Logopenic and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia are differentiated by acoustic measures of speech production.
ABSTRACT: Differentiation of logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (nfvPPA) variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia is important yet remains challenging since it hinges on expert based evaluation of speech and language production. In this study acoustic measures of speech in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry were used to determine the success of the measures as an adjunct to diagnosis and to explore the neural basis of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA. Forty-one patients (21 lvPPA, 20 nfvPPA) were recruited from a consecutive sample with suspected frontotemporal dementia. Patients were diagnosed using the current gold-standard of expert perceptual judgment, based on presence/absence of particular speech features during speaking tasks. Seventeen healthy age-matched adults served as controls. MRI scans were available for 11 control and 37 PPA cases; 23 of the PPA cases underwent amyloid ligand PET imaging. Measures, corresponding to perceptual features of apraxia of speech, were periods of silence during reading and relative vowel duration and intensity in polysyllable word repetition. Discriminant function analyses revealed that a measure of relative vowel duration differentiated nfvPPA cases from both control and lvPPA cases (r(2)?= 0.47) with 88% agreement with expert judgment of presence of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA cases. VBM analysis showed that relative vowel duration covaried with grey matter intensity in areas critical for speech motor planning and programming: precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, only affected in the nfvPPA group. This bilateral involvement of frontal speech networks in nfvPPA potentially affects access to compensatory mechanisms involving right hemisphere homologues. Measures of silences during reading also discriminated the PPA and control groups, but did not increase predictive accuracy. Findings suggest that a measure of relative vowel duration from of a polysyllable word repetition task may be sufficient for detecting most cases of apraxia of speech and distinguishing between nfvPPA and lvPPA.
Project description:The differentiation of subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) remains challenging. We aimed to identify optimum neuropsychological measures for characterizing PPA, to examine the relationship between behavioural change and subtypes of PPA and to determine whether characteristic profiles of language, working memory, and behavioural changes occur in PPA. Forty-seven patients with PPA and multi-domain Alzheimer's disease (AD) together with 19 age-matched controls underwent a large battery of working memory and language tests. We found that simple tasks of sentence ordering, narrative production, and buccofacial praxis were particularly useful in differentiating non-fluent/agrammatic variant PPA (nfvPPA) from other PPA subtypes, whereas a test of single word comprehension was useful in detecting semantic dementia (SD). No individual tests were discriminating for logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA) relative to nfvPPA. LvPPA and multidomain AD exhibited similar language profiles. A principal components analysis revealed that characteristic PPA profiles extended beyond the realms of language, in particular, the presence of apraxia in nfvPPA, behavioural changes in SD, and working memory deficits in lvPPA. These findings suggest that not all tests are equally discriminatory for PPA and highlight the importance of a test profile in differentiating PPA. These results also support the view that lvPPA is a focal form of AD and emphasize the difficulties classifying lvPPA.
Project description:To characterize in vivo signatures of pathological diagnosis in a large cohort of patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) variants defined by current diagnostic classification.Extensive clinical, cognitive, neuroimaging, and neuropathological data were collected from 69 patients with sporadic PPA, divided into 29 semantic (svPPA), 25 nonfluent (nfvPPA), 11 logopenic (lvPPA), and 4 mixed PPA. Patterns of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy at presentation were assessed and tested as predictors of pathological diagnosis using support vector machine (SVM) algorithms.A clinical diagnosis of PPA was associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP) inclusions in 40.5%, FTLD-tau in 40.5%, and Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in 19% of cases. Each variant was associated with 1 typical pathology; 24 of 29 (83%) svPPA showed FTLD-TDP type C, 22 of 25 (88%) nfvPPA showed FTLD-tau, and all 11 lvPPA had AD. Within FTLD-tau, 4R-tau pathology was commonly associated with nfvPPA, whereas Pick disease was observed in a minority of subjects across all variants except for lvPPA. Compared with pathologically typical cases, svPPA-tau showed significant extrapyramidal signs, greater executive impairment, and severe striatal and frontal GM and WM atrophy. nfvPPA-TDP patients lacked general motor symptoms or significant WM atrophy. Combining GM and WM volumes, SVM analysis showed 92.7% accuracy to distinguish FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP pathologies across variants.Each PPA clinical variant is associated with a typical and most frequent cognitive, neuroimaging, and neuropathological profile. Specific clinical and early anatomical features may suggest rare and atypical pathological diagnosis in vivo. Ann Neurol 2017;81:430-443.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To test the ability of the Northwestern Anagram Test-Italian (NAT-I) to distinguish between the non-fluent/agrammatic (nfv-) and phonological/logopenic (lv-) variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and to determine the relationship between NAT-I variables and brain integrity in PPA patients. METHODS:13 nfvPPA and 8 lvPPA patients underwent the 44-item-version of NAT-I and brain MRI. The NAT-I was also administered to six patients with the semantic variant (sv) PPA to sample performance in cases with no grammatical deficits. Performances were recorded and compared between patient groups. Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis assessed the ability of NAT-I to discriminate nfvPPA and lvPPA. The correlation between anatomical changes and NAT-I variables were assessed. A shortened (22-item)-version of NAT-I was also tested for classification ability. RESULTS:Participants with NfvPPA performed more poorly than lvPPA patients on canonical and non-canonical sentences. NAT-I non-canonical sentence and total scores achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy in discriminating the two patient groups (area under the curve: .93 and .91, respectively). SvPPA participants showed performances similar to lvPPA. NAT-I variables correlated with the integrity of the left inferior frontal gyrus and the body of the corpus callosum. The NAT-I 22-item-version total and non-canonical sentences scores reached diagnostic accuracy comparable to the full version. CONCLUSIONS:The NAT-I, in particular the measure of non-canonical syntax, is an effective tool for distinguishing nfvPPA and lvPPA patients and correlated with the integrity of crucial brain regions implicated in syntactic processing. The 22-item-brief version of NAT-I is suitable for clinical practice and research.
Project description:Current diagnostic criteria classify primary progressive aphasia into three variants-semantic (sv), nonfluent (nfv) and logopenic (lv) PPA-though the adequacy of this scheme is debated. This study took a data-driven approach, applying k-means clustering to data from 43 PPA patients. The algorithm grouped patients based on similarities in language, semantic and non-linguistic cognitive scores. The optimum solution consisted of three groups. One group, almost exclusively those diagnosed as svPPA, displayed a selective semantic impairment. A second cluster, with impairments to speech production, repetition and syntactic processing, contained a majority of patients with nfvPPA but also some lvPPA patients. The final group exhibited more severe deficits to speech, repetition and syntax as well as semantic and other cognitive deficits. These results suggest that, amongst cases of non-semantic PPA, differentiation mainly reflects overall degree of language/cognitive impairment. The observed patterns were scarcely affected by inclusion/exclusion of non-linguistic cognitive scores.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the prevalence of amyloid positivity, defined by positron emission tomography (PET)/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and/or neuropathological examination, in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) variants. METHODS:We conducted a meta-analysis with individual participant data from 1,251 patients diagnosed with PPA (including logopenic [lvPPA, n?=?443], nonfluent [nfvPPA, n?=?333], semantic [svPPA, n?=?401], and mixed/unclassifiable [n?=?74] variants of PPA) from 36 centers, with a measure of amyloid-? pathology (CSF [n?=?600], PET [n?=?366], and/or autopsy [n?=?378]) available. The estimated prevalence of amyloid positivity according to PPA variant, age, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ?4 status was determined using generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS:Amyloid-? positivity was more prevalent in lvPPA (86%) than in nfvPPA (20%) or svPPA (16%; p?<?0.001). Prevalence of amyloid-? positivity increased with age in nfvPPA (from 10% at age 50 years to 27% at age 80 years, p?<?0.01) and svPPA (from 6% at age 50 years to 32% at age 80 years, p?<?0.001), but not in lvPPA (p?=?0.94). Across PPA variants, ApoE ?4 carriers were more often amyloid-? positive (58.0%) than noncarriers (35.0%, p?<?0.001). Autopsy data revealed Alzheimer disease pathology as the most common pathologic diagnosis in lvPPA (76%), frontotemporal lobar degeneration-TDP-43 in svPPA (80%), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration-TDP-43/tau in nfvPPA (64%). INTERPRETATION:This study shows that the current PPA classification system helps to predict underlying pathology across different cohorts and clinical settings, and suggests that age and ApoE genotype should be considered when interpreting amyloid-? biomarkers in PPA patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:737-748.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Module (FTLD-MOD) includes a neuropsychological battery designed to assess the clinical features of FTLD, although much is unknown about its utility. We investigated FTLD-MOD and Uniform Data Set 3.0 (UDS) language tests for differential diagnosis and disease monitoring.<h4>Methods</h4>Linear regressions compared baseline performances in 1655 National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center participants (behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 612), semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, n = 168), non-fluent/agrammatic variant PPA (nfvPPA, n = 168), logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA, n = 109), and controls (n = 581)). Sample sizes to detect treatment effects were estimated using longitudinal data.<h4>Results</h4>Among PPAs, the FTLD-MOD language tasks and UDS Multilingual Naming Test accurately discriminated svPPA. Number Span Forward best discriminated lvPPA; Phonemic:Semantic Fluency ratio was excellent for nfvPPA classification. UDS fluency and naming measures required the smallest sample size to detect meaningful change.<h4>Discussion</h4>The FTLD-MOD and UDS differentiated among PPA subtypes. UDS 3.0 measures performed best for longitudinal monitoring.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:There are three distinct subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): the nonfluent/agrammatic variant (nfvPPA), the semantic variant (svPPA), and the logopenic variant (lvPPA). We sought to characterize the pattern of [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention across all three subtypes and determine the topography of [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention correlated with each neurolinguistic score. METHODS:We enrolled 50 participants, comprising 13 PPA patients (3 nfvPPA, 5 svPPA, and 5 lvPPA) and 37 subjects with normal cognition (NC) who underwent 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging, [¹⁸F]-THK5351 positron-emission tomography scans, and detailed neuropsychological tests. The PPA patients additionally participated in extensive neurolinguistic tests. Voxel-wise and region-of-interest-based analyses were performed to analyze [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention. RESULTS:The nfvPPA patients exhibited higher [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the the left inferior frontal and precentral gyri. In svPPA patients, [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention was elevated in the anteroinferior and lateral temporal cortices compared to the NC group (left>right). The lvPPA patients exhibited predominant [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the inferior parietal, lateral temporal, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and the precuneus (left>right). [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the left inferior frontal area was associated with lower fluency scores. Comprehension was correlated with [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the left temporal cortices. Repetition was associated with [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention in the left inferior parietal and posterior temporal areas, while naming difficulty was correlated with retention in the left fusiform and temporal cortices. CONCLUSIONS:The pattern of [¹⁸F]-THK5351 retention was well matched with clinical and radiological findings for each PPA subtype, in agreement with the anatomical and functional location of each language domain.
Project description:Background:Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and their caregivers want to know what to expect so that they can plan support appropriately. The ability to predict decline in naming and semantic knowledge, and advise individuals with PPA and their caregivers regarding future planning, would be invaluable clinically. Aims:The aims of this study were to investigate patterns of decline in naming and semantic knowledge in each of the clinical variants of PPA (logopenic variant PPA, lvPPA; nonfluent agrammatic PPA, nfaPPA; and semantic variant PPA, svPPA) and to examine the effects of other variables on rate of decline. We hypothesized that speech-language rehabilitation, higher education, and higher baseline test scores would be associated with slower decline, and older age with faster decline. Methods and Procedures:A total of ninety-four participants with PPA underwent language testing, including thirty six participants with lvPPA, thirty-one participants with nfaPPA, and twenty-seven participants with svPPA. All participant groups were similar in age and education. We focused on decline on three tests: the short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT), the Hopkins Assessment of Naming Actions (HANA), and the short form of the Pyramids and Palm Trees Test (PPTT). Outcome and Results:Across language tests, the most precipitous rates of decline (loss of points per month) occurred in nfaPPA, followed by svPPA, then lvPPA. Female sex, longer symptom duration, higher baseline test score, and speech-language rehabilitation were associated with slower decline. Conclusions:PPA variants were distinguishable by rapidity of decline, with nfaPPA having the most precipitous decline. As hypothesized, higher baseline test scores and speech-language rehabilitation were associated with slower decline. Surprisingly, age and education were not important prognostically for individuals in this study. Further study of prognostically-relevant variables in PPA is indicated in this population.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence of nonverbal oral apraxia (NVOA), its association with other forms of apraxia, and associated imaging findings in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS). METHODS: Patients with a degenerative speech or language disorder were prospectively recruited and diagnosed with a subtype of PPA or with PAOS. All patients had comprehensive speech and language examinations. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to determine whether atrophy of a specific region correlated with the presence of NVOA. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients were identified, of which 34 had PAOS, 9 had agrammatic PPA, 41 had logopenic aphasia, and 5 had semantic dementia. NVOA was very common among patients with PAOS but was found in patients with PPA as well. Several patients exhibited only one of NVOA or apraxia of speech. Among patients with apraxia of speech, the severity of the apraxia of speech was predictive of NVOA, whereas ideomotor apraxia severity was predictive of the presence of NVOA in those without apraxia of speech. Bilateral atrophy of the prefrontal cortex anterior to the premotor area and supplementary motor area was associated with NVOA. CONCLUSIONS: Apraxia of speech, NVOA, and ideomotor apraxia are at least partially separable disorders. The association of NVOA and apraxia of speech likely results from the proximity of the area reported here and the premotor area, which has been implicated in apraxia of speech. The association of ideomotor apraxia and NVOA among patients without apraxia of speech could represent disruption of modules shared by nonverbal oral movements and limb movements.
Project description:Logopenic primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) typically results from underlying Alzheimer's disease, but subjects have been reported that do not show beta-amyloid (A?) deposition. These subjects do not differ on neurological and speech-language testing from A?-positive lvPPA, but they impressionistically show increased grammatical deficits. We performed a quantitative linguistic analysis of grammatical characteristics in A?-negative lvPPA compared to A?-positive lvPPA and agrammatic PPA, which is characterized by increased grammatical difficulties. A?-negative lvPPA used fewer function words and correct verbs but more syntactic and semantic errors compared to A?-positive lvPPA. These measures did not differ between A?-negative lvPPA and agPPA. Both lvPPA cohorts showed a higher mean length of utterance, more complex sentences, and fewer nouns than agPPA. A?-negative lvPPA subjects appear unique and share linguistic features with both agPPA and A?-positive lvPPA. Quantitative language analysis in lvPPA may be able to distinguish those with and without A? deposition.