K)CC can cause changes in BP and dyskalemia in humans, but the physiologic role of SPAK in vivo is unknown. We generated and analyzed SPAK-null mice by targeting disruption of exons 9 and 10 of SPAK. Compared with SPAK(+/+) littermates, SPAK(+/-) mice exhibited hypotension without significant electrolyte abnormalities, and SPAK(-/-) mice not only exhibited hypotension but also recapitulated Gitelman syndrome with hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. In the kidney tissues of SPAK(-/-) mice, the expression of total and phosphorylated (p-)NCC was markedly decreased, but that of p-OSR1, total NKCC2, and p-NKCC2 was significantly increased. We observed a blunted response to thiazide but normal response to furosemide in SPAK(-/-) mice. In aortic tissues, total NKCC1 expression was increased but p-NKCC1 was decreased in SPAK-deficient mice. Both SPAK(+/-) and SPAK(-/-) mice had impaired responses to the selective α(1)-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide, suggesting that impaired aortic contractility may contribute to the hypotension of SPAK-null mice. In summary, SPAK-null mice have defects of NCC in the kidneys and NKCC1 in the blood vessels, leading to hypotension through renal salt wasting and vasodilation. SPAK may be a promising target for antihypertensive therapy.
Project description:Cell volume homeostasis requires the dynamically regulated transport of ions across the plasmalemma. While the ensemble of ion transport proteins involved in cell volume regulation is well established, the molecular coordinators of their activities remain poorly characterized. We utilized a functional kinomics approach including a kinome-wide siRNA-phosphoproteomic screen, a high-content kinase inhibitor screen, and a kinase trapping-Orbitrap mass spectroscopy screen to systematically identify essential kinase regulators of KCC3 Thr991/Thr1048 phosphorylation - a key signaling event in cell swelling-induced regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In the mammalian brain, we found the Cl--sensitive WNK3-SPAK kinase complex, required for cell shrinkage-induced regulatory volume decrease (RVI) via the stimulatory phosphorylation of NKCC1 (Thr203/Thr207/Thr212), is also essential for the inhibitory phosphorylation of KCC3 (Thr991/Thr1048). This is mediated in vivo by an interaction between the CCT domain in SPAK and RFXV/I domains in WNK3 and NKCC1/KCC3. Accordingly, genetic or pharmacologic WNK3-SPAK inhibition prevents cell swelling in response to osmotic stress and ameliorates post-ischemic brain swelling through a simultaneous inhibition of NKCC1-mediated Cl- uptake and stimulation of KCC3-mediated Cl- extrusion. We conclude that WNK3-SPAK is an integral component of the long-sought "Cl-/volume-sensitive kinase" of the cation-Cl- cotransporters, and functions as a molecular rheostat of cell volume in the mammalian brain.