RNA-seq analysis of transcriptome and glucosinolate metabolism in seeds and sprouts of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a member of Cruciferae, is an important vegetable containing high concentration of various nutritive and functional molecules especially the anticarcinogenic glucosinolates. The sprouts of broccoli contain 10-100 times higher level of glucoraphanin, the main contributor of the anticarcinogenesis, than the edible florets. Despite the broccoli sprouts' functional importance, currently available genetic and genomic tools for their studies are very limited, which greatly restricts the development of this functionally important vegetable. RESULTS: A total of ?85 million 251 bp reads were obtained. After de novo assembly and searching the assembled transcripts against the Arabidopsis thaliana and NCBI nr databases, 19,441 top-hit transcripts were clustered as unigenes with an average length of 2,133 bp. These unigenes were classified according to their putative functional categories. Cluster analysis of total unigenes with similar expression patterns and differentially expressed unigenes among different tissues, as well as transcription factor analysis were performed. We identified 25 putative glucosinolate metabolism genes sharing 62.04-89.72% nucleotide sequence identity with the Arabidopsis orthologs. This established a broccoli glucosinolate metabolic pathway with high colinearity to Arabidopsis. Many of the biosynthetic and degradation genes showed higher expression after germination than in seeds; especially the expression of the myrosinase TGG2 was 20-130 times higher. These results along with the previous reports about these genes' studies in Arabidopsis and the glucosinolate concentration in broccoli sprouts indicate the breakdown products of glucosinolates may play important roles in the stage of broccoli seed germination and sprout development. CONCLUSION: Our study provides the largest genetic resource of broccoli to date. These data will pave the way for further studies and genetic engineering of broccoli sprouts and will also provide new insight into the genomic research of this species and its relatives.
Project description:Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages) during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head). Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin) and 3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin). Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 ?mol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended.
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study are to analyze the transcriptome of five time point in broccoli seed germination and sprout development and to find the putative glucosinolate metabolism genes in the stage. Methods: Total mRNA of germinated seeds, 3 day cotyledons, 7 day botyledons, 11 day cotyledons and 11 day euphyllas of wild-type broccoli were harvested. Each sample was harvested in three independent biological replicates with equal weight and subsequently pooled together for sequencing. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were de novo assembled using VELVET followed by OASES. Then the assembled unigenes were used for the abundance and functional analysis. Results: A total of ~85million 251bp reads were obtained. After de novo assembly and searching the assembled transcripts against the Arabidopsis thaliana and Nr databases, 19,441 top-hit transcripts were clustered as unigenes with an average length of 2,133bp. These unigenes were classified according to their putative functional categories. Cluster analysis of total unigenes with similar expression patterns and differentially expressed unigenes among different tissues,as well as transcription factor analysis were performed. We identified 25 putative glucosinolate metabolismgenes sharing 62.04-89.72% nucleotide sequence identity with the Arabidopsis orthologs. This established a broccoli glucosinolate metabolic pathway with high colinearity to Arabidopsis. Many of the biosynthetic and degradation genes showed higher expression after germination than in seeds; especially the expression of the myrosinaseTGG2 was 20-130 times higher.These results along with the previous reports that glucosinolate concentration decreased exponentially once after germination indicate the breakdown products of glucosinolates may play important roles in broccoli seed germination and sprout development. Conclusion: Our study provides the largest genetic resource of broccoli to date. These data will pave the way for further studies and genetic engineering of broccoli sprouts to develop functional vegetables containing high levels of the anticarcinogenic glucosinolates. They will also provide new insight into the genomic research of this species and its relatives. Wild-type broccoli mRNA profiles of seeds, 3 day cotyledons, 7 day botyledons, 11 day cotyledons and 11 day euphyllas were generated by deep sequencing, three biological replicates pooling together for each tissue, using Illumina Myseq platform.
Project description:Sulforaphane is a significant chemopreventive compound which is the predominant glucosinolate in broccoli sprouts. However, the existence of the epithiospecifier protein could direct the hydrolysis of glucosinolates toward sulforaphane nitrile formation instead of sulforaphane. Therefore, the study aimed on improving the yielding of sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts with a new method of the united hydrolysis of cruciferous sprouts. According to the results, the addition of radish, rocket and rape sprouts to broccoli sprouts could promote the hydrolysis of the glucoraphanin to anticancer effective sulforaphane to 2.03, 2.32 and 1.95-fold, respectively, compared to single broccoli sprouts. Meanwhile, the formation of non-bioactive sulforaphane nitrile in these three groups decreased greatly. However, the addition of mustard sprouts had no positive effect. These observations could make a contribution to the potential chemoprotective effects of broccoli sprouts.
Project description:While the defensive function of glucosinolates is well established, their possible role as a nutrient reservoir is poorly understood and glucosinolate turnover pathways have not been elucidated. Previous research showed that glucosinolate content in germinating seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) increases within the first two to four days on culture medium and then decreases below the level at day 0. In this study we used previously characterized T-DNA mutants to investigate if enzymes known to be involved in glucosinolate breakdown upon tissue damage affect the time course of glucosinolate content in germinating seeds. Besides dormant seeds, we analyzed seeds subjected to stratification in water for up to 72 h or germination on plates for up to ten days. Although seeds of tgg1 tgg2 (deficient in above-ground classical myrosinases) had higher glucosinolate levels than Col-0, the changes during germination were not different to those in seeds of Col-0. This demonstrates that TGG1/TGG2 are not responsible for the decline in glucosinolate content upon germination and suggests the involvement of other enzymes. Expression data extracted from publically available databases show a number of ?-glucosidases of the BGLU18-BGLU33 clade to be expressed at specific time points of seed maturation and germination identifying them as good candidates for a role in glucosinolate turnover. Although nitrile-specifier proteins (NSPs) act downstream of myrosinases upon glucosinolate breakdown in tissue homogenates, mutants deficient in either seed-expressed NSP2 or seedling-expressed NSP1 were affected in glucosinolate content in seeds and during stratification or germination when compared to Col-0 indicating a direct role in turnover. The mutant lines nsp1-1, nsp2-1 and nsp2-2 had significantly higher glucosinolate levels in dry seeds than Col-0. After 24 h of stratification in water, nsp2-2 seeds contained 2.3 fold higher levels of glucosinolate than Col-0 seeds. This might indicate downregulation of hydrolytic enzymes when nitrile formation following glucosinolate hydrolysis is impaired. The time course of total glucosinolate content during ten days of germination depended on functional NSP1. Based on the present data, we propose a number of experiments that might aid in establishing the pathway(s) of glucosinolate turnover in germinating A. thaliana seeds.
Project description:Effects of high-pressure processing (HPP, 100-600 MPa for 3 min at 30 °C) on the glucosinolate content, conversion to isothiocyanates, and color changes during storage in fresh broccoli sprouts were investigated. A mild heat treatment (60 °C) and boiling (100 °C) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Glucosinolates were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and isothiocyanates were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. A formation of isothiocyanates was observed in all high-pressure-treated sprouts. The highest degree of conversion (85%) was observed after the 600 MPa treatment. Increased isothiocyanate formation at 400-600 MPa suggests an inactivation of the epithiospecifier protein. During storage, color changed from green to brownish, reflected by increasing a* values and decreasing L* values. This effect was less pronounced for sprouts treated at 100 and 600 MPa, indicating an influence on the responsible enzymes. In summary, HPP had no negative effects on the glucosinolate-myrosinase system in broccoli sprouts.
Project description:Prolonged darkness leads to carbohydrate starvation, and as a consequence plants degrade proteins and lipids to oxidize amino acids and fatty acids as alternative substrates for mitochondrial ATP production. We investigated, whether the internal breakdown of glucosinolates, a major class of sulfur-containing secondary metabolites, might be an additional component of the carbohydrate starvation response in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). The glucosinolate content of A. thaliana leaves was strongly reduced after seven days of darkness. We also detected a significant increase in the activity of myrosinase, the enzyme catalyzing the initial step in glucosinolate breakdown, coinciding with a strong induction of the main leaf myrosinase isoforms TGG1 and TGG2. In addition, nitrilase activity was increased suggesting a turnover via nitriles and carboxylic acids. Internal degradation of glucosinolates might also be involved in diurnal or developmental adaptations of the glucosinolate profile. We observed a diurnal rhythm for myrosinase activity in two-week-old plants. Furthermore, leaf myrosinase activity and protein abundance of TGG2 varied during plant development, whereas leaf protein abundance of TGG1 remained stable indicating regulation at the transcriptional as well as post-translational level.
Project description:Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194??mol of goitrin, but not by 77??mol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10??mol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10??M, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69??M). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health.
Project description:Lepidopteran larvae growth is influenced by host plant glucosinolate (GS) concentrations, which are, in turn, influenced by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA). In order to elucidate insect resistance biomarkers to lepidopteran pests, transcriptome and metabolome analyses following JA treatments were conducted with two broccoli cultivars, Green Magic and VI-158, which have differentially induced indole GSs, neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin, respectively. To test these two inducible GSs on growth of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), eight neonate cabbage looper larvae were placed onto each of three plants per JA treatments (0, 100, 200, 400 µM) three days after treatment. After five days of feeding, weight of larvae and their survival rate was found to decrease with increasing JA concentrations in both broccoli cultivars. JA-inducible GSs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Neoglucobrassicin in Green Magic and glucobrassicin in VI-158 leaves were increased in a dose-dependent manner. One or both of these glucosinolates and/or their hydrolysis products showed significant inverse correlations with larval weight and survival (five days after treatment) while being positively correlated with the number of days to pupation. This implies that these two JA-inducible glucosinolates can influence the growth and survival of cabbage looper larvae. Transcriptome profiling supported the observed changes in glucosinolate and their hydrolysis product concentrations following JA treatments. Several genes related to GS metabolism differentiate the two broccoli cultivars in their pattern of transcriptional response to JA treatments. Indicative of the corresponding change in indole GS concentrations, transcripts of the transcription factor MYB122, core structure biosynthesis genes (CYP79B2, UGT74B1, SUR1, SOT16, SOT17, and SOT18), an indole glucosinolate side chain modification gene (IGMT1), and several glucosinolate hydrolysis genes (TGG1, TGG2, and ESM1) were significantly increased in Green Magic (statistically significant in most cases at 400 µM) while UGT74B1 and MYB122 were significantly increased in VI-158. Therefore, these metabolite and transcript biomarker results indicate that transcriptome profiling can identify genes associated with the formation of two different indole GS and their hydrolysis products. Therefore, these metabolite and transcript biomarkers could be useful in an effective marker-assisted breeding strategy for resistance to generalist lepidopteran pests in broccoli and potentially other Brassica vegetables.
Project description:Glucosinolates, which are unique to Brassicaceae vegetables, have diverse biological activities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer actions. In this study, we applied hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) to the simultaneous quantification of 22 glucosinolates in 12 Brassicaceae vegetables, including pak choi, choy sum, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, Kai Lan, Brussels sprouts, rocket salad, daikon radish, red cherry radish, and watercress. Significant differences in concentration and composition of glucosinolates were observed among these vegetables. Cabbage had the highest level of total glucosinolates (?g/g dry weight: 19?551.2 ± 1317.7), whereas Kai Lan had the lowest level (7611.3 ± 868.4). Aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were the major components in the 12 vegetables ranging from 76 to 100%, except watercress (37%). On the basis of the content of glucosinolates, the 12 vegetables were well distinguishable and classified according to their morphological taxonomy. This study presents a HILIC-MS/MS approach for quantification of glucosinolates, and demonstrates the potential of glucosinolate profiles for Brassicaceae species identification.
Project description:Accessing different nitrogen (N) sources involves a profound adaptation of plant metabolism. In this study, a quantitative proteomic approach was used to further understand how the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana adjusts to different N sources when grown exclusively under nitrate or ammonium nutrition. Proteome data evidenced that glucosinolate metabolism was differentially regulated by the N source and that both TGG1 and TGG2 myrosinases were more abundant under ammonium nutrition, which is generally considered to be a stressful situation. Moreover, Arabidopsis plants displayed glucosinolate accumulation and induced myrosinase activity under ammonium nutrition. Interestingly, these results were also confirmed in the economically important crop broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). Moreover, these metabolic changes were correlated in Arabidopsis with the differential expression of genes from the aliphatic glucosinolate metabolic pathway. This study underlines the importance of nitrogen nutrition and the potential of using ammonium as the N source in order to stimulate glucosinolate metabolism, which may have important applications not only in terms of reducing pesticide use, but also for increasing plants' nutritional value.