White adipose tissue overproduces the lipid-mobilizing factor zinc ?2-glycoprotein in chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently associated with protein-energy wasting, a recognized strong predictive factor of mortality. Zinc ?2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a new adipokine involved in body weight control through its lipid-mobilizing activity. Here we tested whether the uremic environment in CKD could alter ZAG production by white adipose tissue and contribute to CKD-associated metabolic disturbances. Compared with normal plasma, uremic plasma induced a significant increase in ZAG synthesis (124%), was associated with a significant increase in basal lipolysis (31%), and significantly blunted lipogenesis (-53%) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. In 5/6 nephrectomized rats and mice in vivo, there was a significant decrease in white adipose tissue accretion (-44% and -43%, respectively) and a significantly higher white adipose tissue content of ZAG protein than in sham-operated, pair-fed control animals (498% and 106%, respectively). Subcutaneous white adipose tissue biopsies from patients with end-stage renal disease exhibited a higher content of ZAG (573%) than age-matched controls. Thus, the ZAG content is increased in white adipose tissue from patients or animal models with CKD. Overproduction of ZAG in CKD could be a major contributor to metabolic disturbances associated with CKD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Insulin resistance (IR) complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested the hypothesis that CKD activates a broad reflex response from the kidneys and the white adipose tissue to impair peripheral glucose uptake and investigated the role of salt intake in this process.<h4>Methods</h4>5/6-nephrectomized rats were administered normal- or high-salt for 3?weeks. Conclusions were tested in 100 non-diabetic patients with stage 3-5 CKD.<h4>Findings</h4>High-salt in 5/6-nephrectomized rats decreased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake >25% via a sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reflex that linked the IR to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in brain and peripheral tissues. Salt-loading in CKD enhanced inflammation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and enhanced the impairment of insulin signaling and Glut4 trafficking. Denervation of the kidneys or adipose tissue or deafferentation of adipose tissue improved IR >40%. In patients with non-diabetic CKD, IR was positively correlated with salt intake after controlling for cofounders (r?=?0.334, P?=?0.001) and was linked to activation of the RAS/SNS and to impaired glucose uptake in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, all of which depended on salt intake.<h4>Interpretation</h4>CKD engages a renal/adipose-cerebral-peripheral sympathetic reflex that activates the RAS/ROS axes to promote IR via local inflammation and impaired Glut4 trafficking that are enhanced by high-salt intake. The findings point to a role for blockade of RAS or ?-and-?-adrenergic receptors to reduce IR in patients with CKD. FUND: National Natural Science Foundation of China.
Project description:Cachexia is a complex tissue-wasting syndrome characterized by inflammation, hypermetabolism, increased energy expenditure, and anorexia. Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the significant factors that contribute to energy wasting in cachexia. By utilizing a cell implantation model, we demonstrate here that the lipid mobilizing factor zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) induces WAT browning in mice. Increased circulating levels of ZAG not only induced lipolysis in adipose tissues but also caused robust browning in WAT. Stimulating WAT progenitors with ZAG recombinant protein or expression of ZAG in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) strongly enhanced brown-like differentiation. At the molecular level, ZAG stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and early B cell factor 2 expression and promoted their recruitment to the PR/SET domain 16 (Prdm16) promoter, leading to enhanced expression of Prdm16, which determines brown cell fate. In brown adipose tissue, ZAG stimulated the expression of PPARγ and PPARγ coactivator 1α and promoted recruitment of PPARγ to the uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) promoter, leading to increased expression of Ucp1. Overall, our results reveal a novel function of ZAG in WAT browning and highlight the targeting of ZAG as a potential therapeutic application in humans with cachexia.-Elattar, S., Dimri, M., Satyanarayana, A. The tumor secretory factor ZAG promotes white adipose tissue browning and energy wasting.
Project description:Lipolysis in fat tissue plays an important role in the development of metabolic disturbances, a characteristic feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress could alleviate lipolysis in white adipose tissue in a rat model of CKD.A rat model of CKD was established by a method of reduced renal mass (RRM). Lipolysis was measured as the release of glycerol in ex vivo fat pads and cultured primary adipocytes. The activity of lipases and markers of ER stress were measured by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation.Our data showed that lipolysis in visceral white adipose tissue was increased in RRM rats compared with control rats. In addition, increased phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and binding of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) to comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) protein were observed in the RRM rats. The phosphorylation of ER stress markers, including IRE1α, PERK, and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α, and the expression of ER stress marker 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) were significantly increased in RRM rats. Treatment with an inhibitor of ER stress partially but significantly alleviated lipolysis, and this alleviation was accompanied by reduced binding of ATGL to CGI-58.Our results showed that enhanced lipolysis and ER stress occurred in visceral white adipose tissue in a rat model of CKD. Moreover, inhibition of ER stress significantly alleviated lipolysis. These findings suggest that ER stress is a potential therapeutic target for the metabolic disturbances associated with CKD.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) greatly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, molecular mechanisms underlying CKD-induced arterial remodeling are largely unknown. We performed a systematic analysis of arterial biopsies from children with stage 5 predialysis CKD participating in the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease (4?C) study. For comparison, we studied biopsies from children without CKD, coronary bypass vessels from adults with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease without CKD and aortic sections of subtotally nephrectomized rats. In pediatric CKD patients, gene expression was correlated to the cardiovascular phenotype assessed by surrogate end-points. The arterial calcium content correlated with the intima-media thickness (IMT) of biopsied vessels from pediatric CKD patients, was markedly increased compared to biopsies from children without CKD and comparable to adult coronary bypass patients. Significant transcriptional changes included ECM components, pro-calcifying factors, and physiological calcification inhibitors; most were highly accordant with changes observed in adults with atherosclerosis and in uremic rats. Individual gene expression levels were significantly associated with the left ventricular mass index and carotid intima media thickness. Thus, inflammatory processes (TNF, IL-10), calcification inhibitors (CA2), the Wnt-pathway (FGF-2) and foremost, ECM components (HMGA1, VNN1, VCAN), impact pathobiological responses in arteries from children with CKD.
Project description:Zinc-?2-glycoprotein (ZAG) plays an important role in the regulation of body weight, body fat, and glucose metabolism. In this study, we first measured ZAG levels in serum and ZAG mRNA levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) among overweight/obese patients and lean control subjects. Second, we investigated the effects of ZAG administration on the body weight, body fat and glucose metabolism of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese ICR mice and the possible mechanisms involved. The results showed that serum ZAG and mRNA levels in sWAT were significantly decreased in overweight/obese patients and that both showed a negative association with body mass index (BMI) and body weight after adjustment for age and sex. Further partial correlation analysis found that ZAG mRNA expression was positively related with several WAT browning-related genes, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) (r = 0.67) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1a) (r = 0.60), in the sWAT of all subjects. Additionally, intraperitoneal injection of a ZAG expression plasmid (5 ?g/injection, four times a week) in HFD-induced obese mice for 8 weeks demonstrated that ZAG overexpression significantly decreased body weight and WAT mass, and greatly increased the glucose tolerance of obese mice, as shown by the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT). The staining of UCP1-positive adipocytes was significantly stronger in the sWAT of ZAG-treated obese mice than in that of obese control mice. The mRNA and protein levels of PGC1? in sWAT were significantly increased to 2.2- and 5.3-fold, respectively, compared with HFD obese mice, and there was a strong positive correlation between the expression levels of Zag and Pgc1? in mouse sWAT (r = 0.74). A similar phenomenon was also observed in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT): the mRNA and protein levels of PGC1? were increased to 1.9- and 3.6-fold, respectively, when obese mice were treated with ZAG. In conclusion, ZAG levels in both sWAT and serum are inversely related with BMI and body weight in Chinese subjects. The action of ZAG on body weight, fat mass and glucose metabolism may be realized through activating PGC1? expression in sWAT and vWAT, then promoting WAT browning in obese mice.
Project description:Anemia is a severe complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) can correct anemia in many with CKD. We produced 5/6-nephrectomized rats that became uremic and anemic at 25 days post surgery. Injection of the anemic 5/6-nephrectomized rats with 2.8 mg zinc/kg body weight raised their red blood cell (RBC) levels from approximately 85% of the control to 95% in one day and continued for 4 days. We compared the effect of ZnSO<sub>4</sub> and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) injections on relieving anemia in 5/6-nephrectomized rats. After three consecutive injections, both the ZnSO<sub>4</sub> and rHuEPO groups had significantly higher RBC levels (98 ± 6% and 102 ± 6% of the control) than the saline group (90 ± 3% of the control). In vivo, zinc relieved anemia in 5/6-nephrectomized rats similar to rHuEPO. In vitro, we cultured rat bone marrow cells supplemented with ZnCl<sub>2</sub>, rHuEPO, or saline. In a 4-day suspension culture, we found that zinc induced erythropoiesis similar to rHuEPO. When rat bone marrow cells were supplement-cultured with zinc, we found that zinc stimulated the production of EPO in the culture medium and that the level of EPO produced was dependent on the concentration of zinc supplemented. The production of EPO via zinc supplementation was involved in the process of erythropoiesis.
Project description:Insulin resistance and associated metabolic sequelae are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are positively and independently associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. However, the pathogenesis has yet to be fully elucidated. 11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?HSD1) catalyzes intracellular regeneration of active glucocorticoids, promoting insulin resistance in liver and other metabolic tissues. Using two experimental rat models of CKD (subtotal nephrectomy and adenine diet) which show early insulin resistance, we found that 11?HSD1 mRNA and protein increase in hepatic and adipose tissue, together with increased hepatic 11?HSD1 activity. This was associated with intrahepatic but not circulating glucocorticoid excess, and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Oral administration of the 11?HSD inhibitor carbenoxolone to uremic rats for 2 wk improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, improved insulin signaling, and reduced hepatic expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes. Furthermore, 11?HSD1(-/-) mice and rats treated with a specific 11?HSD1 inhibitor (UE2316) were protected from metabolic disturbances despite similar renal dysfunction following adenine experimental uremia. Therefore, we demonstrate that elevated hepatic 11?HSD1 is an important contributor to early insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in uremia. Specific 11?HSD1 inhibitors potentially represent a novel therapeutic approach for management of insulin resistance in patients with CKD.
Project description:Zinc-Alpha 2-Glycoprotein (ZAG) has recently been implicated in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism due to its negative association with obesity and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between adipose tissue ZAG expression and central obesity, and the effects of six-months of weight loss (WL) or aerobic exercise + weight loss (AEX + WL) on ZAG expression.A six-month, longitudinal study of 33 healthy, overweight or obese postmenopausal women (BMI: 25-46 kg/m(2)) was conducted. Abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were obtained before and after AEX + WL (n = 17) and WL (n = 16). ZAG expression was determined by RT-PCR.Prior to interventions, abdominal ZAG expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat (r = -0.50, P < 0.005), sagittal diameter (r = -0.42, P < 0.05), and positively related to VO(2)max (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). Gluteal ZAG expression was negatively correlated with weight, fat-free mass, visceral fat, resting metabolic rate, and fasting insulin (r = -0.39 to -0.50, all P < 0.05). Abdominal ZAG mRNA levels increased, though not significantly, 5% after AEX + WL and 11% after WL. Gluteal ZAG mRNA levels also did not change significantly with AEX + WL and WL.Abdominal ZAG expression may be important in central fat accumulation and fitness but only modestly increase (nonsignificantly) with weight reduction alone or with aerobic training in obese postmenopausal women.
Project description:Loss of renal function is associated with high mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have altered circulating adipokine and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations and insulin resistance, which are features of disturbed adipose tissue metabolism. Because dysfunctional adipose tissue contributes to the development of CVD, we hypothesize that adipose tissue dysfunctionality in patients with CKD could explain, at least in part, their high rates of CVD. Therefore we characterized adipose tissue from patients with CKD, in comparison to healthy controls, to search for signs of dysfunctionality.Biopsy samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 16 CKD patients and 11 healthy controls were analyzed for inflammation, fibrosis, and adipocyte size. Protein composition was assessed using 2-dimensional gel proteomics combined with multivariate analysis.Adipose tissue of CKD patients contained significantly more CD68-positive cells, but collagen content did not differ. Adipocyte size was significantly smaller in CKD patients. Proteomic analysis of adipose tissue revealed significant differences in the expression of certain proteins between the groups. Proteins whose expression differed the most were ?-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP, higher in CKD) and vimentin (lower in CKD). Vimentin is a lipid droplet-associated protein, and changes in its expression may impair fatty acid storage/mobilization in adipose tissue, whereas high levels of AMBP may reflect oxidative stress.These findings demonstrate that adipose tissue of CKD patients shows signs of inflammation and disturbed functionality, thus potentially contributing to the unfavorable metabolic profile and increased risk of CVD in these patients.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in the accumulation of metabolic waste products that are normally cleared by the kidney, known as uremia. Many of these waste products are from bacteria metabolites in the gut. Accumulation of uremic toxins in plasma and tissue, as well as the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis are important for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbidities in CKD. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach was used to determine uremic toxin accumulation in plasma, liver, heart and kidney tissue in rats with adenine-induced CKD. Rats with CKD were also given AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, to assess metabolic changes in plasma and tissues with the removal of gut-derived uremic toxins. AST-120 decreased >55% of metabolites that were increased in plasma, liver and heart tissue of rats with CKD. CKD was primarily defined by 8 gut-derived uremic toxins, which were significantly increased in plasma and all tissues. These metabolites were derived from aromatic amino acids and soy protein including: indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, hippuric acid, phenyl sulfate, pyrocatechol sulfate, 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, p-cresol glucuronide and equol 7-glucuronide. Our results highlight the importance of diet and gut-derived metabolites in the accumulation of uremic toxins and define the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis in CKD.